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BIBLIOTHECA INDICA 


‘AIN-I-AKBARI 

OF 

ABUL FAZL - 1 - ‘ ALLAMI 

Vox, II 

A Gazetteer and administrative Manual of Akbar’s Empire and 
past History of India. 

Translated hitoEn^lkk; 

By Colonel H; 

Secretary and Member, Board of Examiners, Calcutta. 

SECofe BBITION 

Corrected and furiher annotated by 

Sir J ADU-NATH SARKAR, c.i.e., Ho«y. D.Litt. 

Honorary Memier, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; 
Corresponding Member, Royal Historical Society, Honorary Fellow, 
Royal A sialic Society of Bengal, and of Bombay Branch, 

Royal A sMic Society of G. Britain , 


ISIRWILUAMJONES 



CALCUTTA; 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, I PARK STREET. 




Work No. ^^2^ 
Issue No. 1558 


Rs. 25/-; £2h) $6.50 


Printed by P. C. Ray, at Sri Gouranga Press, 5 Chintamani Das Dane, Calcutta, 




EDITOR’S INTRODUCTION 

After the lamented death of H. Blochmaiiti on 13th July, 1878, 
at the early age of 40 years only, a search among his papers showed 
that he had not translated any portion of the •Ain-t-Akbari be 3 T>nd the 
first volume which the Asiatic Society of Bengal was then publishing. 
In fact, his careful editing of the vast text of the .4 in had been sucli 
a laborious task, and his English version of the first volume of it was 
such a monument of scholarship and tireless research in annotation, 
that he could not have had the time to begin the translation of the 
second volume. The Society entrusted his unfinished work to Et,-CoL 
H. S. Jarrett, who finished printing the translation of the second 
volume in 1891. Thus, Jarrett had at his disposal only such works 
of reference and learned treatises on India as were in print in 1884- 
1889, The authorities cited by him in his notes, as I have pointed 
out in the Introduction to my revised edition of the 3rd volume of 
his translation, have proved to be obsolete* and often useless in the 
light of our knowledge today. 

Since 1890, a complete revolution in these branches of orientology 
aiid the history of Hindu and Muslim India has been effected by the 
publication of Hastings's Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics^ the 
Encyclopedia of Islam, the of Buhler, Elliot and Dowson’s 

History of India as told by Us 02 vn Historians, the Cambridge History 
of India, and many learned monographs on particular sovereigns and 
dynasties by Indian writers which touch the high-water mark of 
modern critical scholarship and exhaustive research. 

All these authorities w^ere unknown to Jarrett. His sole resource 
for the Hindu dynastic lists was Prinsep*s Useful Tables (published 
in 1832) which is often based on this very Ain-i-Akhari and improved 
by reference to the mythical Purdnas (as summarised in Wilson’s 
translation of the Vishnu Purdna.) As for the Muslim rulers, he had 
to depend on the primitive History of India by Elphinstone (1841) 
or its source Firishta. Our reconstruction of Indo-Muslim history 
from inscriptions, coins and original Persian manuscripts was naturally 
missed by a writer of the years 1885-1889. 

Therefore a mere reprint of Jarrett’ s translation and notes today 
would not do justice to the present state of Oriental scholarship and 
would naturally disappoint the modern reader. Thus the first task 
of an editor of Jarrett’s translation is to correct and modernise his 
notes and elucidations by sweeping away his heaps of dead leaves, 
and giving more accurate information from the latest authorities. My 
second aim has been to lighten the burden of his notes, many of 
which are not only obsolete in information, but prolix to the point 
of superfluity. It is, I think, a mistake of the translator’s duty to 
try to make a modern reader get all his ideas of Hindu' philosophy, 
science, mythology, hagiography, and the topography and history of 
Muslim and Hindu India from the notes to an English translation of 
the Ain-i-AhbarL The modern reader will find very much' fuller and 
far more accurate information on these subjects in the voluminous 



IV 


encyclopaedias, gazetteers and standard monographs published in the 
present century, which are available in the libraries of learned societies. 

I have also economised space and saved the reader from frequent 
unnecessary interruptions, by the omission of Jarrett’s notes on the 
emendations of the printed Persian text made by him (except in a few 
cases of vital importance.) The numberless variant readings which 
encumbered the pages of his second volume have been mostly cleared 
away by the acceptance of the true forms in the body of the book 
and rejecting all those that are palpably wrong or unhelpful in solving 
our doubt. It is well-known to the learned world that the editing 
of many of the volumes in the Persian and Arabic section of the 
Bibliotheca Indica series, was not done with the care and accuracy 
which characterise the oriental texts published in London or Paris, 
Leyden or Beyrut. Therefore all obvious misprints and wrong read- 
ings in the text of the Aim have been silently correctd in this revised 
edition of the translation, and many hundreds of notes of the first 
edition deleted. 

The third volume of the Am4- A kb ari is an encyclopaedia of the 
religion, philosophy and sciences of the Hindus, preceded by the 
chronology and cosmogTa'phy of the Muslims, as required by literary 
convention, for comparison with the Hindu ideas on the same subjects. 
The second volume was designed to serve as a Gazetteer of the Mughal 
Empire under Akbar. Its value lies in its minute topographical des- 
criptions and statistics about numberless small places and its survey 
of the Empire’s finances, trade and industry, castes and tribes. 

Jarrett’s translation of Volume II is weakest in this essential 
respect. For the more than six thousand place-names in this volume 
he could consult only Hunter’s Imperial Gazetteer of India (in the 
rather crude early edition of 1887) ; but that work is quite unhelpful 
for the purpose of identifying the minute places mentioned in the Ain, 
and its volume of maps is on too small a scale to give the information 
we need. The highly useful and detailed provincial Gazetteers— such 
as Atkinson’s N. W, F. Gazetteer and Campbell’s Bombay Gazetteer, 
were completed after the Eighteen-eighties, too late for Jarrett’s use. 
Nor did he consult the quarter-inch-to the mile maps of India pub- 
lished by the Surveyor-General and entitled the Indian Atlas. These 
two authorities,— the provincial Gazetteers and the Survey maps — are 
indispensably necessary for correctly tracing 4he place-names in the 
Ain4-Akhari. 

I have consulted these two primary works of reference and 
corrected Jarrett’s (or Abul Fazl’s) names and notes, with infinite 
labour, the nature of which can be understood only by comparing 
the list of mahals in a district [sarkdr) in Jarrett’s edition with the 
corresponding page in mine. Nine-tenths of the place-names in this 
book have been identified and entered in the corrected spelling in the 
course of my revision. This improvement of Abul Fazl’s work will 
be completed and the nature of the gain to our knowledge of Mughal 
Indian topography will become evident to the modern reader, after 
the publication of a supplementary volume, on which Prof. Nirod 
'Bhusan Roy is now working and which will contain a very much 
enlarged geographical index giving the location and exact references 
to niapsheets and Gs^zetteer-pages for each place mentioned here 



V 


and discussing the probable location ot: necessary emendation of the 
small proportion of places not satisfactorily traced by me. Very 
many of the mistakes in Jarrett (or rather in the printed Persian 
text followed by him) were due to' the wrong placing or omission 
of dots {nuqta) and the well-known confusion of certain letters of 
the Arabic alphabet by our copyists. These I have silently corrected. 

The chapter on the subah of Kashmir, which was the most con- 
fused and wrongly spelt in this volume, — ^has been revised throughout 
by Professor Nirod Bhusan Roy, on the basis of Stein’s Memoir and 
Chronicle of the Kings OLiid the official Gazetteer (by Bates). But the 
necessary changes are so many that the new information has been 
lumped together at the end, instead of being distributed in countless 
footnotes on the respective pages, and the useless notes and extracts 
of the frst edition have been omitted. 

I am deeply obliged to Prof. N. B. Roy for the care and 
persistence with which he has assisted me in this work of revision 
and performed the exacting task of reading the proofs (up to p. 192) 
of such a difficult book. A special word of thanks is due to the 
Sri Gouranga Press, which has patiently and efficiently done the 
rather exasperating work of printing this volume from a copy of the 
first edition, whose rotten paper crumbled at the touch, and on which 
my ink corrections had made the text even less readable than before. 
The sight of this press copy had scared away tw^^o first-rate printing 
establishments in Calcutta to whom it was previously offered, and 
the acceptance of the work of printing it was really a favour shown 
to the Society and to learning, by the Sri Gouranga Press. For my 
appreciation of the manner in which, on the whole, Jarrett completed 
a stupendous task, I refer the reader to my Introduction to the 
Translation of the Third Volume of the Ain, 2nd edition. 

The absence of uniformity in the transliteration of oriental words 
in the Roman alphabet, is explained by the facts, (1) that Jarrett 
himself did not follow one uniform system throughout the first edition 
printed by him, (2) that the rotten paper of the single copy of this 
first edition which was given to me for preparing my press-copy, 
made it impossible for me to erase wrong marks and insert the latest- 
current signs in most places, and (3) that the typing of the entire 
book and the insertion of diacritical marks uniformly according to 
the system at present followed by the Society, could not be carried 
out for financial reasons. In short, this edition had to be printed 
in the rough practical form that I have given to it, or not at all. 
But two little hints may be given here : in the unchanged portions 
of Jarrett’s work the inverted comma stands for the letter dliph (in 
names like — ud-din), while in my portion it stands for the letter ^ain ; 
and the mark over the long A (capital) could not be inserted owing 
to some technical difficulty in linotype composition. 

Calcutta, 

30th December, 1949. Jm)u:nmh Sarkar. 


EXTRACTS FROM JARRETT’S PREFACE 


Whatever Iblie verdict of those corapetent from linguistic 
knowledge and acquaintance with the abrupt, close and enigmatic 
style of the original to judge of the merits of my translation, no pains 
at least have been spared to render it a faithful counterpart con- 
sistently with a clearness of statement which the text does not 
everywhere show. The peculiar tone and spirit of Abul FazT are 
difficult to catch and to sustain in a foreign tongue. His style, in 
my opinion, is not deserving of imitation even in his own. His 
merits as a wuiter have, in general, been greatly exaggerated. 
Omitting the contemporary and interesting memoirs of A1 Badaoni, 
whose scathing comments on the deeds and motives of king and 
minister have an independent value of their own, the accident that 
Abul Fazhs works form the most complete and authoritative history 
of the events of Akbar’s reign, has given them a great and peculiar 
importance as state records. This they eminently deserve, but as 
exemplars of style, in comparison with the immutable types of 
excellence fixed for ever by Greece and Rome, they have no place. 
His unique position in Akbar’s court and service enhanced the 
reputation of all that he wrote, and his great industry in a position 
which secured wealth and invited indolence, fully merited the 
admiration of his countrymen. Regarded as a statistician, no details 
from the revenues of a province to the cost of a pine-apple, from the 
organisation of an army and the grades and duties of the nobility to 
the shape of a candlestick and the price of a curry-comb, are beyond 
his microscopic and patient investigation : as an annalist, the move- 
ments and conduct of his sovereign are surrounded with the im- 
peccability that fences and deifies Oriental despotism, and chronicled 
with none of the skill and power, and more than the flattery of 
Velleius Paterculus : as a finished diplomatist, his letters to recalcitrant 
generals and rebellious viceroys are Eastern models of astute 
persuasion, veiling threats with compliments, and insinuating 
rewards and promises without committing his master to their fulfil- 
ment. But these epistles which form one of his monuments to fame, 
consist of interminable sentences involved in frequent parentheses 
difficult to unravel, and paralleled in the West only by the decadence 
of taste, soaring in prose, as Gibbon justly remarks, to the vicious 
affectation of poetry, and in poetry sinking below the flatness and 
insipidity of prose, which characterizes Byzantine eloquence in the 
tenth century. A similar affectation, and probably its prototype, is 
to be found in the most approved Arab masters of florid composition 
of the same epoch, held by Ibn Khallikan’s crude and undisciplined 
criticism to be the perfection of art, and which still remains in 
Hindustan the ideal of every aspiring scribe. 

His annals have none of the pregnant meaning and point that 
in a few masterly strokes, exalt or brand a name to all time, and 
flash the actors of his drama across the living page in scenes that 
dwell for ever in the memory. The history of nearly forty-six years 
of his master's reign contains not a line that lives in household words 


among liis own countrymen, not a beautiful image that the mind 
delights to recall, not a description that rises to great power or 
pathos, nor the unconscious simplicity redeeming its wearisome 
length which lends such a charm to Herodotus, and which in the 
very exordium of Thucydides, in Tucian’s happy phrase, breathes 
the fragrance of Attic thyme. His narrative affects a quaint and stiff 
phraseology which renders it often obscure, and continues in an even 
monotone, never rising or falling save in reference to the Emperor 
whose lightest mention compels the adoring prostration of his pen, 
and round whom the world of his characters and events revolves as 
its central sun. Whatever its merit as a faithful representation, in 
a restricted sense, of a reign in which he was a capable and distin- 
guished actor, it lacks the interesting details and portraiture of the 
life and manners of the nation which are commonly thought to be 
below the dignity of history but which brighten the pages of Eastern 
historians less celebrated than himself, and are necessary to the light 
and shade of a perfect picture. 

His statistical and geographical survey of the empire which this 
volume comprises is a laborious though somewhat lifeless compilation, 
of the first importance indeed as a record of a past and almost forgotten 
administration to guide and instruct the historian of the future or 
the statesman of to-day, but uninformed by deductive comment and 
illustration which might relieve the long array of bald detail. His 
historical summaries of dynasties and events in the various Subahs 
under their ancient autonomous rule, are incoherent abridgements, 
often so obscurely phrased as not to be understood without a previous 
knowledge of the events to which they relate and his meaning is 
rather to be conjectured than elicited from the grammatical analysis 
of his sentences. The sources from which he drew his information 
are never acknowledged. This of itself w’ould have been of no 
moment and their indication might perhaps have disturbed the unity 
of his design had he otherwise so incorporated the labours of others 
with his own as to stamp the whole with the impress of originality, 
but he not seldom extracts passages word for word from other authors 
undeterred by the fear or heedless of the charge, of plagiarism. 

Such, in my opinion, is the reverse of the medal which 
represents Abul Fazl as unrivalled as a writer and beyond the reach 
of imitation. The fashion of exaggerating the importance and merits 
of a subject or an author by those who make them their special study, 
especially when that study lies outside the common track of letters, 
inevitably brings its own retribution and ends by casting general 
discredit on what in its place and of its kind has its due share of 
honour or utility. The merit and the only merit of the Ain-i-Akbari 
is in what it tells and not in the manner of its telling which has 
little to recommend it. It will deservedly go down to posterity as 
a unique compilation of the systems of administration and control 
throughout the various departments of Government in a great empire, 
faithfully and minutely recorded in their smallest detail, with such 
an array ot facts illustrative of its extent, resources, condition, popu- 
lation, industry and wealth as the abundant material supplied from 
official sources could furnish. This in itself is praise and fortune of 
no common order and it need$ not the fictitious ascription of 


unparalleled powers of historiography in its support. The value of 
the Ain in this regard has been universally acknowledged by European 
scholars and it may not be out of place to quote here the opinion’^ 
of the learned Reinaud on this work in his 1st vol. of the Geographie 
d' Ahulfedd, as it accurately represents its nature and worth and the 
style and quality of its literary composition. He writes : — 

‘^Muslim India offers us, at the commencement of the 17th 
century, a work of compilation, which is of great interest for 
geography ; it is a Persian treatise composed by Abul Eazl, the 
minister of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, and entitled the Am-i^Akh an 
or the Institutes of Akbar. . . , . The empire founded in India by 
Babur, had attained, under the reign of Akbar, a great extension, and 
stretched from Afghanistan up to the head of the Gulf of Bengal, 
from the Himalaya up to the Deccan. Due to the excellent govern- 
ment established by Akbar, the provinces, long ravaged by intestine 
wars, had acquired a new shape. On the other hand, the liberal 
views of the Emperor and of his ministers, had nothing in common 
with the narrow and exclusive spirit which characterises Islam, and 
they had caused to be translated into Persian the best works of 
Sanskrit literature. Abul Fazl, putting himself at the head of a 
body of scholars, undertook a geographical, physical and historical 
description of the empire, accompanied by statistical tables. Each 
of the sixteen sahahs or Governments of which the Mughal empire 
was then composed, is there described with minute exactitude ; the 
geographical and relative situation of the cities and boroughs (market 
towns, q(isha) is there indicated ; the enumeration of the natural and 
industrial products is carefully traced there ; as also the names of 
the princes, both Hindu and Musalman, to whom the subah had 
been subject before its inclusion in the empire. We next find an 
exhibition of the military condition of the empire and an enumeration 
of those who formed the household of the sovereign, &c. The work 
ends in a summary, made; in general from indigenous sources, of the 
Brahmanic religion, of the diverse systems of Hindu philosophy, &c. 

The author, by the pursuit of a misplaced erudition has accom- 
plished the style of the ancient Persiam authors ; it is often difficult 
to understand it. In 1783, Francis Gladwin, encouraged by the 
Governor-General Hastings, published an abridged English version 
of the work. (He then' condemns Gladwin^s defects, — ^inaccuracy, 
confusion, and 'horrible alteration' of indigenous, particularly 
Sanskrit, wdrds^ in transcribing them in the Arabic Alphabet, and 
calls for a new edition as a very useful service to students.) 

In the table of the names of places confusion exists in the original 
text. Evidently, the person who in that early age was charged with 
the drawing up of the table had little knowdedge of geography." 

H. S. JARRETT. 

Calcutta, 

1891 ^ 


♦ Translated from Freuds into Bnglish by J. Sarkar for the second edition. 



CONTENTS 


Divine Era ... 

Era of the Hindus ... 

Turkish Era ... ... 

Hijera Era 
Ilahi Era 

Ain I . Provincial viceroy ... ... 

2. Faujdar 

3. Mir Adi & Qazi 

4. Kotwal ... ... ... 

5. Collector of Revenue 

7. Treasurer 

Islamic land tax ... ... 

8. Ilahi gaz 

9 & 10. Tanab and Bigha ... . 

II. Land, its classification, dues of the State 
Imposts abolished by Akbar ... 

14. Nineteen Years^ revenue rates 

15. The Ten Years' Settlemeht ... 

Account of the Twelve Subhas 

Bengal ... ... ... 

Orissa ... ... ... 

Sovereigns of Bengal 
Behar ... ... ... 

Allahabad 

Oudh ... ... 

Agra ... -A -• 

Malwa ... ... " ... 

Sovereigns of Malwa ... 

^ Khandesh 

Berar ... ... ... 

Gujarat ... 

Rulers of Gujarat ' ... 

Ajmer ... ... ... 

Delhi 

Sovereigns of Delhi 
Eahor ... ... 

Multan 

Kings of Multan 
Sarkar Tatta 
Princes of Tatta 
Kalml Subah ... ... 

Sarkar Kashmir 
Sovereigns of Kashmir 
Notes on places in Kashmir 
Sarkars Pakli & Swat 
Sarkar Qandahar ^ 

Sarkar Kabul ... ... 

t 6. The Kos 


Page 

i 
IS 
20 
■ 25 : 

, ^ .29 
/37', 

,41. 

42 , 

43 
46 
52 
60 
64 
66 
68^ 
72 
75 
94 


129 

138 

157 

162 

169 

181 

190 

206 

221 

232 

236 

246 

264 

273 

283 

302 

315 

329 

336 

338 

343 

349 

349 

370 

389 

397 . 
399 
404 
417 





BOOK THIRD 

IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATION 

Since somewhat of the recent imperial institutions 
regulating the Army and the Household have been set down, 
I shall now record the excellent ordinances of that sagacious 
intellect that energizes the world. 


‘A IN 1 

THE DIVINE ERA 

The connection of monetary transactions without fixity 
of date would slip from *iie grasp, and through forgetful- 
ness and falsehood raise a tumult of strife; for this reason 
every community devises a remedy and fixes an epoch. 
Since thought fosters well-being and is an aid to facility {of 
action), to displace obsolete chronology and establish a new 
usage is a necessity of government. For this reason, the 
prince regent on the throne of felicity in the 29th year of the 
Ilahi Divine Era,’ for the purpose of refreshing that plea- 
sure-ground of dominion and revenue, directed its irrigation 
and rendered blooming and lush the palace-garden of the 
State. 

Compassing events within a determinate time, the 
Persian calls mdhros (date) ; the Arab has converted-^ this 
into mii'arrakh (chronicled) , and theiice “tdrikh (date) is a 
household word. Some derive the Arabic from irdkh, a wild 
bull.^ This conjugation of the measure of tafa'’il means, to 
polish. As ignoi'ance of the .time of an event grew less, it 

^ Akbarndmah (Beveridge trans), iii. 644; this era was introduced at tlie 
beginning of the 29th regnal year, 8 Rabi A. 992^ 10th March 1584. 

^ Encycl-opaedia of *lslam, Supplement, p. 230 : “The root of the word 
tdrikh (meaning era, date) is w-r-kh, common to the Semitic languages, which 
we find for example in the Hebrew yerah, month. *, . . The survival of a 
tradition in al-Biruni is intere.sting ; according to this, the word is an arabi- 
sation of the Persian nidhrnz; here again there, is the vague consciousness 
that the 'word has something to do with fixing the beginning of the month. 
al-Khwarizmi in his Mafdtih aWUhim expressly states that this tradition is 
to be. rejected.” Abul Fa^Ps etpnology is sometimes as bad as his geography’. 


2 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


became distinguished by this name. Some assert that it is 
transposed from ‘takhir which is referring a late period to 
an antecedent age. Others understand it to be a limit of 
time wherein an event determines. They say “such a one 
is the tarikh of his tribe,” that is, from whom dates the 
nobilit}’- of his line. It is commonly understood to be a 
definite day to which subsequent time is referred and which 
constitutes an epoch. On this account they choose a day 
distinguished by some remarkable event,® such as the birth 
of a sect, a ro}^! accession, a flood or an earthquake. By 
considerable labour and the aid of fortune, by constant divine 
worship and the observance of times, by illumination of the 
understanding and felicity of destiny, by the gathering to- 
gether of far-seeing intelligences and by varied knowledge 
especially in the exact sciences and the Almighty favour, 
observatories were built : wonderful upper and lower rooms 
with diversity of window and stair arose on elevated sites 
little affected by dust. 

By this means and with the aid of instruments such as 
the armillary sphere and others 3?)uble-limbed and hi -tubu- 
lar,^ and the quadrant of altitude,® the astrolabe, the globe 
and others, the face of astronomy was illumined and the 
computation of the heavens, the position of the stars, the 
extent of their orbits in length and breadth, their distance 
from each other and from the earth, the comparative magni- 
tude of the heavenly bodies and the like were ascertained. 
So great a work without the daily increasing auspiciousness 
of a just monarch and his abundant solicitude, is not to be 
accomplished. The gathering together of learned men of 
liberal minds is not achievable simply by means of ample 

, ^ This, passage i^? so strikingly Similar to the opening of the 3rd chapter 
of A1 Birimi’s Athar nl B^qiya it. can scarcely be accidental. There is 
nothing to hinder the supposition that Abnl Fa 2 l was acquainted with that 
writer’s works and not, a little indebted to him. [H. S. J.] 

I cannot determine accurately what these may be. It is possible that* 
the first* may be the skaphium of Aristarchus which was a gnomon, the 
shadow of which was received on a concave hemispherical surface, liaving 
the extremity of its style at the centre, so that angles might be measured 
directly by arcs instead of the tangents. The , second may refer to the 
invention of Archimedes to ascertain the apparent diameter ' of the sun by 
an apparatus of double cylinders. There was another, too, of Aristarchus to 
find the distance of the sun by measuring the angle of elongation of the 
moon when dichotomized. The Mtab nl Fihmt mentions only the astrolabe 
and the armillary sphere, p, 284. Sedillot {Vrologomenes des' Tables Astron. 
d*Olong Beg) speaks of a ‘^gnomon a trou” used by Nasiruddin Tusi. 

®So I venture to interpret the term. Dozy (Supplem. Diet. Arab.) quotes 
Berbrugger on this word ^'Ruha^a'^eUmoudjib, le quart de cercle liorodictique, 
instrument d’une grande simplicite dont ou fait usage pour connaitre I’heure 
par la hauteur du soleil."’ Moudfib should be '"fimjayyab\ 



3 


feRAS AND ASTRONOMERS 

\\'ealtli, and tlie philosophic treatises of the past and the 
institutions of the ancients cannot be secured without the 
most strenuous endeavours of the sovereign. With all this, 
thirty years are needed to observe a single revolution of the 
seven planets.® The longer the period and the greater the 
care bestowed upon a task, the more perfect its completion. 

In this time-worn world of affliction Divine Providence 
has vouchsafed its aid to many who have attained consider- 
able renown in these constructions, such as Archimedes, 
Aristarchus and Hipparchus in Egypt, from whose time to 
the present, the 40th year of the divine era, 1769 years have 
elapsed f such as Plotemy in Alexandria who flourished 
some 1410 years ago; as the Caliph Mamun in Baghdad, 
790 3 'ears past, and Sind® bin ‘Ali and Khalid® bin ’Abdul 
Malik al Marwazi 764 years since at Damascus. Hakim and 
lbn‘® Aa’lain also laid the foundations of an observatory at 
Baghdad which remained unfinished, 712 years, and 
Battani" at Raqqa 654 years previous to this time. Three 

® The ancients gave the name of planets to the five planets visible to the 
naked eye, and the sun and moon. The names of the five— Mercury, Venus, 
:\Iars, Jupiter, and Saturn first occur in the cosmical scheme of l^hilolaus. 
(Lewis. Astron, of tPie Ancients) The thirty years must refer to that planet 
of the seven occupying the longest period in its revolution, namel}’, Saturn 
which w-as the most remote then knowm. It takes 29 3 'ears and months 
(very nearly) to return to the same place among the fixed stars, whether 
the centre of motion be the Sun or tJxe Earth, 

^ It is needless to say that all these figures are very inexact. Archimedes 
fiourished 287-212 B.C., Aristarchus somewliwere about 280-264 B.C. and 
Hip])archns is placed by vSuidas at from B.C. 160 to 145, and yet they are all 
bracketed together. The date of Plotemy, illustrious as he is as a matlie- 
niatician, astronomer and geographer, is uncertain. He observed at 
Alexandria, A.D. 139 and was alive in A.D.^ 161. Mamun succeeded to the 
Caliphate on the 24th September 813, He caused all Greek works that he 
could procure to be translated, and in " particular ;^fhe Ahn-a^est oi Plotemi'. 
Almagest is a compound of the 'Greek #itli a prefix of the Arabic article. 
{Encycl. Metropolitana. Art. Astron.) 

^ Abu Tayyib SincUb-^Ali was a Jew' converted to Islam in the Caliphate 
of Mfimuii and was appointed his astronomer and superintendent of obser- 
vatories. 

^ Khalid-b- Abdul Malik, A.If. 217 (832) a native of IMerv. He is 
included among three astronomers who first among the Arabs, instituted 
observations from the Shammasiyah observatory, at Baghdad 

Ibn III 'K^a’lani A.H. -375 (A.D. 985), stood, in great credit with Adhad 
ud claulali, but finding himself in less estimation with his son vShainsud 
Daulah, he left the court but returned to Baghdad a year before his death. 
-His astronomical tables "were celebrated not only in "his own time but by 
later asti'oiiomers. 

“ Muhammad b. Jdbir al Battani (Albatenius), a native of Harraii and 
inhabitant of Raqqa, His observations were begun ,m*A.H. 264 (A.D. 877-8) 
and he continued them till A.H. 306. Ency. Islam, i. 680, "‘one of the 
greatest of Arab astronomers,*' (where details about his writings and 
achievement) ; he died in 317 A.H.,' He was surnamed the Ptolemy of the 
Arabs. Pie corrected the deter minntioii of, Ptolemy respecting the motion 
of the stars in longitude, ascertaining , it to be one degree in 70 instead of 
100 years ; modern observations make it. one degree in 72 years. He also 
determined very exactly the eccentricity of the ecliptic and corrected the 


4 


Am-l-AKBARI 


Imndred and sixty-two solar years have passed since 
Kliwajah.'^ Nasir of Tus built another at Muragha near 
Tabriz and 155 is the age of that of .Mirza Ulugh Beg'^ in 
Samarqand. 

Rasad signifies ‘watching’ in the Arabic tongue and the 
watchers, therefore, are a body who, in a specially-adapted 
edifice, observe the movements of the stars and study their 
aspects. The results of their investigations and their dis- 
coveries regarding these sublime mysteries are tabulated 
and reduced to writing. This is called an astronomical 
table (zij). This word is an Arabicized form of the 
Persian, zik which means the threads that guide the 
embroiderers in weaving brocaded stuffs. In the same way 
an astronomical table is a guide to the astronomer in recog- 
nising the conditions of the heavens, and the linear 
extensions and columns, in length and breadth, resemble 
these threads. It is said to be the Arabic rendering of zih 
from the frequent necessity of its use, which the intelligent 
will understand. Some maintain it to be Persian, signi- 

length of the year, making it consist of 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes, 
24 seconds, which is about 2 minutes short of but 4 minutes nearer the truth 
than had been given by Ptolemy. He also discovered the motion of the 
apogee. 

Nasir ii^ddin is the surname of Abu Ja'far Md. b. Muhammad-b-Hasan 
or Ibn Muhammad at Tusi,' of ten simply called Khw^ajah Nasiru’ddin (A.H. 
597-672). Hulaku the Tartar chief placed him at the head of the philosophers 
and astronomers whom his clemency had spared in the sack of Moslem 
towns, and gave him the admimstration of all the colleges in his acquired 
dominions. The town of Maraglia in Azarbayjan was assigned to him and 
he was ordered to prepare the astronomical tables which were termed 
Imperial (Blkhan). [Enc, Islam, iv. 980, under al-Tusi.] 

Ulugh Be^, (name Muhammad Turghai) born 1393, died 1449 A.D., 
was the son of Shah Rukh and grandson of Tamerlane. In 810 he possessed 
the government of some provinces of Khorasan and Mazanderan and in 812, 
V that of Turkistan and Transoxank. He, however, quickly abandoned politics 
and devoted himself passionately to his favourite studies. He desired that 
his tables should be scrupulously exact and procured the best instruments 
then available. These at this period, were of extraordinary size. The obli- 
quity of the ecliptic , was observed in A.H.,^995 with a quadrant of 15 cubits’ 
radius (21 feet 8 inches). The sextant of Abu Muhammed al Khojandi used 
in 992 had a radius of 40 cubits (57 feet 9 inches). The quadrant used by 
Ulugh Beg to determine the elevation of the pole at Samarqand, was as 
high as the summit of St. Sophia at Constantinople (about 180 feet). The 
astronomical tables were first published in A.H. 841 (A.D, 1437). The ancient 
astronomy had produced only one catalogue of the fixed stars, that of 
Hipparchus. Ulugh Beg, after an interval of sixteen centuries, produced 
the second. His observatory at Samarqand (begun in 1428 under the archi- 
tect ,AIi Qushji), in its day was regarded as one of the wonders of the world. 
He corrected Ptolemy’s computations and compiled th& ^ Zij-i-Jadid Sultdni. 
These tables became celebrated in Pkrope—traiis. by Hyde in 1665 by 
Sedillot, (prolegomena only) in 1847,. and ! by Knobel in 1917.^' With 'him 
994 996^1^^ astronomical works in the East finishes.” lEncy. Isla7n, iv, 

Por the compilation of Astronomical Tables bv ISIuslims (zij), see Enc 
Islam, i. 498. ' w.5 - . 


astronomers S 

f3dng a mason’s rule, and as he, through its instrmiientality 
determines the evenness of a building, so an astronomer 
aims at accurac\^ by means of this astronomical table. 

Many men have left such compilations to chronicle 
their fame. Among these are the Canons of. 

1, Majue. THE Turk. 

There are two of this family whom Sedillot terms the Beiioii 
Ainajour. Hammer-Pnrgstall makes them the same person but adds 
another name Abul Qasim ‘Abdullah. Accoi'ding to him, they were 
brother^, and the former was the author of the Canon called al Bedia 
or “the Wonderful the latter of works on other astronomical tables 
with disputed titles. He appears to quote from the Fihrist and from 
Casiri who borrows from Ibn Jouni's, but the Fihrist distinctly states 
that Abul Hasan was the son not the brother of Ali b. Ainajur. Ibn 
Jounis speaks of Abul Qasim also, and as a native of Herat. The 
Benou Amajur were astronomers of repute and made their observa- 
tions between the years 885-933, leading the way to important dis- 
coveries. (Sed p. XXXV et seq). 

2, Hipparchus. 

3, Ptolemy. 

4.. Pythagoras. 

5. ’ Zoroaster. 

6. Theon of Alexandria. 

7. SaMAT THE Greek. 

Another reading is Sabat but I cannot recognize nor trace the 
• name satisfactorily. The epithet Yunani inclines me to believe the 
name to be that of a Greek astronomer in Islamic times. 

8. TiiABiT-b-QuRRAH b Harun was -a native of Harran, of the 
Sabean sect, and rose to eminence in medicine, mathematics and 
philosophy, born A. H. 221 (A.D. 836), died in A. H. 288 (A.D. 901). 
He was much favoured by tlie Caliph al Muatadliid v'lio kept him at 
Court as an astrologer. He wrote on the Spherics of Theodosius, and 
retranslated Euclid already turned into Arabic by Hunain-b-Ishaq al 
Ibadi. He was also author of a Work in Syriac on the Sabean doc- 
trines and the customs and ceremonies of their adherents. Ibn Khali. 
D'Herb. Sedillot, p. xxv. et seq. For a list of his works, see the 
Fihrist, p. 272. 

* 9. Husam b. SiNAN (var. Shabaii.) 

I believe the first name to be an error. The Fihrist mentions a 
son of Sinan with the patronymic Abul Hasan who is no doubt here 
meant. He was grandson of Thabit-b-Qurrah, and named also Thabit 
according to D'Herb. as well as Abul Hasan after his grandfather. 
(Sedillot). ^Equally proficient in astronomy with his grandfather, he 
was also a celebrated physician and practised in Baghdad. He wrote 
a history of his own time from about A.H. 290 to his .death in 360« 
Abul Faraj speaks of it as an^ excellent work. See also Ibn Khali . 
De Slane. Vol. II. p. 289 and note 7. His father Sinan the son of 
Thabit-b-Quarrah, died at Baghdad A.H. 331. They were both 
Harranians, the last representatives of ancient Greek learning through 
whom Greek sciences were cpmmt^hicated to the illiterate Arabs, 


6 


■MN-i-AKBARi 

Sinan made a collection of meteorological observations called the 
Kitab 111 anwa, compiled from ancient sources, incorporated by 
Albirimi in his Chronology,, and thereby preserved to^its the most 
complete Parapegma of the ancient Greek world. See Albirimi, 
Chronolj, Sachau’s Transl. p. 427. n. 

10. THABIT-b-MuSA. 

I can find no such name. The Fihrist gives Thabit-b-Almsa, head 
of the Sabean sect in Harran. 

11. MuHAMMAD-b-jABiR An Battani. See p. 3, note 11. 

12. AHMAD-b-‘ABI>UnivAH Jaba. 

Jaba is a copyist^s error for Habsh. He was one of A1 Mamma's 
astronomers, and distinguished by the title of A1 Hasib or the 
Reckoner. He was employed by Mamun at Sinjar to observe the 
obliquity of the Ecliptic and to test the measurements of geometrical 
degrees. He compiled a set of tables by the Caliph's order. Ham. 
Purg.. B. Ill, p. 260. Abul Faraj (ed. 1663, p. 247) says that he was 
the author of three Canons ; the first modelled on the Sindhind, the 
second termed jMumtahan or Proven (after his return from his obser- 
vations) and the third the Lesser Canon, known as the ‘ShMi'. 

13. Abu Rayhan. 

Abu Rayhan-Muhammad-b-Alimad Albiruni, born 362. A. H. 
(A. D. 973), d. 440. (Ar. D. 1048). P'or further particulars I refer 
the reader to Sachau's imeface to the Indica and the Chronology of 
this famous savant. 

14. KHAUD-b-'ABDun Mawk. See p. 3, note 9. 

15. YAHYA-b-MANSUR. 

More correctly Yahya-b-Abi Mansur, was one of A1 Maniun's 
most famous astronomers. Abul Faraj (p. 248), says that he was 
appointed by that Caliph to" the Shammasiyah observatory at Baghdad 
and to that of IVIount Qasiun at Damascus. The Fihrist gives a list 
of his works (p. 275) and (p. 143) his genealogy and descendants who 
appear to have .shared and augmented their father’s fame. He died 
about 833, (A. PI. 218) in Mamun's expedition to Tarsus and was 
buried at Aleppo* Enc, Islam, iv. 1150. 

16.. Hamid Marwarudi. 

This is doubtless, Abu Hamid, Ahmad-b-Muhammad as Saghani. 
Saghaii is" a town near Mar'vv\ Ibn Khallikan’s derivation of 
Marwarrud will explain the difference in the titular adjectives of 
place.' I transcribe De Slane, V. I, p. 50. ''Marwarrudi means 
native of Marwarrud, a well known city in Khorasaii, built on a river, 
in Persian ar-rnd, and situated 40 parasangs from Marw as Shahjan ; 
these are the two Marws so frequently mentioned by poets : the word 
Shahjan is added to the name of the larger one from which also is 
derived tli^relative adjective Marwazi ; the word rud is joined to that 
of the other city in order to distinguish between them. Marwariid 
lias for relative adjective Marwarrudi and Marwazi, also, according 
to as Samani." Shahjan is, of course, Saghan. Abu Hamid was 
one off the first geometricians and astronomers of his time (d. 379, 
A. PI. 898), and a maker of astrolabes at Baghdad and was employed 
to certify the correctness of the royal astronomical reports. Ham 
Purg. B. V. 313. 



, ASTEOITOMERS . ^ 7 

17i Mughithi. Perhaps, Mughni tabulae astronomicae suffi- 
dentes, mentioned by Haji Khalifa, p. 568, Art. Zidi. 

18. Sharoi. (Var. Sl^arfi.) probably Abul Qasim as vSaraqi of 
whom Casiri writes. ‘Abukassam Alsaraki Aractensis (of Raqqa), 
Atrologi'se judiciari^ et astronomiae doctrina, xiti etiam Tabularum et 
Sphcr^e peritia hand ignobilis, inter familiar es atque intimos vSaifel- 
daulati ^ xAli-ben-Abdalla-ben Hamdan, per ea tempora Regis, habitus 
est, quibuscumque Sermones AGademicos frequens conferebat (Saifel- 
daiilatus Sj^iae Rex, anno Egirae 356 obiit. (Sedillot, p. xlviii.) 

19. Abul WaFxI-Nurhani. An error for Buzjani. Buzjan is a 
small town in the Nisabur district in the direction of Herat. He was 
born A. H. 328 (939) d. 388 (998). In his 20th year he settled in 
Iraq. A-list of his works will be found in the Fihrist, p. 283. Ham. 
Purg, BTV. 306., His Canon was termed 'ks Shamil.’^ His most 
important work was the Almagest, which contains the formulas of 
tangents and secants employed by Arab geometricians in the same 
manner as in trigonometrical calculations of the present day. In the 
time of A1 Battani, sines were substituted for chords. B,y the intro- 
duction of tangents he simplified and shortened the expression of 
circular ratios. His anticipation of the discoveries of Tycho Brahe, 
may be seen in Sed. p. ix. Enc. Isl, i. 133, s.v. Abu-I-Wafa. 

20. The: Jami’. (Plura continens) \ 

21., The Baligh. (Summum attingensf > Kyahushyar. 

22. The 'Adhadi. I 

Kushyar-b-Kenan al Hanbali, wrote three Canons, according 
to Haji Khalifa. Two were the and the SdW (Baligh is how- 

ever confirmed by D’Herbelot, art. Zig). These works were on stellar 
computations, on almanacs, the motions of the heavenly bodies and 
their number, supported by geometrical proofs. His compendium 
(mujmal) summarises their contents (p. 564.) The JdmV is again 
mentioned lower down as a work in 86 chaiAers applied by the author 
to rectify or elucidate the Persian era. He added to it a supplement 
in illustration of each chapter of the Jdmi\ The third Canon is called 
simply Zij Kushydr translated into Persian by Md-b-*Umar-b-Abi 
Talib at Tabrizi. This was probably dedicated to Adhad ud Daulah 
Alp Arslan, lord of Khorasan, who had condescended to accept this 
title from his creature the feeble Qaim bi' amri Hah at Baghdad. 
Hence, I conjecture, the name.Adhadi. 

23. SuLAYMAN-b-MuHAMMAD. Uiitraceabk. This name does not 
occur in one of the MSS., of the Ain. 

24. Abu Hamid Ansaki. 

The only descendant of the Ansars that I can find among the 
astronomers is Ibn us Shatir. d. 777 A. H. (1375) ; the name was 
Alauddin, patronymic not given. See Haj, Khal. pp. 557, 566. It 
is possible that . the celebrated Abu Hamid al Ghazzali may be meant 

25. Safaih. Evidently the name of a Canon and not of its 
author. 

26. Abul Farah Shirazi* 

27. MAjMua’. Apparently the name of a Canon mentioned by 
Haji Khalifa, auctore Ibn Shari', collecta de astrologia judiciaria. 

28. MuKHTaR auct. Shaikh Abu Mansur Sulaiman b. al Husain- 
b-Bardowaih, Another work pi the same name (Bilectus e libris 


8 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


electionis dierum, astrologicse) was composed by the physician Abu 
Nasr Yahya b. Jarir at Takriti for Sadid ud Daulah Abul Ghanaim 
Karim, 

29. AbuIv Hasan ^Ms neime occurs in the Fihrist (p. 71) 

as that of a scholar learned in tribal history and poetry. A son of 
the same name is mentioned as a distinguished doctor, but there is no 
notice of his, astronomical knowledge. 

30. AHMAD-b-ISHAQ SaRAKHSI, 

The name of Ishaq does not occur in the genealogy of any 
Sarakhsi that I can discover. The text probably refers to Ahmad-b- 
Md. b. at Tayyib, the well known preceptor of the Caliph al 
Muatadhid by whom he was put to death in A. H. 286 (899) for 
revealing his pupil’s confidences. D’Herb. states that he wrote on the 
Eisagaege of Porphirius, and Albiriini (Chronology) mentions him 
as an astrologer and cites a prophecy of his where he speaks of the 
conjunction of Saturn and Mars in the sign of Cancer. 

31 . Oharari. Probably Al Fazari. Abu Ishaq Ibrahim-b-Habib 
the earliest maker of astrolabes among the Arabs, who was the author 
of a canon and several astronomical works. Fihrist, p. 273, date not 
given. 

32. At Haruni.. 

, It is difficult in such bald mention of names, where so many are 
alike, to be sure of th§ correctness of allusion. This is, probably, 
Harun-b-al Munajjim, an astrologer, native of Baghdad and an 
accomplished scholar. His great grandfather was astrologer to the 
Caliph al-Mansur and his son Yahya served al Fadhl-b-Sahl in the 
same capacity, died A. H. 288 (901). Ibn Khali. IV, p. 605. 

33. Ad WAR I Kirain (Cycles of conjunctions) the name of a 
Canon whose author I cannot discover. 

34. YAKUB-b-Tlus. 

I may safely hazard the emendation Tariq for Taus. This astro- 
nomer is mentioned by Albiruni. Ham. Purg. gives his date A. H. 
218 (833) and a list of hi's works apparently copied from the Fihrist, 
p.. 278. 

35. Kpiwarazmi. 

Muhaminad-b-Musa, by command of al Mamun, compiled an 
abridgement of the Sindhind’ (Siddhanta) ; better known as a mathe- 
matician than as astronomer~see Sedillot, I. xvi. He was the author 
of a Canon according to the Fihtist, p. 274. Enc, IsL ii. 912. 

36^. Ydsufi. The secretary of Al Mamun, Abut Tayyib-b- 
’Abdillah is the only name I discover in this relative form. The Fihrist, 
(p.^ 123) mentions no astronomical works of his. Perhaps, Yusuf-b- 
Ali Thatta (1043) or Ibn Yusuf al Massisi may be meant : the text is 
too vague to determine accurately. 

37. Wafi*— the work of Ulugh Beg Mawdfi ul aamal un 
Najumiya” (de transtitibus operationum astronomicarum) is the only 
title approaching that of the text that I discover. 

38. Jauzharayn — ^Jauzhar the Arabic form of Gauzliar, is the 
head and tail of Draco. The two points in the Ecliptic which mark 
its intersection by the orbit of a planet in ascent and descent, are 
called its Nodes or two Jauzhars— (Istilabat ul Funon.) There is a 
Canon called Fi Maqawam al Juzhar de motu vero capitis et caudoe 
draconis, hy Shaikh Ibn ul Qadir al Barallusi’--see Haj-Khall, p. 561. 



ASTRONOMERS 


9 


39. Sama’ani. D’Herbelot mentions under this surname Abu 
Saad Abdul Karim Muhammad, the author of a work on Mathematics 
entitled A dab fi isiimdl il Hisdh . A.. H. 506 — 62. The Fihrist p. 244, 
records another Samaan as a commentator on the Canon of Ptolemy' 
and a third Ibn Samaan, the slave of Abu Mashar, and author of an 
astronomical work. 

40. Ibn Sahra. 

The variants of this name suggest its doubtful orthography. Ibn 
Abi Sahari is mentioned by Ham. Purg. as an astrologer of Baghdad 
whose predictions were fortunate. He lived in the latter half of the 
century, 132 — 232, (749—846) the most brilliant period in the annals 
of Arab literature. 

41. AbuIv FadhIv MashalIvAH, incorrectly Mashada in the text. 

— Born in A1 Mansur’s reign, he lived to that of A1 Mamun. His 
name ^ What God wills” is simply a rendering of the Hebrew Mischa. 
The Fihrist calls him Ibn Athra and notes his voluminous writings, 
copied by Ham, Purg. B. Til. 257.^^^ ^ ^ ^ 

42. ’Aasimi — ^ untraceable. 

43. Kabir of Abu Ma’shar— a native of Balkh, a contem- 
porary and envious rival of A1 Kindi.— At first a traditionist, he did 
not begin the study of astronomy till after the age of 47.. He died 
at Wasit exceeding the age of 100, A. H. 272, (885)— An astronomer 
and astrologer of great renown. In the latter capacity, he paid the 
penalty of success in a prediction by receiving a hogging at the 
command of A1 Musta’in ; upon which his epigram is recorded. “I 
hit and got hit.” Thirty-three of his works are named in the Fihrist, 
p. 277. He was known in Europe as Albumaser and his works 
translated into Latin, see Sachau’s Albiruni (Chronol.) p. 375, — also 
Haj. Khal. art. zij. 

44. SiND-b-’Ani. See note;p. 3, 

45. Ibn Aabam. See note p. 3. 

46. Shahryaran. ' 

This Canon occurs in . Albiruni {Chronol.) with the addition of 
the word Shah. — Sachau confesses his ignorance of it. Haj, Khal. 
gives a Canon called Shahryar x^hich is well-known — translated into 
Arabic by At Tamimi* from the Persian. Fihrist, 244. v. also Sachau’s 
preface to Albiruni’s India, p. xxx. 

47. Arkand.— In Albiruni called ‘The days of Arkand.” The 
more correct form according to Reinaud, Memoire sur I Inde, p. 322, 
would be the Sanskrit Ahargana — See Sachau’s note p. 375 of 
Albiruni’s Chronol. from which I quote. 

Albiruni made a new edition of the Days of Arkand, putting into 
clearer words and more idiomatic Arabic, the then existing transla- 
tion which followed too closely the Sanskrit original. 

48. Ibn Sufi. 

A1 Shaikh Md. b. Abil Fath as Sufi al Misrl wrote an epitome 
of the Canon of Ulugh Beg with additional tables and notes. It 
was with reference to this epitome that the work of Al Barallusi, 
Bihjat ul Fakr fi Hall is Shams Wdl Qamr was written, of which 
the Jauzhar, one of its three parts, is alluded to in 38. 

49. Sehaban Kashi. 


10 


Sehelan, SeMlau or Ibn Seliilaii according to D^Herbelot was the 
name of the Minister of Sultan ttd Daulah of the Buyide family, 
whose enmity with his brother Mushraf ltd Dottlah was due to the 
policy or personal feeling of that statesman. A canon might have 
been published under his patronage and name. 

50. Ahwazi. D’Herbelot alludes to several authors under this 
name ; one a commentator on Euclid. The Fihrist names Md-b-Ishaq 
al Ahwazi, without date. He appears to have written on agriculture 
and architecture. 

51. The 'Urus of Abxt Jafar Btjshanji. 

Bushanj, according to Yaqut {Mujam il Buldan) is a small town 
about 40 miles from Herat, which has given birth to some eminent 
scholars, but I can find no astronomer among them. 

52. Abue FATH—Shaikh Abul Path as Sufi who amended the 
tables termed Samar qandi. Ha ji Khal, 566, III. 

53. A'kkah Rahibi— untraeeable. 

54. Masaudi.- — The Canon Masudicus is extant in 4 good 
copies in European libraries, and waits for the combination of two 
scholars, an astronomer and an Arabic philologist, for the purpose 
of an addition and translation, v. Sachau, pref. to Alberuni’s India, 
p. xvi. E 71 C, Islam, iii. 403. 

55. Muatabar OF Sanjari. The surname of Abul Path 
Abdur Rahman^ called the treasurer ; he rvas a slave of Greek origin, 
in the service of A^li al Khaziu'al Marwazi and much in his favour. 
On the completion of his Canon, the Sultan Sanjar sent him a 
thousand dinars which he returned. Haj. Khal. III. 564. 

56. Wajiz-i>Muatabar is doubtless, as its name imports, an 
epitome of the foregoing. 

57. Ahmad Abdue jAUii/ Sanjari, author of two treatises on 
stellar influences. D'Herbelot mentions him as an astrologer of note, 
but adds no particulars. 

58. Muhammad Hasib Tabari. 

Untraceable. 

These are names of tables which I do 
not find mentioned. By the term Taylasan 
is meant a paradigm showing astronomical 
calculations, in the shape of half an obloifg 
quadrangular field divided by a diagonal. 
It is named after the form of the Scarf 
(Taylasan) worn by learned men in the 
East. A model will be found in Albiruni’s 
Chronology. (Sachau), p. 133. 

63. Sultan *Au Khwarazmi. AH, Shah-b-Md-b-il Qasim com- 
monly known as ’Alauddin Al Khwarazmi, the author of a Canon 
called S/ia/ 12 — -the royal ; also of a Persian epitome from the Elkhani 
Tables, called the Vmdat ul Elkhdniya, Haj. Khal. p. 565, III. 

64.. Fakhir ’Ali Nasabi. 

The variants indicate a corrupt reading — untraceable. 

65. The ’Alai of Shirwani.- Fariduddin Abul Hasan Ali-b-il 
Karim as Shirwani, known as Al Fahhad, eminent among the later 
astronomep, the author of several canons besides the one mentioned 
See Haj. Khal. p. 567, in two places. 


59. ’Adani. 

60. Taylasani". 

61. ^ Asabai. 

62. * Kirmani. 



A^mONOMEU^ 


11 


There are two other Canons called H. K, 556-7. 

66. JR-AHIK. 1 — -var. Zahidi— mitraceable. 

67. Mustawfi^ — ^ mentioned by Haj. KhaL without author*s 
name., 

68. Muntakhab (Selectus) of Yazbi* 

69. Abu Raza Yazdi. 

Yazd is a town between Naysabur and Shiraz. I find no record 
of either the canon or the astronomer. 

70. Kayduhah. 

71. iKiyini. ^ 

A1 Iklil is the 17th Tunar Station— three stars in the head of 
Scorpio. I infer from the absence of any mention of such astronomers 
that these canons are named after stars. I can learn nothing of 
Kaydurah. 

72. Nasiri — ^ perhaps called after Nasirud-Daulah-b-Hamdan, 
temp. Mutii billah, A.H.. 334. (946 A D.) 

73 . MubaivHkhas . (Summarium) . 

74. Dastur. Dastur ul'Aml fi Tashih il Jadwal — a Persian com- 
mentary by Mahmud-b-Mahd.-b-Kadhizada (known as Meriein Chelebi, 
in H. K. and D'Herb.) of the Canon of Ulugh Beg. See H. K. p. 560, 
III, and Sedillot, civ. I. 

75. MuRiVKKAB. (Compositus). 

76. Miklamah. (Calamarium). 

77. 'Asa. (Baculas) 

78. ShaTvSAUAH. Var, Sashtalah. 

79. Hasiu. (Commodum).. 

80. Khatai. a name of N. China : its people possessed an 
Astronomical Calendar in common with the Aighur Tribe, v. D'Herb. 
Art. Igur. 

81. Daybami. 

This is a bare list of tables of whose authors there is no certain 
record. Two of them, Khatai and Daylam point to the countries 
where they were in vogue. Kublai Khan the brother of Hulaku after 
his conquest of China, introduced into the Celestial Empire the astro- 
nomical learning of Baghdad, and Cocheon-king in 1280, received 
the tables of Ibn Yunas from the hands of the Persian Janialuddin. 
For the extent of Chinese science at this time, see Sedillot. ci. I. 

82. Mufrad. (Simplex) , op MD.-b-AvYUB. 

This Canon is in H. K. without the author's name. 

83. Kamiu (Integer) OF Abu. Rashid. 

There is a commentary of the Shamil of al Buzjani by Hasan-b- 
Ali al qumnati, entitled the Kd^nil^ mentioned in H. K. p. 565. III. 

84. Edkhani. - — . 

There are the tables of Nasiruddiii Tusi,; - • 

85. Jamshidi. Ghiyathuddin Jamshid together with the astro- 
nomer known .as Kadhizadah, assisted Ulugh Beg in the ipreparatipn 
of his Canon.. The former died during the beginning of the work, 
the latter before its completion. H. K. 559. D'Herbelot (Art. zig. 
Ulug, Beg.) reverses this order and asserts that Jamshid finished it. 
I suspect that he has copied and mistaken the sense of H. K, 



12 


Am-I-AlvBARI 


86. Gurgani. Another name for the Canon of Ulugh Beg. 
See Sed. p. cxis:. 

Whatever they set down, year by year from an astro- 
nomical table, as to the particular motions and individual 
positions of the heavenly bodies, they call an Almanac. It 
embodies, in fact, the diurnal progression of a planet from 
its first entrance into Aries to a determinate point in the 
ecliptic, in succession, and is in Hindi callo-d patrah. The 
Indian sage considers astronomy to be inspired by divine 
intelligences. A mortal endowed with purity of nature, 
disposed to meditation, with accordant harmony of conduct, 
transported in soul beyond the restraints of sense and 
matter, may attain to such an elevation that earthly and 
divine forms, whether as universals or particularized, in the 
sublime or nethermost regions, future or past, are con- 
ceived in his mind. From kindliness of disposition and in 
the interests of science they impart their knowledge to 
enquirers of auspicious character, who commit their lessons 
to writing, and this writing they term Siddhdnt. Nine 
such books are still extant ; the Brahm-Siddhdnt, the Suraj- 
Siddhdnt, the Som^Siddhdnt, the Brahaspat-Siddhdnt, 
inspired by Brahma, the sun, moon, and Jupiter respec- 
tively. Their origin is referred to immemorial time and 
they are held in great veneration, especially the first two. 
The Garg-Siddhant,'^ the Narad-Siddhant, the Parasar- 
Siddhant, the Pulast-Siddhant, the Bashista-Siddhant, — 
these five they ascribe to an earthly source. The unenlight- 
ened may loosen the tongue of reproval and imagine that 
these mysteries acquired by observation of Stellar move- 
ments, have been kept secret and revealed only in such a 
way as to ensure the gratitude of reverential hearts, but the 
keen-sighted and just observer will, nevertheless, not refuse 
his assent, the more especially as men of innate excellence 
and outward respectability of character have for myriads 
of years transmitted a uniform tradition. 


These last are named after five celebrated Risliis or Munis. The anti- 
quity of Indian astronomy is a matter of dispute among the learned. The 
curious inquirer ma> refer to the 8th Vol. of the Asiatic Researches where 
Mr. Bentley reduces its age, maintained by Monsieur Bailly to date back to 
the commencement of the Kali ;Yug, 3102 B.C.— to within a few hundred 
years, and fixes the date of the Sfiraj-^Siddhant — the most ancient astronomical 
treatise of the Hindus and professed to have been inspired by divine revela- 
tion 2,164,899 years ago, — to 1038 of our era. Mr. Bentley is in turn learnedly 
answered by a writer in the Edinburgh Review for July 1807. Sir W. Jones' 
essay on the Chronology of the Hindus may be read in conjunction with 
the preceding papers, v. Alb. India, Chap, XIV, where the names of the 
Sidhants and their sources are differently given. 


Eras 


13 


Among all nations the Nychthemeron’® is the measure 
of time and this in two aspects, firstly, Natural, as in Turan 
and the West, from noon to noon, or as in China and 
Chinese Tartary*® from midnight to- midnight; but the 
reckoning from sunset to sunset more universally prevails.. 
According to the Hindu sages, in Jagmot*** — ^the eastern 
extremity of the globe, they reckon it from sunrise to sun- 
rise ; in Rumak — the extreme west, from sunset to sunset; 
in Ceylon, the extreme south, from midnight to midnight 
and the same computation obtains in Delhi : in Siddhapur, 
the extreme north, from noon to noon. Secondly, the 
Equated also called Artificial, which consists of a complete 
revolution of the celestial sphere measured by the sun’s 
course in the ecliptic. For facility of calculation, they take 
the whole period of the sun’s revolution and divide equally 
the days thereof and consider the fractional remainder as 
the mean of each day, but as the duration of the revolu- 
tions is found to vary, a difference between the natural and 
artificial day arises. The tables of Al-Battani assume it 
as 59 minutes, 8 seconds, 8 thirds, 46 fourths, 56 fifths and 
14 sixths. Those of Elkhani make the minutes and seconds 
the same, but have 19 thirds, 44 fourths, 10 fifths and 37 
sixths. The recent Gurgani tables agree with the Khwajah’® 
up to the thirds, but give 37 fourths, and 43 fifths. Ptolemy 
in the Almagest accords in minutes and seconds, but sets 
down 17 thirds, 13 fourths, 12 fifths and 31 sixths. In the 
same way ancient tables record discrepancies, which doubt- 
less arise from varying knowledge and difference of instru- 
ments. The cycle of the year and the seasons depend upon 
the sun. From the time of his quitting one determinate 
point till his return to it, they reckon as one year. The 
period that he remains in one sign is a solar month. The 

This term for the twenty-four hours of light and darkness was used 
by the later Greeks and occurs in 2 Cor. xi, 25. Its precision of meaning 
commends its use which Sachau has adopted. 

Uighiir is the name of a Chaghtai tribe eponymously applied to this 
country, see D’Herb. Art. Igur and the observations thereon Vol. IV, p. 300. 

Cf. Albirtini’s India, Edit. Sachau, p. 133, Chap. XXVI. This word 
should be ‘*Jamk6t.** Albir6ni quotes from the Siddhdnta, The 4 cardinal 
points mentioned are given as the names of 4 large towns — the globe is 
described a spheroid, half land, half water : the mountain Miru occupies the 
centre, through which the Equator (Nalkash) passes. The Northern half of 
the mountain is the abode of angelic spirits, the southern that of Daityas 
and Nags and is therefore called Daitantar, When the sun is in the medidian 
of IMeru, it is midday at Jamkdt, midnight at Rumak and evening at Siddpidr. 
The latter name is spelt by Abiriini with a double d. See a map of this 
peculiar geographical system prefixed, to Gladwin’s translation of the Ain 
and in Blochmann’s text edition, following the preface. 

Na§fru’ddfn Tfisi, author of the Elkhani tables, 


14 ArtJ-I-AKBARI 

interval of the moon’s departure from a given position to its 
return thereto vi?ith the sun in conjunction or opposition or 
the like, is a lunar month. And since tvsrelve lunations 
are nearly'® equal to one uwwMaZ revolution of the sun, they 
are called a lunar year. Thus both the year and the month 
are solar and lunar : and each of these two is Natural when 
the planetary revolutions are regarded and not the computa- 
tion of days, and Equated when the computation is in days 
and not in the time of revolution. The Hindu sage divides 
the year, like the month, into four parts, allotting a parti- 
cular purpose to each. Having now given a short account 
of the night, the day, the year and the month which form 
the basis of chronological notation, we herein set down some- 
what of the ancient eras to complete our exposition. 

A note on Islamic astronomy (compiled from the 
Encyclopaedia of Islam, i. 497-501.) For the Muslims, as 
for the Greeks, astronomy only aims at studying the 
apparent movements of the stars and giving a geometrical 
representation of them ; it comprises therefore what we call 
spherical astronomy and the “theory of the instruments”. 
... The sum total of the practical knowledge necessary for 
determining by calculation or instruments the .hours of day 
and night, having especially in view the fixing of the times 
of the five canonical prayers in the mosques, is called Him al 
maimqit or science of the fixed times. In the beginning of 
Islam the Arabs already possessed some knowledge of prac- 
tical astronomy. . . . But it was only in the 2nd century of 
the Hijra (=8th century A.D.) that the scientific study of 
astronomy was entered on, under the influence of two Indian 
books : the Brahnia-sphuta-Siddhdnta of Brahmagupta (628) 
which was brought to the Court at Baghdad in 771 and was 
used as a model in Arabic by Ibrahim b. Habib al Fazari 
and Yaqub b. Tariq; and the treatise of Aryabhatta com- 
posed in 600, from which Abul-Hasan al Ahwazi derived 
his tables of the planetary movements. . . . 

To these selections from Indian books there was soon 
added the Arabic translation of the Pahlavi tables entitled 
Zik-i-shatroayar (“.royal astronomical tables”) compiled in 


A synodical month, the interval between two conjunctions of the sun 
and moon, is 29 d. 12 h. 44 m. It was founded on the most obvious determi- 
nation of the moon’s course and and furnished the original month of the 
Greeks, which was taken in round numbers at 30 days. By combining the 
course of the sun with that of the moon, the tropical year was assumed at a 
rough computation to consist of 12 unations or 360 days. See Astron, of the 
Ancients by Lewis, p. 16. 



; ■ EilAS ; ■ 15 

the last period of the Sassanian empire; but about the 11th 
ceutury A. D. they ceased to be used. 

The Greek influence was the. last in order of time, but 
first in order of importance. ■ It introduced into Muslim 
astronomy the geometrical representation of the celestial 
movenient. The first (and unsatisfactory) Arabic transla- 
tion of the Almagest dates from about 800 A.D. ; it was 
followed by two other versions much superior (in 828 and 
c. 850.) Translations of other Greek works on astronomy, 
esp. Tables were made later in large numbers” 

(The author of the above account, Signior C. A. Nallino, has 
treated the subject much more fully in Hastings’s Encyclopaedia of 
Religion and Ethics, xii. 94-101, under “Sun Moon and Stars’’. 

^ — [/. Sarfear.] 

ERA OF THE HINDUS 

The creation of Brahma is taken as its commencement 
and each of his days is an epoch. They assert that when 
70 kalps are completed, each consisting of 4 Yugs^ and the 
total of these being 4,320,000 years, a Manu appears. He 
is the offspring of the volition of Brahma and his co-operator 
in the creation. In each of his days fourteen successive 
Mantis arise. At this time which is the beginning of the 
51st year of the age of Brahma, there have been six Manus, 
and of the seventh, 27 kalps have elapsed, and three Yugs 
of the 28th, and of the fourth Yug, 4,700 years. In the 
beginning of the present Yug, Raja Judhishthira con- 
quered the universe and being at the completion of an epoch, 
constituted his own reign an era and since that time to the 
present which is the fortieth of the Divine era, 4,696 years 
have elapsed. It continued in observance 3,044 years. 
After him Bikramajiff' reckoned from his own accession to 


Viz,, the Satya or Krita, Treta, Dwapar and Kali; the first comprises 
1,728,000 years; the second, 1,296,000, the third, 864,000, the fourth, 432,000 — 
being a total of 4,320,000. For Hindu Cosmogony and Cosmology, Hastings’s 
Encycio, of Religion, iv. 155-161 (H. Jacobi) and Hindu Calendar, ibid., v. 
870 (Hopkins.) The best and most detailed practical table is Swami-Kannu 
Piilai’s Indian Ephemeris, 7vols. (1922), which supersedes all earlier and 
smaller works, but it covers only 700 — ^^1999 A.D- [J. Sarkar.] 

The first is Svayambhuva (as sprung from Svayam-bhu, the self-existent,) 
the author of the famous Code : the next five are Svarochesha, TJttama, 
Tamasa, Raivata, Chakshusha ; the seventh is called Vaivasvata, or the Sun- 
born and is the Manu of the present period, — conjectured to be Noah, as the 
first is thought to be Adam. — Prinsep’s Useful fables. 

This era to which the luni-solar system is exclusively adapted is called 
Sanvat, Vulg. Sambat. It began when 3044 years of the Kali Yug had 
elapsed, i.e,, 57 years before Christ, so that if any year, say 4925 of the Kali 


16 


AIN-I-AKBARI 



tlie throne and thus in some measure gave relief to mankind. 
He reigned 135 years. In this year 1652 years have since 
then gone by. They relate that a youth named Salbahan,^ 
was victorious through some supernatural agency and took 
the Raja prisoner on the field of battle. Since the captive 
was not deserving of death, he treated him with considera- 
tion and asked him if he had any request to make. He 
replied that though all his desire was centred in retirement 
from the world and in the worship of the one Supreme 
Creator, he still retained the wish that his era might not 
be obliterated from the records of the age. It is said that 
the boon was granted, and although he introduced his own 
era, he did not interfere with the observance of the other. 
Since this era, 1517 years have expired, and they believe 
that it will continue in use for 18,000 years more, after 
which Raja Bijiyabhinandan will institute a new era from 
his own reign which will last 10,000 years. Then Naga 
Arjun will come to the throne and promulgate another era 
which will continue for 400,000 years, after which Kalki,^^ 
whom they regard as an avatar, will .^establish a fresh era 
to last 821 years. These six are considered the principal 
eras and are called Saka, for there were many epochs and 
each termed “Sanpat.”^ After the invasion of Salbahan, 
the era of Bikramajit was changed from “Saka” to 
“Sanpat.” After the expiration of these six, the Sat^ Yug 
will re-commence and a new epoch be instituted. 

The Hindu astronomers regard the months and years 
as of four kinds — 1st, “Saurmas,” which is the sun’s con- 
tinuance in one sign of the Zodiac, and such a year consists 

Yug be proposed and the last expired year of Vikramaditya be required, 
subtract 3044 therefrom and the result, 18*81, is the year sought. To convert 
Samvat into Christian years, subtract, 57; unless they are less than 58 in 
which case deduct the amount from 58 and the result will be the date B.C. 

* This era is in general use throughout Hindustan properly so called . — Useful 
Tables, Part II, p. 26. 

Salivahan, a mythological prince of Deccan who opposed Vikramaditya 
raja of Ujjain. His capital was Pratishthana on the Godaveri. The Saka 
era, dates from his birth and commences on the 1st Bysakh, 3179. K. Y. 
which fell on Monday, 14th March, 78 A.D. Julian style. — Ibid. p. 22. 

Vishnu, in his future capacity of destroyer of the wicked and liberator 
of the world. This is to constitute the tenth and last avatar and is to take 
place at the end of the four yugs. He is to re-appear as a Brahman, in the 
town of Sambhal, in the family of Vishnu Sarma. 

Properly ‘vSanwat.' Safeff signifies an era or epoch and is generally 
applied to that of Salivdhan. 

The text is here in error. The full stop after dst nullifies the sense. 

. It fdiould be omitted together with the alif of dst. The sentence is then 
complete and the meaning obvious and consistent. Sat is the ordinary 
Persian transliteration of the Sanskrit satya. 


17 


HINDU YEARS AND MONTHS 

of 366 days, 15 gharis,^^ SO pals, and 22 hipals; 2nd, 
“Chandranias,” which is computed from the first day of 
the moon’s increase to the night of the new moon. This 
year is of 354 days, 22 gharis^ and one 'pal/ The begin- 
ning of the year is reckoned from the entry of the sun into 
Aries. This month consists of 30 lunar days [tithi). Each 
twelve degrees of the moon’s course, reckoning from its 
departure from conjunction^® with the sun is a tithi : and 
from the slowness or speed of the moon’s progress there is 
a difference in the number of gharis from a maximum of 
65 to a minimum of 54. The first, tithi fs called Pariwa; 
the second Duj ; the third Tij ; the fourth Chauth; the fifth 
Panchamin; the sixth Chhath; the seventh Saptamin ; the 
eighth Ashtamin; the ninth Naumin; the tenth Dasmin; 
the eleventh Ekadasi ; the twelfth Duadasi ; the thirteenth 
Tirudasi • the fourteenth Chaudas; the fifteenth Puranmasi ; 
and from the 16th to the 29th, they rise the same names 
up to the 14th. The 30th is called Amawas. From Pariwa 
the 1st to the 15th they call Shukla-pachch, and the other- 
half Kishna-pachch. Some begin the month from the 1st 
of Kishna-pachch. In their ephemerides generally the 
year is solar and the month lunar. 

And since the lunar year is less than the solar by ten 
days, 53 gharis 29 pals and 22^^ hipals, on the calculation 
of a mean rate of motion of the sun and moon, the difference, 
after 2 years, 8 months, 15 days and 3 gharis, would 
amount to one month, and according to the reckoning in 
the ephemeris would occur in not more than 3 years or in 
less than 2 years and one month. According to the first 
calculation, there is this difference in every twelve months 
and in such a year they reckon one month twice : according 
to the latter system, in every solar month when there are 
two conjunctions,® and this must necessarily ' occur between 


A ghari is 24 minutes, a pal 24 seconds, a bipal, a second. This would 
give 6 hours, 12 minutes and 22^4 seconds, whereas according to our calcula- 
tion, it should be 5 hours, 48 m. 47 s. very nearly. 

This minus the pal is our calculation exactly. 

The year commences at the true instant of conjunction with the sun 
and moon, that is on the new moon which immediately precedes the begin- 
ning of the solar year, falling, somewhere within the 30 or 31 days of the 
solar month Chaitra. The day of conjunction (amavasya) is the last day of 
the expired month; the first of the new month being the day after conjunc- 
tion. The tithis are computed according to apparent time, yet registered in 
civil time. For the comprehension of this perplexing notation I refer the 
reader to the Useful Tables, Part II, p. 24. 

When two new moons fall within One solar month, the name of the 
corresponding lunar month is repeated, the year being then intercalary or 

0 


18 


Am-I-AKBARI 


Chait and Knar {dsvin) and does not go beyond these seven 
months. They term this intercalary month Adhik {added), 
vulgarly called Laund. 

The third kind of month is Sawan Mas. They fix its 
commencement at any day they please : it is completed in 
thirty days. The year is 360 days. 

The fourth, Nachhattar, is reckoned from the time the 
moon quits any mansion to her return thereto. This 
month consists of 27 days and the year of 324. 

The number of the seasons is, with them, six^” and 
each they calli?^'^^^. The period that the sun remains in Pisces 
and Aries, they term Basant : this is the temperate season ; 
when in Taurus and Gemini, Girekham, the hot season ; in 
Cancer and Leo, Barkha, the rainy season; in Virgo and 
Libra, Sard, the close of the rainy season and the beginning 
of winter; in Scorpio and Sagittarius, Hem ant, winter; in 
Capricornus and Aquarius, Shishra, the season between 
winter and spring. 

They divide the year likewise into three parts : to each 
they give the name of Kdl, beginning from Phagun. They 
call the four hot months Dhupkdl; the four rainy months 
Barkhakdl and the four cold months Sitkdl. Throughout 
the cultivable area of Hindustan, there are but three 
seasons. Pisces, Aries, Taurus and Gemini are the 
summer ; Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, the rains ; Scorpio, 
Sagittarius, Capricornus and Aquarius, the winter. The 
solar year they divide into two parts. The first beginning 
with Aries to the extreme of Virgo they term JJttargol, 
which is the sun’s progress to the north of the Equator, 
and from the beginning of Libra to the extreme of Pisces, 
Dakkhangol, the sun’s course to the south of the Equator. 
Also from the first of Capricorn to the end of Gemini, they 
call Uttardyarf, the sun’s northern declination (the summer 
solstice) ; and from the 1st of Cancer to the end of Sagitte- 
rius Dachchhandyan, or the sun’s southern declination (the 
winter solstice). Many events, occur-^ing in the first of 
these divisions, especially death, are deemed fortunate. 

The Nycthemeron they divide into 60 equal parts and 
to each they ^ve the name of ghatis, more commonly ghari. 
Each ghari is subdivided into the same number of parts, 

containing 13 months. The two months of the same name are distinguished 
by the terms adhika (added) and wl/a (proper <sr ordinary). U. T. p. 23. 

Of two sidereal months each, the succession of which is always the 
same : but the vicissitudes of climate in them will depend upon the position 
of the equinoctial colvire. — U, T. 11, 18, 


ERAS 


10 


eacii of which they call pal. In the same way they appor- 
tion the pal) and each part they term ndri and also bipal. 
Each «dri is equal to six respirations of a man of an equable 
temperament, undisturbed by running, the emotions of 
anger and the like. 

A man in good health respires 360 times in the space 
of one ghari, and 21,600 times in a Nycthemeron. Some 
affirm that the breath which is respired, they term Sm as 
and that which is inspired Parswas, and both together they 
called a pardn. Six pardns make a pal, and 60 pals a ghari. 
An astronomical hour which is the 24th part of a Nycthe- 
meron is equal to 2j^ gfians. Each night and each day is 
again divided into 4 parts, each of which is called a pahr, 
but these are not all equal. 

The Khatdi era. 

They reckon from the creation of the world, which in 
their belief took place 8,884 Wans and 60 j^ears previous 
to the present date. Each Wan is 10,000 years. They 
believe that the duration of the world will be 300,000 
Wans — according to some 360,000. They employ the 
natural solar year and the natural lunar month. They 
begin the year from the sun’s mid passage through 
Aquarius. Muhiuddin^* Maghrebi places it at the 16th 
degree, others between the 16th and 18th. They divide 
the Nycthemeron into 12 Chaghs. Each of which is sub- 
divided into 8 Kehs, and to evey one of these they give a 
different name. 

They, divide the Nycthemeron also into Feneks. For 
this computation of time they have three cycles, viz., 
Shdng Wan, Jung Wan, and Khd Wan, each comprising 
60 j'ears and each year of the cycle is defined by a double^^ 

He was a distinguished philosopher and mathematician in the service 
of the Sultan of Aleppo. Surnamed al Mughrebi from his having been 
educated in Spain and Africa, associated in A. H. 658 with Nasir-uMdin Tusi 
in the superintendence of the observatory at Muragha, and shared in the 
composition of the Blkhani tables. D’Herbelot. See D^Herb. (Vol. IV. p. 42.) 
on this nomenclature and his tables of the cycles. For Chinese era, Hastings’ 
Ency., iii. 82. 

The word badu may also grammatically but in point of fact less 
accurately apply to the cycle. The following explanation taken from the 
Useful Tables (Part II. p, 14-15 under ^Chinese era’), will elucidate the text. 
They have two series of words, one of ten and the other of twelve w^ords ; 
a combination of the first words in both orders is the name of the 1st year; 
the next in each series are taken for the 2nd year, and so to the 10th; in 
the nth, the series of 10 being exliausted, they begin again with the first 
combining it with the eleventh of the second series; in the 12th year, the 
second word of the first series is combined with the twelfth of the second; 


20 


AlN-WAJtfiARl 


notation. The revolution of the cycle is marked by a series 
of ten and a series of twelve symbols. The first is employed 
for the notation of the year and the day ; the second is 
similarly applied and is likewise horary. By the combina- 
tion of these two series, they form the cycle of 60 and work 
out detailed calculations. 

The Turkish Era. ' 

Called also the Uighuri. It is similar to the foregoing, 
except that this cycle is based on the series of 12. They 
reckon their years and days after the same manner, but it 
is said that some astronomical tables also employ the series 
of 10. The commencement of their era is unknown. Abu 
Raihan (Albiruni) says^ that the Turks add nine to the 
incomplete S 5 nomacedonian years and divide it by 12 : and 
in whatever animal the remainder terminates, counting 
from the Sign of the Mouse, the year is named therefrom. 
But weighed in the balance; of experiment, this is found 
wanting by one year. The intention, undoubtedly, is to 
carry the remainder down the animal signs of the series. 


for the 13th year, the third word of the first list with the firfjt of the second 
list is taken, that list also being now exhausted. Thus designating the series 


of 10 by Roman letters, 
thus. 

and that of 12 by italics, 

the cycle of 60 will stand 

1 a a 

21 a i 

41 a e 

2 b b 

22 b k 

42 b f 

3 c c 

23 cf 1 

43 c g 

4 d d 

24 d m 

44 d h 

"5 e e 

25 e a 

45 e i 

6 f f 

26 f b 

46 f k 

7 g g 

27 g c 

47 g 1 . 

8 h h 

28 h d 

48 h m 

9 i i 

29 i e 

49 i a 

10 k k 


50 k b 

11 a 1 

31 a g 

51 a c 

12 b m 

32 b h 

52 b d 

“^13 c a 

33 c i 

53 c e 

14 d b 

34 d k 

54 d f 

15 e c 

35 e 1 

55 e g 

16 f d 

36 f m 

56 f h 

17 g e 

37 g a 

57 g i 

18 h f 

38 h b 

58 h k 

19 i g 

39 i c 

59 i 1 

20 k h 

40 k d 

60 k m 


The first cycle, according to the Jesuits, began in February 2397 B.C.; 
we are now, therefore, in the 72nd cycle, the 28th of which will begin in 1890. 
To find the Chinese time, multiply the elapsed cycle by 60, and add the odd 
years : then if the time be before Christ, subtract the vsuin from 2398 ; but 
after Christ, subtract 2397 from it; the remainder will be the year required. 

^^This reference I have not been able to trace in Albiruni\s Athar til 
Baqiya, or his India. [Jarrett] The Turkish era has fallen into disuse, but 
the names of the Cyclic years as borrowed in Indo-Cliina, Champa and Japan, 
are given in Hastings, EncycL, iii. 110-115. [J. S.] 


Eras 


21 


atil beginning from the Mouse, to adopt the name of the 
animal in which it terminates. Although the commence- 
ment of the era is unknown, yet we gather sufficient infor- 
mation regarding the year of the cycle and its name. And 
if 7 years be added to the imperfect years of the Maliki era, 
dividing by 12, whatever remains is the year of the animal 
reckoning from the Mouse. This will prove correct accord- 
ing^'* to the following series. 

Names of the twelve years of the Cycle. 

1. Sijqan^ the Mouse. 2. C/d, the Ox. 3. Pars, the 
Leopard. 4. the Hare. 5. Loiy, the Dragon, 

6. Y^ildn, the Serpent. 7. TmL the Horse. 8. Qu, the 
Sheep. 9. Bij, the Ape. 10. Takhahu, tht Cock. 11. Yit, 
the Dog. 12. Tanfewa, the Hog. They add the rvord el 
to each of these w’ords, which signifies year. 

The astrologers reckon from the Ci'eation and assert 
that all the planets were then in Aries. The year is solar. 
According to their calculation, from that time to the pre- 
sent 184,696 years have elapsed. 

The Era of Adam. 

Its beginning dates from his birth. The years are 
solar, the months lunar. According to the Elkhani tables, 
5,353 solar years have elapsed to the present date. But 
some of those possessing a book of divine revelation make 
it 6,346 solar years; others 6,938 solar : others again,; 
6,920, solar, but according to what has been reported from 
learned Christians, it is 6,793. 

The Jewish Era. 

Begins with the creation of Adam. Their years are 
natural, solar: their months, artificial, lunar. They 
reckon their months and days like the Arabians according 
to an intermediate system. The years is of two kinds, vis., 
Simple, which is not intercalary, and Composite, in which 

These 12 signs of the Zodiac exactly correspond with the animals in 
the series of the Japanese Cycle given in the Useful Tables, but the vernacular 
names are different. The calculations based on them are vaguely stated : 
in Albiruni's Chronology, some information may be obtained from the Rules 
for the reduction of Eras. 


22 


AlN-r-AKMM 

. .'I.,' ' 

an intercalation is effected. Like the Hindus they inter- 
calate a month every three years. 

The Eta of the Deluge. 

This era is computed from this event; the year is 
natural, solar, the month natural, lunar. The year begins 
from the entry of the Sun into Aries. Abu Ma’shar of 
Balkh based his calculations regarding the mean places of 
the stars on this era from which to the present year 4,696 
years have elapsed. 

The Era of Bukht Nassar {Nebuchadnezzar). 

This monarch instituted an era from the beginning of 
his own reign. The year is solar, artificial, of 365 days 
without a fraction. The month, likewise, is of 30 days and 
five days are added at the end of the year. Ptolemy in his 
Almagest computed the planetary motions on this era. 
Since its commencement 2,341 years have elapsed. 

The Era of Philipus (Arrhidceus).^^ 

Called also Filbus or Filqus. It is also known as the 
Fra of Alexander of Macedon. It dates from his death. 
The years and months are artificial, solar. Theon of 
Alexandria has based his calculations of the mean places 
of the stars in his Canon on this Fra, and Ptolemy has 
recorded some of his observations regarding it, in the 
Almagest. Of this period, 1,917 years have elapsed. 

The Coptic Era.^’’ 

This is of ancient date. A1 Battani states that its 
years are solar, artificial, consisting of 365 days without 
a fraction. The Sultani tables say that its years and months 

Or 7 months in 19 lunar years. Cf. Albiruni’s Chronology, p. 13. For 
the Jewish era, Hastings’s Bncyclo. hi. 117-123, after which Prinsep’s 
Useful Tab, ii. 8 is unnecessary. For the era of Nebuchadnezzar, Encyclo. 
of Islam, under BukhUNasar (i. 784) and under Tarikh (Suppl. 231.) The 
Arabs have confounded Kabonassar with Nebuchadnezzar (though 143 years 
separate the two.) Ptolemy makes this era begin in 742. B.C. For calculating 
dates in this s^^stem, see Prinsep’s Useful Tab, ii. 9. [J. S.] 

He was half brother of Alexander the Great, the son of Philip and a 
female dancer, Philinna of Tarissa.^ Prinsep’s U, T. ii. 10. Enc, Islam, Supp. 
231, this era began on 12 Nov. 324 3.C. 

This is the era of Diocletian or the Martyrs ; was much used by the 
Christian writers till the introduction of the Christian era in the 6th century, 
and is still employed by the Abyssinians and Copts. It dates from 29th 
August, 284. Prinsep, ii. 7. Ency, Isl. iv. 1211. 


ERAS 


23 


resemble the Syro-Macedonian. It has tlie same intercala- 
tions, but the Coptic intercalary days precede those of the 
Syro-Macedonian by six months. 

The Syro-Macedonian Era. 

The years and months are artificial, solar, and they 
reckon the year at 365 5^^ days exactly. In some astronomi- 
cal observations, the fraction in excess is less than 
According to Ptolemy, it is 14 m. 48 s. The Elkhani 
observations make the minutes the same, but 32 seconds 
and 30 thirds. According to the calculations of the 
Cathayans the minutes are the same, and 36 seconds, 57 
thirds; to the recent Gurgani observations, the minutes 
agree, with 33 seconds; the Maghrebi has 12 m. : the- 
Battani, 13 m. 36 s. Muhiyuddin Maghrebi says that some 
of the Syro-Macedonian calculations make the fraction 
more than a quarter, others less than a quarter, and thus a 
quarter has been taken as the medium. Others assert that 
the Syro-Macedonians have by observation determined the 
fraction to be a full Consequently it is a natural solar 
year, although Mulla ’Ali Kushji makes it a solar year 
even on the first mentioned basis. This era dates from 
the death of Alexander the second, [corr. IV] Bicornutus, 
but was not employed till 12 years after his death. Others 
assert that he established it in the 7th year of his reign 
when he set out from Macedonia, his kingdom, bent on 
foreign conquest. Muhiyuddin Mughrebi on the other 
hand, states that it began with;, the reign of Seleucus 
{Nicator) who founded Antioch. This era was in use both 
with the Jews and Syrians. They relate that when 
Alexander the son of Philip marched from Greece to the 
conquest of Persia, he passed through Jerusalem. Sum- 
moning the learned Jews of Syria he directed them to dis- 
continue the Mosaical era and to employ his own. They 
thus answered him. “Our forefathers never observed any 
era above a thousand years and this year our Era will 
complete the thousand; from next year, therefore, thy 
command shall be obeyed.” And they acted accordingly. 
And this took place in Alexander’s 27th year. Some main- 
tain that this Grecian era is of Hebrew origin. Kushyar in 
his Jami’ says that there is no difference between the Syro- 
Macedonian and the Syrian era, except in the names of the 
months. The Syrian year begins on the 1st day of Tishrin 


24 


AIN-I-^KBAEI 

ul Awwal. This happened fornierly when the sun was in 
the 4th degree of Libra, and now falls on the 11th. With 
the Syro-Macedonians, that date is the 1st of Qanuni i Sani, 
when the sun is near the 20th degree of Capricorn. Battani 
mentions this era^® as beginning with Philip, father of 
Alexander Bicomutus, but that he called it after his son to 
exalt his fame ; and he has based on it the calculation of the 
mean places of the planets in his Canon. Of this era 1905 
years have elapsed. 

The Augustan Era. 

He was the first of the Ronjan Emperors. The birth 
of Jesus Christ happened in his reign. The era begins with 
his accession. The year is the same as the Syro-Mace- 
douian, and the months are Coptic ; the last month in the 
common years has 35 days and in leap years 36. Of this 
era 1623 years have elapsed.^" 

The Christian Era. 

Begins with the birth of Jesus Christ. The year con- 
sists, like the Syro-Macedonian, of 365 d. 5 h. At the end 
of 4 years, they add a day to the end of the second month. 
The beginning of their Nycthemeron is reckoned from mid- 
night. Like the Arabians, they name the days of the week, 
beginning with Sunday. The commencement of their year, 
some take to be the entry of the sun in Capricorn ; others, 
from the 8th degree of the same. 

The Era of Antoninus of Rome. 

It begins with his accession [138 A.D.J. The years 
are Syro-Macedonian, the months Coptic. Ptolemy deter- 

Another reading is IStli. Gladwin has 16th. Better known as the 
Seleucid era, began on 1 Oct. 312 B.C. (acc. to Ginzel.) Ency. Islam, Snpp. 
231; also iv. 1211. 

There is a discrepancy among chronologers as to the commencement 
of this era. Some determine it to the 1st October 312 BTC. (W. vSmith, CL 
Die, art Seleuc) ; the U. 7\ (ii. 11) places it, 311 y. 4 m. B.C. The Syrian 
Greeks began their years in September, other Syrians in October : the Jews, 
about the autumnal equinox. It is used in the book of Maccabees and 
appears to have begun in Nisan. Supposing it to begin on 1st September 
312 B.C.; to reduce it to our era, subtract 311 y. 4m. 

The Spanish era of the Caesars is reckoned from 1st January, 38 BlC., 
being the year following the conquest of Spain by Augustus. It *was much 
used in Africa, Spain, and the south of France. By a Synod held in 1180, 
its use was abolished in all the churches dependent on Barcelona. Pedro IV 
of Arragon abolished it in 1350, John o^ Castile in 1382. It continued to be 
used in Portugal till 1455.— tJ. T,, ii, 11, But Dnc, Islam, Supp. 231, differs : 
‘‘its epoch 14 Feb. 27 B.C.^% ” ‘ . 


ERAS 


mined the |x>sition of the fixed stars in his Almagest on this 
era of which 1,467 years have elapsed. 

The Era of Diocletian*^ of Rome. 

He was a Christian emperor. The era begins with his 
accession. The years are Syro-Macedonian, the months 
Coptic; 1,010 years have since elapsed. 

The Era of the Hijra. 

In pre-Islamic times, the Arabs had various eras, such 
as the building of the Ka'bah, and the sovereignty of 
Omar'*^ b. Rabii’a to whom was due the rise of idolatry in 
Hijaz, and this continued in use till the year of the 
Elephant, which they, in turn, observed as a fresh epoch. 
Every Arab tribe constituted any important event in their 
history, an era. In the time of the prophet this thread 
of custom had no coherence, but from the date of the Hijra, 
they gave each year a special name. Thus that year was 
called the “year of Permission,” that is, the permission to 
go from Mecca to Medina. The second year was named 
the “j^ear of Command,” i.e., to fight the unbelie vers. 

The name in the text is Diocletian. Abnl Fazl evidently meant Constan- 
tine, but probably following the text of Albiruni, {Chronol) he copied the 
heading of the Bra of Diocletian, without noticing in the body of the passage, 
the change of name to Constantine, as the 1st Christian Bmperor. The 
number 1010 is an error. Gladwin has 1410. If Abul Fazl counts from the 
era of Diocletian A.D. 284, the interniediate ■ years would be about 1310; if 
from A.D. 324, the date of Constantine's sole mastership of the empire 1270, 
if from his proclamation as Bmperor by the legions in 306, the number would 
be 1290. His father Constantins was proclaimed Caesar by Diocletian in 
A.D. 292. 

An error (taken from Albiruni) for 'Amr-b-Lohayy, born about 167 A.D., 
was king of Hijaz ; for his genealogy see Ency. IsL i. 336, and Caus. de 
Perc. Essai Sur riiist. Arab. Tabl. 11, VIII. The great tribe of Khuzaa’h 
trace their descent from him. Whilst at Balka in Syria, he had seen its 
inhabitants practising idolatry ; their idols, they averred, protected and 
favoured them, granting rain at their prayers. At his request they presented 
him with the idol, Hobal, which he set up in Mecca and introduced its 
worship. 

570 A.D. the year in which Mahomed was born, and the name of 
which commemorates the defeat of Abraha, the Bthiopian king of Yaman. 
Quran, Sura 105. 

The 3rd year was called, the year of the trial. 

4th ,, ,, „ year of Congratulation on the occasion of 

marriage. 

5th „ ,, „ year of the earthquake. 

6th „ „ „ year of inquiring. 

7th ,, ,, „ year of victorj. 

8th ,, „ „ year of equality. 

9th ,, ,, ,, year of exception, 

10th ,, „ „ year of farewell. 

Chtdnoh Albiruni, Sachau, p. 35, 



4 


26 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

M the accession of the second Caliph (Omar), Abu Musa 
Asha’ri,^® governor of Yaman made the following represen- 
tation : “Your despatches have arrived dated the month 
of Shaban. I cannot discover what date is understood by 
Shaban.” The Caliph summoned the learned. Some of the 
Jews advised the use of their era. The sage Hurmuzan^® 
said; “the Persians have a computation which they call 
Mahroz” and this he explained. But as there were inter- 
calations in both, their skill in calculation was slight, he 
did not accept either but adopted the era of the Hi jr ah. 
The month according to their system is reckoned from the 
sight of one new moon, after the sun has completely set, 
till the next is visible. It is never more than 30 nor less 
than 29 days. It sometimes occurs that four successive 
months are of 30 days, and three of 29. Chronologers put- 
ting aside calculations based on the moon’s appearance, 
reckon lunar months in two ways, viz., Natural, which is 
the interval of the moon’s departure from a determinate 
position, with the sun in conjunction or opposition or the 
like to its return thereto; 2ndly, Artificial; since the 
motions of the moon are inconstant and their methodisation 
as well as an exact discrimination of its phases difficult, 
its mean rate of motion is taken and thus the_task is facili- 
tated. In the recent (Giirgam) tables, this is 29 days, 12 
hours and 44 minutes.'*^ The rule is this, that when the 
fraction is in excess of half, it is reckoned as one day. Thus 
when the excess is over a half, they take the month of 
Muharram as 30 days, and the second month 29,. and so on 
alternately to the last. In common years, therefore, Dhil 
Hijjah is 29 days. The mean lunar year consists of 354 d. 
8 h. 48 m.^® which is less than a solar artificial year by 


Abu Musa A1 Ashanti was one of the Cotiipanions, a native of Kufah. 
He joined the prophet at Mecca and was a convert before the Flight to 
Medina. He was also one of the fugitives to Abyssinia and including his 
journey from Yaman to Mecca, shared in the unusual distinction of three 
flights. Ency. Islam, I. 481. 

Huriimzan was a learned Persian, taken prisoner by Abu Musa and sent 
to the Caliph Omar by whom his life was spared, though the grace was 
obtained with some difficulty. He subsequently became a convert. Ency. 
Islam, ii._ 338. Nawawi, Tahzib-ul-Asma. 

This is a lunation or synodical month, the interval between two con- 
junctions of the Sun and Moon, _ The periodical month, as distinguished from 
this, is the time taken in transit by the moon from any point of the Zodiac 
back to the same point : it consists of 27 d. 7 h. 43 m. Hence a lunar month 
is sometimes taken in round numbers at 28 d. and this is the length of a 
lunar month according to the law of i^ngland. Tewis. Astr. of the Anc. 

p. 20. 

And 36 seconds. JbM, 



ERAS 


27 


lO d. 21 h. 12 m. Mirza Ulugh Beg has based his new 
Canon on this era of which 1002 years have elapsed to the 
present time. 

The Era of Yazdapri. 

He was the son of Shahryar Aparwez''® b. Htrrmuz b. 
Noshirwan. It began with the accession of Jamshid. After 
him ever}’- succeeding monarch renewed his designation b}’- 
his own accession and Yazdajird also re-instituted it from 
his assumption of sovereignty. The years are like the 
Syro-Macedonian ; but the fraction in excess was reserved 
till at the end of 120 year's, it amounted to a whole month, 
and that year was reckoned at IB months. The first inter- 
calation was after Farwardin, and it was called by the name 
of that month. Then Urdibihisht wsls twice counted and 
so on. When the era was renewed under the name of 
Yazdajird, and his authority terminated in disaster, the 
continuity of intercalation was neglected. The 5'ears and 
months are artificial, solar. 963 years have since elapsed.®’ 

Note on the Hijera era. “The question on w'hat day 
the 1st Muharram of the year 1 A.H. fell is not yet de- 
cided.” (Discussion of different theories j of 

Islam, Suppl. 231). 

“Authorities are not agreed on the exact date of the 
Hidjra. According to the most usual account, it took place 
on the 8th Rabi’ I (20th vSept. 622 A.D.). But this would 
not be the date of the departure from Mecca but of the 
arrival in Medina. According to other versions, it was the 
2nd or the 12th Rabi’ I . . . . The 8th was preferred as it 
•was a Monday. According to a tradition, the Prophet is 
said to have answered when asked w'hy he observed Monday 
especially, ‘on this day I was born, on this da}’- I received 
my prophetic mission, and on this day I migrated’. The 
fixing of the Hidjra as the beginning of the Muhammadan 
era dates from the Caliph ‘Omar. The traditions which try 

In Albiruni, Sliahrvar-b-Patwez. Parwez or Aparwez signifies VictorioUvS. 
Era of Yazdajird^ Ency. Islam, Supp. 232, also Prinsep’s Useful T. ii. 12. 
liiicy. Islam, iv. 178, gives Yazdigird III. (r. 632-651 A.D.) after Ardashir III, 
(r. 628-630), with “several ephemeral rulers^* between them. J, S. 

""A.D. 632.^ 

“In Persia, siiiec the age of Zoroaster, the revolution of the sun has 
been known^ and celebrated as an annual festival, but after the fall of the 
Magian empire, the intercalation had been neglected : the fractions of minutes 
and hours were multiplied into days, and the date of the spring was removed 
from the sign of Aries to that of Pisces.^' . Gibbon. Decl. and Fall, Vol. X, 


28 


AIN-I-AKBARt 


to trace it to the Prophet himself are devoid of all proba- 
bility.” {Ency. Islam, n. S02). 

In Ency. Islam, iv. 1210 (under Zamdn), there is a full 
discussion of the calendar adopted by the Muslims, 

“Although the era of Islam begins with the 15th {16th) 
of July, 622 A.D., the lunar year, peculiar to the Muslims, 
was not established till the year A.H. 10. When Muham- 
mad in that year (A.D. 631) made his last pilgrimage to 
Mecca, .... he arranged . . . that the year should consist 
of 12 lunar months of 29, (28, 30) days each, and that inter- 
calation {nasi’) was to be ioxhidden {Quran, ix. 36 ff.) . . . 
The Meccans had had a more or less perfect solar year 
(before this, as) the names of the months in part indicate 
clearly certain definite seasons of the year — a situation, in 
the case of a changeable lunar 3''ear, evidentl}^ out of the 
question. . . . The Arabs adopted the week of the Jews and 
Christians.” (K. Vollers in Hastings’s Encyclopaedia of 
Religion, iii. 126-127). — J. Sarkar. 

The Maliki Era. 

It is also called Jalali. The Persian Era was used at 
that period. Through the interruption of continuity in in- 
tercalation, the commencements of the years fell into con- 
fusion. At the instance of Sultan Jalaluddin®- Malik Shah 
Saljuki, Omar Khayyam and several other learned men 
instituted this era. The beginning of the year was deter- 
mined from the sun’s entry into Aries. The years and 
months were at first Natural, but now the month is the 
ordinary Artificial. Each month consists of 30 daj^s and 
at the end of Isfanddrmuz, they add 6 or 6 days. Of this 
era, 616 years have elapsed. 

The Khdni Era ^ 

dates from the reign of Ghazan®^ Khan and is founded on 
the Elkhani tables. The years and’ months are Natural, 

A brilliant sketch of His life niay be read in Gibbon, Ch. 57, and Enc. 
hi. iii- 21 L For his era Ency. Islam, i. 1006 {under D jalali), also iv. 672 
(under Tarikh) and iii. 888 (under Nawniz.) The era begins on 15 March 
1079 A.D. 

Ghazan Khan, Mahmud, eldest son of Arghun, the 8th from Mangu 
Khan son of Jengliiz, qf the Moghul Tartar or Ilkhanian Dynasty of Persia. 
He^ ascended the throne in^ A, H. 694 (A.D. 1294), and was succeeded by 
Ghiasu’ddin Au-gaptu Khuda bandah Muhammad, A. H. 703 (A. D. 1303). 
U. T. P. II, p. 146. The llkhani era, in Ency. IsL Supp. 232. Ghazan Kh, 
ill ibid. a. 149. 



29 


ERAS 

solar. Before its adoption the State records bore date^’from 
the Hijrah and the lunar year was current. By this means 
the road was opened to grievous oppression, because 31 
lunar jrears are equal to only 30 solar years and gi'eat loss 
occurred to the agriculturists, as the revenue was taken on 
the lunar years and the harvest depended on the solar. 
Abolishing this practice Ghazan Khan promoted the cause 
of justice by the introduction of this era. The names of 
the month are the Turkish with the addition of the word 
khdni. Of this, 293 years have elapsed. 

The Ildhi Era. 

His Majesty had long desired to introduce a new com- 
putation of years and months throughout the fair regions 
of Hindustan in order that perplexity might give place to 
easiness. He w^as likewise averse to the era of the Hijra 
(Flight) which was of ominous signification, but because 
of the number of short-sighted, ignorant men who believe 
the currenc 3 ' of the era to be inseparable from religion. His 
Imperial Majesty in his graciousness, dearty regarding the 
attachment of the hearts of his subjects did not carry out 
his design of suppressing it. Although it is evident to right- 
minded people of the world, what relevancy exists between 
the market-coin of commercial dealing and the night 
gleaming jewel of faith, and w'hat participation between this 
chain of objective connection and the twofold cord of spiri- 
tual truth, yet the world is full of the dust of indiscrimina- 
tion, and the discerning are heedful of the fable of the fox®^ 
that took to flight when camels were being impressed. In 
992 of the Novilunar j'^ear, the lamp of knowledge received 
another light from the flame of *his sublime intelligence and 
its full blaze shone upon mankind. The fortunately gifted, 
lovers of truth raised their heads from the pillow of dis- 
appointment and the crooked-charactered, drowsy- willed lay 
in the corner of disuse. Meanwhile the imperial design was 
accomplished. Amir Fathullah Shirazi,“ the representative 


Gulls tan I. Story XVI. ‘What connection, Madcap*, they said to him 
‘has a camel with thee and what revSemblance hast thou to it?* ‘X^eace!* 
he answered ‘for if the envious should, to serve their own ends, say’* — “This 
is a camel,” who would care about my release so as to iiKiuire into my 
condition?’* 

The Ilahi era was introduced by Akbar at the beginning of the 29th year 
of his reign, 8th Rabi-ul Awwal 992 A.H.^lOth March 1584 {Akbanianiah, 
tr. ill. 644.) Prinsep, Useful Tables, ii. 37. 

See A til Akb. trans.^ Vol. I, p- 33, n. 



30 


ain-i-Akba&i 


of ancient sages, the paragon of the house of wisdom, set 
himself to the fulfilment of this object, and taking as his 
base the recent Gurgani Canon, began the era with the 
accession of his Imperial Majesty. The splendour of visible 
sublimity which had its manifestation in the lord of the 
universe commended itself to this chosen one, especially as 
it also concentrated the leadership of the world of spiritual- 
ity, and for its cognition by vassals of auspicious mind, the 
characteristics of the divine essence were ascribed to it, and 
the glad tidings of its perpetual adoption proclaimed. The 
years and months are natural, solar, without intercalation 
and the Persian names of the months and days have been 
left unaltered. The days of the month are reckoned from 
29 to 32, and the two days of the last are called Roz o Shah 
(Day and Night) . The names of the months of each era are 
tabulated for facility of reference. [Tr.’s note. The Uighur 
and Coptic months are spelt differently by Albiruni from 
Abul Fazl. The spelling of the Jewish month names also 
is incorrect in the printed text of the Aw.] 



ERAS 


31 


Hindu *»* 

months. 

Kdiatai ^ 

months. 

cs’ 

. m 

a 

■ ■ 'J3 

H.P ■ 

The Era of the 4 ^ 
astrologers. 

5. 

«+.< - 
0 

C3 , 

. 

W g 
<u S 

The Era of p> 

the Jew'S. 

The Era of 
the Deluge. 

8. 

u 2 

«g 

SU J2 
rZi KS 

■ H:25 

a ■ ' 

Ih. 

0 <1 

cJ ES , ■ 

W gn m 

ub S 

^ gn 03 

•'■■ AO.v'" 

H-( 

0 M 

«a 

Chait Clianweh 

Aram Ay. 



Tishri 


Thoth 

. 

Thoth 

Thoth 

Baisakh Zhezheweli 

Ikandi Ay. 



Alarhesh- 

waii 


Bapeli 

Bapeh 

Paopi 

Jeth Samweh 

'Ochanj Ay. 



Kislew 

it 

Plator 

1 Hator 

Athyr 

Asarh [Harwell 

Dardanj Ay. 

it 


,Tebeth 


Kahak 

Kehak 

Khawak 

Sanwaii |Uweh 

'Beshanj Ay. 


1 

Sliebat 


Tubah , 

iTubah 

Tybi 

Bhadou Euweh 

Altinj A}'. 


! S » 

Adhar 


Amsher 

Amsher, 

Makhir 

Klin war Cheweh 

iYetinj A'y. 


> > 

Nisan 

n 

9 ' 

Barmahat ; 

j Phamanoth 

Katik Baweh 

.Saksanj Ay. 



lyar 


■9 

Barmulah 

Pharmuthi 

;\ghan. Kheweh 

Tuksanj Ay. 


JJ 

Siwaii 


9 

Bashaiis 

Pachoii 

Pus Shabweh 

Orman j Ay. 


)> 

Tammitz 


I '.'9 

Bonah 

; Payiii 

^lagli vShayayweh 

Onbaranj Ay. 

ti ■ ^ 


Ah 


9 

Abib . 

^ Epiphi 

Idiagun Sirweh 

iHaksabat Ay, 



Elul I 

t) 

9 

1 Misti : ■ , 

Alesori 

1 . 


Syro->Ia- 

cedoiiian 

Era. 


Taslirinul 

Awwal 

Tasliriiiu^l 
^ Akhir 
KaiiuiiH 
■'Awwal 
Kaiiimu’l 
Akhir 
vShebat 


liuziTran 


12. 

' x 

1 p " 

1 trj : 

\<& 
^r< 3 

13. 

The Chris- 
tian Era. 

, 

14. 

"" p 

s.s 

wg 

CU 4W 

' 15. 

M-t ♦ 

0 P 
ca.S 

Ss 

16. 

Era of the 
Hijrah. 

27. 

Era of 
Yazdijird. 

18. 

The :Ma- 
liki Era. 

19. 

The^ 

Ivhani 

Era. 


January 




Aluharram 

Far’wadin 

Farwar- 

Aram Av. 






Alah. Old 

dill Alali 

Khani 






Style 

i Talali 



February 



Safar . 

Ardibihisht 

&c. 

&c. 






Mall. 0. S.. 



u 

March 

u 

Rabia’ I. ' 

Khurdad 

Szc. 

&c, like 3 

m 


cd 


Mali.O.S. 


with the 

h 

April 

ca 

a 

Rabia’ II. 

Tit Alah. 0. 

Szc. 

word j 

0 1 

rO 1 


0 

42 


1 S. 

\ 

*Tslhani” ■; 

ca : 
^ i 

:May 

C3. 

Jumada I. 

i Amurdad 

like 17, ' 

after }' 



A 


1 

0 

with the ; 

'‘Ay” 

'o : i 

June 

<4.4 ' 

0 

Jumada II. 

Sharewar 

word 

In the 4thj 

-■'1 

4) 1 


<U 


Mah. O.S. 

‘‘JalalP' 

month \ 

w ' 

0 '■■ 

July 

: m 

Rajab 

Mihr Alah. 

after 

tlie word j 



' A . 


0. a 

'‘AIah.’’i 

”Tor- 1 


August 

, : 


Sha’ban 

Aban Mah. 

i 

tauj” 1 



3 


0. S. 

... .{ 

t 

occurs, i 


September 


Rainadlian 

Azar Mall. 

■ 1 

. I 

where in j 






G. S. 


Col. 3, it 1 

0 

October 

0 

Sha-wwal 

Day Mah . 


is “Dar- j 



■■ , P . ■ 


0 . s. 


danj.” 

<u 

November 

Cl 

■a> 

Dili Ka’da 

Bahman 



3 I 




Mah. O.S. 



j 

December 



Dhi Hi jjah 

Isfandarmaz 



i 





Mah. 0. S. 




The 

Divine 

Era. 


Farwar- 
din Alali 
i Ilahi 
Sic. 

like 18 , 


‘‘Jalrdi/^ 


32 ■ AIN-I-AKBARI 

The events of the world recorded in chronological 
sequence, are accounted the science of history, and he who 
is proficient in them, is a historian. Many writings in this 
branch of knowledge regarding India, Khata, the Franks, 
Jews and other peoples are extinct. Of the Muhammadan 
sect, the first who in Hijaz occupied himself with this subject 
was Muhammad-b-Ishaq, then follow Wahab-b-Murabbih, 
Waqidi, Asma’i, Tabari, Abu A’bdullah Muslim-b- 
Qutaybah, Aa’tham of Kufa, Muhammad Muqanna, Hakim 
A’li .Miskawaih, Fakhruddin Muhammad-b-Ali, Baud 
Sulaiman Binakiti, Abul Faraj, Tmadu-ddin-b-Kathir, 
Muqaddasi, Abu Hanifah Dinawari, Muhammad-b- Abdullah 
Masa’udi, Ibn Khallakan, Yafa'i, Abu Nasr Utbi; amongst 
the Persians, Firdausi Tusi, Abul Hasan Baihaqi, Abul 
Husain author of the Tdnkh-i-Khusraivi, Khwajah Abul 
Fazl Baihaqi, A’bbas-b-Musa’b, Ahmad-br-Say}^!.!', Abu 
Ishaq Bazz’az, Muhammad Balkhi, Abul Qasini Ka’bi, 
Abu’l Hasan Farsi, Sadruddin Muhammad author of the 
.Tdjul-Madsir , {Corona monumentorum), Abu Abdullah 
Juzjani {author oi the Tabaqdt-i-Ndsiri), Kabiruddin Iraqi, 
Abul Qasim Kashi, author of Zubdah {Lactis flos), Khwajah 
Abul Fazl, author of the Makhzan ulBaldghat {Promtuarium 
■ eloquentioe) and Fadhdil-ul~Muluk {Virtutes principum. 
proestantes) A’lauddin Juwaini, brother of the Khwajah 
Shamsuddin, author of a Diwan, (he wrote the Tdrikh 
Jahdnkushd, Historia orbis terrarum victrix), Hasidullah 
Mustaufi Qazwini, Qadhi Nidham Baydhawi, Khwajah 
Rashidi Tabib, Hafiz Abru, and other trustworthy writers. 

For a long time past, likewise, it has been the practice, 
to record current events by a chronogram and to make the 
computation of years appear from a single word, a hemis- 
tich and the like, and this too they term a date; as for 
instance, for the accession of his Majesty, they have devised 
the words Nasrat-i-A'kbq.r {victoria insignis) and Kdm 
Bakhsh {Optatis respondens), but the ancients practised it 
little : thus the following was written on Avicenna, — 

The Demonstration of Truth, Abu A‘li Sina, 

Entered in Shaja' (373) from non-existence into being. 

In Shasa (391) he acquired complete knowledge. 

In Takaz (427) he bade the world farewell, 



MUSLIM HISTORIANS 


33 


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES 

“The whole of this series of authors is taken bodily 
and in the same order by Abul Fazl from the Raudhat-us- 
Safd without acknowledgement.” {H. 5. Jarett.) 

For convenience of printing and also of studj’-, Jarrett’s 
notes on the ancient authors, a bare list of whose names is 
given by Abul Fazl, have been here collected in one place, 
instead of being dispersed as separate footnotes. For more 
modern and detailed information consult the Encyclopczdia 
of Islam under each name,” (J. Sarfear.) 

Md.-h -Ishaq, — author of the well-known work Al 
Maghdzi wa’s (expeditiones bellicae et biographise) ; 

he was a native of Medina and as a traditionist held a high 
rank, and regarded by Al-Bukhari and As-Shafa’i as the 
first authority on ^he Muslim conquests.- He died at 
Baghdad A.H. 151 (A.D., 768). It is from his work that 
Ibn Hisham extracted the materials for his life of the 
Prophet. 

' Wahab-b-Murabbih, — was a native of Yaman and one 
of the “Abna”, i.e., a descendant of one of the persian 
soldiers settled there. He died at Sana’a in Yaman A.H. 
110, in Muharram (April-May A.D. 728)— (others say in 
il4 or 116) at the age of 90. He was a great transmitter 
of narrations and legends. A great part of the information 
given by Moslem historians regarding the pre-Islamic 
history of Persia, Greece, Yaman, Egypt, etc., comes from 
him. He was an audacious liar, as Moslem critics of a 
later period discovered. Ibn Khali. De. SI. IV. p. 672-3. 

Wdqidi, — ^Abu A’bduliah, Muhammad-b-Omar. Waqid, 
al Waqidi, a native of Mecca, author of the well-known 
"‘Conquests'’'’ of the Moslems, born A.H. 130 (Sept. A.D. 
745), died on the eve of Monday 11 Zul Hijjah, A.H. 206 
(27th April A.D. 823). 

AsmaH , — Abu Sa'id A‘bdu’1 Malik-b-Kuraib al 
Asma’i, the celebrated philologer, a complete master of 
Arabic. He was a native of Basra, but removed to Baghdad 
in the reign of Harun-ar-Rashid. It is said he knew by 
heart 16,000 pieces of verse; born A.H, 122 (A.D. 740) 
and died in Safar A.H. 213 (March-April A.D. 728). 
Ency. Isl. i. 490. 

Tabari , — ^Abu Jafar M-b-Jarir at-Tabari, author of the 
Great Commentary of the Quran and of the celebrated 
history. He is regarded as an exact traditionist, born A.H, 
5 


34 


AIN-I-AKBAEI 


224 (A.D. 838-9) at Amol in Tabaristan and died at Bagh- 
dad A.H. 319 (A.D. 923). Ency. Isl. iv. 578. 

Ahu Abdullah Muslim, — (213-270 A.H.) A native of 
Dinawar, some say of Marw, author of the Kitab-ul- 
Ma^drif and Addb-ul-Kdtib ( = the Writer’s Guide) : the 
first a work of general knowledge, from which Eichhorn 
extracted his genealogies of the Arabs published in his 
Monumenta historim Arabum ; it contains a number of 
short biographical notices of the early Moslems. 

Aa^tham Kufi, — Muhammad-b-A’li, known as Aa’sim' 
Kufi; his work the Futuh Aa’thim (H.K.) is a short 
account of events from the death of the prophet to the 
death of Husain at Karbala, It was translated into Persian 
by Ahmad-b-Mustaufi. 

Md. Muqanna\ — ^Freytag gives his name from the 
Scholia as Muhammad-b-Ofimaizah. He is said to have 
been called Muqanna’ from the ‘veil he wore to protect the 
beauty of his person. He squandered his wealth in lavish 
gifts and in the time of the Omayyads was still living, of 
much account with his people, but in poverty. Not to be 
confounded with Abu ‘Amr (afterwards Abu Md.) Ibn al 
Muqaffa^ {Ency. Islam ii. 404), who was known as the 
Katib or Secretary and was the author of some celebrated 
epistles, and also translated Kalila and Damna into Arabic. 

Abu Ali Ahmad-b-Miskawaih, — a Persian of good 
birth and distinguished attainments. He was treasurer tc 
Malik Adhd-ud-daulah-b-Buwaih, who placed the utmost 
trust in him. He was the author of several works. Abul 
Faraj relates {Hist. Dynast, p. 328) that Avicenna con- 
sulted him on a certian abstruse point; and finding him 
slow of intelligence and incapable of solving his difficulty, 
left him. His death is placed about A.H. 420. 

Baud Sulaiman Binakiti, — author of the Raudhat-ul- 
Albdb {Viridarium cordatorum) a compendium of Persian 
history. He lived tempore Jinghiz Khan and wrote on the 
history of Khatai kings at the request or command of 
Sultan Abu Said Bahadur. 

Abul Faraj, — (1) 897-967 A.D., author of the great 
Kitdb al Aghani.' (2) Barhebraeus, 1226-1286, author of a 
famous Universal History (See Ency. Isl. under the above 
two names). 

Hafidh Fmaduddin, — ^Ismail-b-A’bdu’llah ad Dimashqi 
died in A.H. 774 (A.D. 1372). The name of his history is 



IIUSWM historians 


’Al Biddyah wa’l Nihdyah [Initium et finis) and is con- 
tinued to his own time. 

Muqaddasi, — There are several of this name. Sbams- 
uddin Abdullah was the author of a geography entitled 
Ahsanu’l taqasim fi Ma’rifati’l aqalim, a description of the 
seven climates, died A.H. 341 (A.D. 1049, Ency. Isl. iii. 
708); a second Husamuddin Md. b. A’bul Wahid author 
of a work on judicial decisions; died A.H. 642 (A.D. 1246) ; 
a third, probably the one alluded to, Shahabuddin Abu 
Mahmud as Shafa’i author of the work Muthiml Gharam ila’ 
Zidratil Quds wdl Sham {Liber cupidinem excitans Hiero- 
solyma et Damascum visendi). He died in 765 (A.D. 1363). 
H. K. . . 

Abu Hanifa Ahmad-b-Daud ad Dinawari, author of a 
work Islah til Mantiq [Emendatio sermonis). He died 290 
(A.D. 902) H. K. 

Masdudi, — author of the Muruj-ud-Dahdb . {Praia 
Auria) which he composed in the reign of the Caliph Mutia' 
Billah and many other work.s. It begins with the creation 
of the world, and is continued through the Caliphs to his 
own time. He died in Cairo in 346 A.H. (A.D. 957). Ency. 
Isl. hi. 403. • 

I bn Khallakan, — the famous biographer : his work the 
Wafayatul Aa’yan containing the lives of illustrious men 
is well-known. It was composed in Egypt under Sultan 
Bay bars of the Mameluke dynasty. He has given a few 
particulars of his life at the close of this work which was 
finished in A.H. 672 (A.D. 1273-4). He was born in 608 
(A.D. 1211) and died in 681 (A.D. 1282, Ency. Isl, ii. 
396). 

Abdullah-b-Asa’ d al YafaS al Yamani, died 768 A.H. 
(A.D. 1266). He wrote the Mirat til Jandn wa Lbrat ul 
Yakdhdn (speculum cordis et exemplum vigilantis), a his- 
torical work beginning with the Flight and continued to 
his own time. Another is the Raudkatul Riahin ( Viridarium 
hyacinthorum) containing lives of Moslem saints. Ency. 
Isl, iv. 1134. 

Utbi, — author of the Tdrikh Yamini which contains the 
history of the Ghaznivide Sultan Yamin ud Daulah Mahmud- 
b-Subuktigin of whom he was a contemporary : it is brought 
down to the year 427 (A.D. 1036-7). 

Baihaqi, — (1) Abu .Hasan’ Ali-b-Zayd al Baihaqi 
author of the Wishdhi Dumyatil Qasr : a supplement to*the 
Dumyat ul Qasr of al Bakharzi the poet, who died A.H. 467 


36 


AlN-l-AKBARi 

(A.D. 1075), and author of work called Tdrikhi Baihaq. 
Ency. Isl., i. 592. 

Baihaqi,—{2) Abul Fazl Md. b. Husain, author of a 
history of the Ghaznavids in more than 30 vols., of which 
only five volumes covering the reign of Masa'ud b. Mahmud 
has been preserved. Ency. Islam, i. 592-593. 

Abul Husain, — Muhammad-b-Sulaiman A1 Asha’ri; 
the Tdrikh Khusrawi, is a history of the Persian kings. 
Abbas b. Musa'b, — author of the Tdrikh Khordsdn. 
Ahmad-b-Sayydr-b-Ayyub , — the Hafidh, Abul Hasan 
al Marwazi, a traditionist of great repute and accuracy. 
Died A.H. 268, A.D. m. Abul Mahasin V. II. p. 45. , 

Abu Ishaq-Muhammad-b-al Bazzdz was the author of 
a history of Herat. 

Muhammad-b-Akil al Balkhi-d— A.H. 316 (A.D. 928). 
(Abul Mahasin II. p. 235) author of a history of Balkh. 

H. K. 

AbuT Qdsim Ali-b-Mahmud, author, of a history of 
Balkh. 

Abu^l Hasan,- — ^Abdul Ghafir-b-Ismail Al Fdrsi, author 
of theSiydqfi daili tdrikh Nishabur {Cursus orationis appen- 
dix ad historiam Nishaburae). He died A.H. 527 (A.D. 
1132). H. K. 

Juzjdni,—'Vhe Tabaqdt-i Ndsiri is on the military expe- 
ditions of Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah-b-Iltamish of Delhi. 
The name of the author is Abu Omar, Othman-b-Muham- 
mad al Minhaj, Siraj al Juzjani. 'Translated by Raverty in 
Biblio. Indica series. 

Kahiruddin Irdqi,~—son of Tajuddin Iraqi, who wrote 
of the conquests of Sultan Alauddin Khilji. lie was a 
skilled rhetorician, and writer ; see a slight sketch of him in 
the Tdrikh Firoz Shdhi, of Ziauddin Bami, p. 361. 

Abul Qdsim Jamdluddin Muhammad, — d. 836 (A.D. 
1432), author of the Zubdatut Tawdrikh, in Persian. 

■ Abul Fadhl Ubaidullah — (H.K. : in Raudhat us Safa, 
‘Abdullah) -b-Abi Nasr Ahmad-b-Ali-b-al Mikal ; both the 
works mentioned are historical. 

Alauddin Ata Malik al Juimini, — the author of the 
Jahdn Kushd’ a Persian history, Ency. Isl., i. 1067-1070, 
under Djuwaini. 

HaTndullah Qazvini,— author of the Tdrikh Guzida 
(Preestantissima ex historia) which ranks among the best 
general histories of the East, written for the Wazir Ghiat- 
huddin Muhammad. It was first composed in 50,000 verses, 



MOVINCIAt VICEROY 


37 


and then turned into prose about A.H. 730 (A.D. 1329- 
30). Ency. Isl., ii. 8U. 

Qadhi Nasiruddin Ah dullah-h-Omav al Baidhdwi-d — 
A.H. 684 (A.D. 1285), author of the Nidhamut Ta'wdrikh 
{Ordo historiarum), a compendium of Persian history with 
an account of Moslem dynasties from the house of Umayyah 
to that of Khwarazm and the Mongols (1276 A.D.). Ency. 
IsL, i. 690. 

Khj. Rashidi , — Khwajah Rashiduddin Fadhlullah, 
Tabib, “one of the greatest historians of Persia (put to 
death in 718, A.D. 1^8), author of the Jainiut Tawdrikh 
{Historia wwumah’s). He began it just before the death 
of Ghazan Khan A.H. 704 (1304 A.D.). His successor 
Khudabandah Muhammad ordered him to complete it and 
preface it with his name and to add to the history of the 
Jingiz dynasty, a more general account, Ency. IsL, iii. 
1124. 

Hdfidh Ahni , — Shihabuddin Abdullah b. Dutfullah b. 
Abdur Rashid al Khwafi (and not al-Haravi), author of the 
Zubdatiit Tawdrikh composed for Baisoughor Mirza, an 
account of the principal events and strange or extraordinary 
occurrences recorded in the history of the world, carried 
down to A.H. 829 (1426 A.D.) . He died in 834 (A.D. 
1430). Ency. Isl.Tu. m. _ _ 

Avicenna,- — ^The full name of this philosopher is Abu 
Ali Husain-b-Abdullah-b-Sina, as Shaikh, ar-Rais. He is 
therefore known in the East as Ibn Sina and Pur-i-Sina, 
from his father’s name. Ency.Jsl., ii. 419-420 (under Ibn 
Sina). He was born in Bukhara A.H. 370 (A.D. 980) and 
died in 428 (A.D. 1036) at the age of 68. 


A’IN I. 

The Provincial Viceroy, Sipah Sdldr, literally. 
Commander of the Forces.^ 

He is the vicegerent of His Majesty. The troops and 
people of the provinces are under his oi'ders and their welfare 
depends upon his just administration. He must seek the 

The Sipali-Salar*s duties are described also in a jarman of Akbar included 
in Uimt-uAhmadl (Gaekwad’s Or. Series), i. 163-170, See Mughal Adminis- 
tration by Jadnnath Sarkar, 3rd ed., ch. §2 for further details and 
references to additional sources. The distintcion between the provincial 


38 


AiSJ-i-AKBARI 

will- of God in all tliat he undertakes and be constant in 
praise and supplication. He must never lay aside the con- 
sideration of the people’s prosperity nor suffer his zeal to 
sleep. He must not be prompt to vain converse or asperity 
of manner. Vigilance and the due distinction of ranks must 
be his care, especially to-wards subordinates near his person 
and officials at a distance. What is the duty of dependents 
must not be committed to his sons, and what these can 
perform he should not execute himself. In all transactions 
he should confide in one wiser than himself and if he can 
find none such, he should confer with a few chosen indivi- 
duals and weigh carefully their deliberations. 

It haps at times, the hoary sage 
May fail at need in counsel right, 

And unskilled hands of tender age 
A chance shaft wing within the white. 

[S‘sidi, Gulistdnj Ch. 3.] 

He should not admit many men to his secret councils, 
for the prudent, zealous, warm, disinterested adviser is rare, 
lest one of them should provoke dissension, and opportunities 
for timely action escape. He should regard his office of 
command as that of a guardian, and exercise caution, and 
making a knowledge of the disposition of men a rule of 
government, live as it behoves his office. Levity and anger 
he should keep under the restraint of reason. He should 
reclaim the rebellious by a just insight into the 'conduct of 
affairs and by good counsel, failing which, he should be 
swift to punish by reprimands, threats; imprisonment, 
stripes or amputation of limb, but he must use the utmost 
deliberation before severing the bond of the principle of life. 
He should not pollute his tongue with abuse which is the 
manner of noisy vagabonds of the market place. He should 
refrain from the use of oaths in speech for this is imputing ’ 
falsehood to himself by implication and distrust in the person 
he addresses. In judicial investigations, he should not be 

viceroy {sipah saldr) and the revenue-head (diwan) is as old as the first 
goveninient set up by the Arabs after the conquest of Egypt : “In the early 
centuries of Arab rule {in Egypt) two political functions are sharply distin- 
guished, tjie governorship and the treasury. The governor, Amir, had control 
over the military and police only. , . . Alongside of him was the head of 
the treasury the , These two officials had to keep a strict watch 

on one another.” (C. H. Becker in Ency. Islam, ii. 13.) These provincial 
viceroys - were afterways called ndsims and suhah-ddrs, x'X.kbar divided his 
empire into 12 provinces and appointed a uniform set of officials to each, 
first in his 24th regnal year (1579). See Akbarndmah, tr. ii. 413. [/. Sarkar.j 


39 


DUtfBS OF VICEROY , 

and oaths, but pursue them bv 
exercise oSSSitht study of physiognomy and the 

Ih-e ‘‘ ™ 

Beware lest Justice to that judge belong, 

Whose own iH-deed hath wrought the suppliant’s wrong. 

uot mflict the distress of expectation upon 
^ justice. He should shut his eyes against 
as excuses, and adopt such a course of conduct 

i .^s good breeding and dignity. He 

A wise man,- 

whvThp/ transient, seeks not his oivn loss, 

tha?i-?Af he knowingly abandon the spiritual life 

if A+li - .^e^uf It be true, disturbance is criminal and 

of kind^trl^rtil, iguorance and is deserving- 

^ trust It r ^ kingdom, he should 

^ ^ ™en and provide for the safety 

tim? tn establishment of trusty guards and from 

receive reports of them. He should select for 
?u?uu intelligence honest, provident, truthful 

nott^bt^^Ef^'^^ inen, and if such needful individuals are 
Sko are he should associate several 

i-pnArt to each other and inspecting their several 

b?kss th^u t^ih. His expenditure should 

sunnlv tbp 1® income, and from his treasury he should 
supph the ntydy, especially those who loose not their 
tongues in solicitation. He 'should never ty neghgent of 
the supp les and accoutrements of the troops He shouW 

u2 aeZJ:z,T S Soum 

to his^me^ T ^ the niatchl^k and command this exercise 
in theTnc;ease of to his own person and 

circumspection should employ a cautious 

licentious of uai-urJ^I '^ dispositioned and 

at Th Tnrip S sincerity and sell themselves 

of agrmuWe anftb^r^'^ attention to the increase 

earZtbP i^atitf^^ the flourishing condition of the land and- 

his obbtSiAu faithful discharge of 

bis obligations and account the befriending of the acxrlcul- 

tunsts as an excellent service to the Almighty He should 

JbtSn to time 

for ''''tions. Let him store 

tor himself a goodly reward in the making of reserroirs 

wells, watercourses, gardens, serais and other pious founda’ 
t.ons, and set about the repairing of what .hfs fallertoj 



40 


AIN-I-AKBAIil 


sliould not be given to retirement nor be un- 
settled in mind which is the manner of recluses, nor make 
a practice of associating with the common people nor be ever 
surrounded by a crowd which is the fashion of blind wor- 
snippers of outward appearances. 

Court not the world nor to it wholly die ; ” 

Walk wisely : neither phcenix be nor flv! 

Let him hold in honour the chosen servants of God 
and entreat the assistance of spiritually-minded anchorites 
^, _and of mendicants of tangled hair and naked foot The 
imploring of blessings from the sun and the solar lamp he 

^ deification or a worshipping of 

lire. Get him accustom himself to night vigils and par-. 
. take of sleep and M in moderation. He should pass^the 

i “ .>”c<3itotion and pray at noon and 

ctt midnight. When he is at leisure from worldly affairs 
and introspection of conscience, he should study works of 
p iilosophy and act according to their precepts. If this does 
not satisfy his mind, he should peruse the spiritual admo- 

Jalal-ud-din Rumi] and regard- 

should entertain his 
mind with the instructive stories of Kalila and Damna and 
thus gainmg a knowledge of the vicissitudes of life, regard 
the experience of the ancients as- his own. Let him aLly 

nildisfi talp. Let him associate with a discreet and 
rusty friend and give him permission to look carefully into 
his daily conduct in order that he may privately rep?es?nt 
whatever, in the balance of his discretion, appear^ Sel 

penetration should be at Fault 
he should not be thereat displeased for men have evS bee 
backward in uttenng a displeasing truth especiSv i? , 
season of anger when reason slumbers and ^the spirit is 
aflame. Courtiers, for the most part, seek pretexts of 
evasion and lend a false colouring to error -m,! if * 

one of them should be really concerned, he will hold^his pSS 

another’s bLefeto Ms ot^^nrV" Sf Mm nTb^ 
to anger by the repr^entations of detrLoL, bTrStrSe 
path of circumspection, for men of evil nature dissemblers 
in speech, palm off their tales with the semblance of truth 
Md represent ing themselves as dismterestedrlabonf 

See Vol. I, pp. 200-202. 


PROVINCES GOVERNOR 


41 


jure others. He should not consider himself ns fixed of 
residence but hold himself ev^r ready for a summons to the 
presence. Let him not be malevolent, but prefer courtesy 
and gentleness. He should not subvert ancient families but 
let an illustrious ancestry redeem unworthy successors. Let 
him see that the younger among his followers when they 
meet, use the greeting Allah akbar,^ ‘God is greatest’, and 
the elder reply Jalla-jaldluhii-, ‘His majesty is eminent’. Let 
him not take as food'a sfieep or a goat of under one year and 
he should abstain from flesh for a month after the anniver- 
sary of his birthday. He shall not eat of anything that he 
has himself killed. He should restrict himself in sensual 
gratification and approach not a pregnant woman. The 
food which is bestowed in memory of the deceased, he should 
prepare each j’ear on his birthday and regale the needy. 

With heavenly treasures store thy grave — ^provide 

While yet in life — ^none may when he hath died. 

[GuUstan.'] 

When the sun advances from one sign of the zodiac to 
another, let him offer up a thanksgiving and discharge 
cannon and musketry to arouse the slumberejse in forgetful- 
ness. At the first beams of the world-illumining sun and 
at midnight which is the turning point of its re-ascension, 
let him sound the kettle-drum and enforce vigilance. 


A’IN II. 

The Faujddr. 

In the same way that His Majesty, for the prosperity 
of the empire, has appointed a Commander of the forces for 

Allahn akbar. — ^This formula, as the briefest expression of the absolute 
superiority of the One God (Allah) over the idols of the pagan Arabs, is used 
in Muslim life in different circumstances, in which the idea of Allah, His 
greatness and goodness is suggested. . . . The call to the daily prayer iaz4X7i) 
is opened with a four-fold takbir .(=the cry Allahu akbar,) The Prophet is 
said to have uttered very frequently the takbir during the Hajj. (Ency, 
Islam, iv. 627 under takbir,) 

Akbar\s order for its general use as a form of salutation , among the 
public in the place of the customary salam *alaikum (sanctified by* its frequent 
occurrence in the Qurdn, xvi, 34, xxxix. 73 &c.), led the ignorant populace 
to believe that he wished to be acknowledged as God. “This caused great 
commotion.” (Badayuni, tr. ii. .^308.) For Abul FazPs vexation at this mis- 
representation, Akbarndmah, tr. lii. 397. V. Smith’s Akbar, p. 177 (“ambiguous 
phrase”), 218 and n, [/. Sarkar.J 

6 


42 


AIN'I-AKBARI 



eacli province, so by liis rectitude of judgment and wise 
statesmanship he apportions several pargannahs to the care 
of one of his trusty, just and disinterested servants,® appre- 
ciative of what is equitable, and faithful to his engagements ; 
and him they style by the above name. As a subordinate 
and assistant he holds the first place. Should a cultivator or 
a collector of the crown lands or an assignee of government 
estates prove rebellious, he should induce him to submit by 
fair words, and if this fail, he shall fcike’the written evidence 
of the principal officers and proceed to chastise him. He 
should pitch his camp in the neighbourhood of the body of 
rebels and at every opportunity inflict loss upon their persons 
and property but not risk at once a general engagement. If 
the affair can be concluded with the infantry he should not 
employ cavalry. He should not be rash in attacking a fort, 
but encamp bej^ond bowshot and the reach of its guns and 
musketry, and obstnrct the roads of communication. He 
should be vigilant against night attacks and devise a place 
of retreat, and be constant in patrolling. When he has 
captured the rebel canip, he must observe equity in the 
division of the spoil and reserve a fifth for the royal exche- 
quer. If a balance of revenue be due from the village, this 
should be first taken into account. He should constantly 
inspect the horses and accoutrements of the troops. If a 
trooper be without a horse, his comrades should be assessed 
to provide for him and if a horse be killed in action, it should 
be made good at the expense of the State. He must duly 
furnish a i-oll of the troops' present and absent, to the royal 
court and ever bear in mind the duty of carrying out its 
sacred ordinances. 


A’IN III. 

The Mir A’dl and the Qdzi. 

Although the supreme authority and the redress of 
grievances rests rvith sovereign monarchs, yet the capacity 
of a single person is inadequate to the superintendence of 


For the duties of the faujdar (taodetn district magistrate cum superin- 
tendent of police and commandant of local forces but not collector), see 
Sarkar's Mughal Administration, 3rd. ed., IV. §4, 


the entire administration. It is therefore necessary that he 
should appoint one of his discreet and unbiassed servants 
as his judiciary delegate. This pei'son must not be content 
with witnesses and oaths, but hold diligent investigation of 
the first importance, for the inquirer is uninformed and the 
two litigants are cognisant of the facts. Without full 
inquirjq and just insight, it is difficult to acquire requisite 
certitude. From the excessive depravity of hriman nature 
and its covetousness, no de|)endence can be placed on a 
witness or his oath. By impartialit3^ and knowledge of 
character, he should distinguish the oppressed from the 
oppressor and boldly and equitably take action on his con- 
clusions. He must begin with a thorough interi'ogation 
and learn the circumstances of the case ; and should keep in 
view what is fitting in each particular and take the question 
in detail, and in this manner set down separately Jjie 
evidence of each witness* When ffie has accomplished his 
task with intelligence, deliberation and perspicacity, he 
should, for a time, turn to other business and keep his 
counsel from others. He should then take up the case and 
reinvestigate and inquire into it anew, and with discrimina- 
tion and singleness of view search it to its core. If capacity 
and vigour are not to be found united, he should appoint two 
persons, one to investigate whom they call a Qazi the 
other the Mir A’dl to carry out his finding. 


A ’IN IV. 

Tlu Kotwdl.^' 

The appropriate person for this office should be 
vigoi'ous, experienced, active, deliberate, patient, astute 
ayd humane. Through his watchfulness and night patrol- 
ling the citizens should enjoy the repose of security, and 
the evil-disposed lie in the slough of non-existence. He 
should keep a register of houses, and frequented roads, and 
engage the citizens in a pledge of reciprocal assistance, and 


Qazi in Sarkar^s Mughal AdffUuistfMion, 'Cli. IT,* § 7, 

Kotwal in ibid,, Ch. IV, § ‘ 5* UiratA^Ahmadi, \, 168. In tlie later 
:Muglial Empire the inspection of markets was often entrusted to the 
muhtasib (from Aurangzil/s reign). 


44 


AlN-l-A&BAlil 

bind them to a cominon participation of weal and woe. 
He should form a quarter by the union of a certain number 
of habitations, and name one of his intelligent subordinates 
for its superintendence and receive a daily report under his 
seal of those who enter or leave it, and of whatever events 
therein occur. And he should appoint as a spy one among 
the obscure residents with whom the other should have no 
acquaintance, and keeping their reports in writing, employ 
a heedful scrutiny. He should establish a separate serm 
and cause unknown arrivals to alight therein, and by the 
aid of divers detectives take account of them. He should 
minutely observe the income and expenditure of the various 
•classes-of men and by a refined address, make his vigilance 
reflect honour on his administration. Of every guild of 
artificers, he should name one as guildmaster, and another 
as broker, by whose intelligence the business of purchase 
and sale should be conducted. From these also he should 
require frequent reports. He should see to the open 
thoroflghfare of the streets and erect barriers at the 
entrances and secure freedom from defilement. When 
night is a little advanced, he should prohibit people from 
entering or leaving the city. He should set the idle to 
some handicraft. He should remove former grievances 
and forbid any one from forcibly entering the house of 
another. He shall discover thieves and the goods they 
have stolen or be responsible for the loss. He should so 
direct that no one shall demand a tax or cess {haj wa tamghd) ' 
save on arms, elephants, horses, cattle, camels, sheep, 
goats and merchandise. In every Subah a slight impost 
shall be levied at an appointed place. Old coins should be 
given in to be melted down or consigned to the treasury as 
bullion. He should suffer no alteration of value in the gold 
and silver coin of the realm, and its diminution by wear in 
circulation, he shall recover to the amount of the. deficiency. 
He. should, use his discretion in the reduction of prices and 
not allow purchases to be made outside the city. . The rich 
shall not take beyond what , is necessary for their consump- 
tion. Hs shall examine the weights and make the ser not 
more nor less than* thirty dams. In the gaz hereinafter to 
be motioned, he should permit neither decrease or increase, 
and restrain the people from the making, the dispensing, 
the buying or selling of wine, but refrain from invading the 
privacy of domestic :|ife; ' Of the property of a deceased or 
missing, person who may have no heir, he shall take an 


totrcifi MEFEci' 


45 


inventory and keep it in his care. , He should reserve' sepa- 
rate ferries and w'ells for men and women. 

He should appoint persons of respectable character to 
supply the public watercourses, and prohibit women from 
riding on horseback. He should direct that no ox or buffalo 
or horse, or camel be slaughtered, and forbid the restriction 
of personal liberty and the selling of sla^’ea. He should 
not suffer a woman to be burnt against her inclination, nor 
a criminal deserving of death, to be impaled, nor any one to 
be circumcised under the age of twelve. Above this limit 
of age, the permission may , be accorded. Religious enthu- 
siasts, calenders, and dishonest tradesmen he should expel 
or deter from their course of conduct, but he should be 
careful in this matter not to molest a God-fearing recluse, 
or persecute barefooted wandering anchorites. He should 
allot separate quarters to butchers, hunters of animals, 
washers of the dead, and sweepers, and restrain men from 
associating with such stony-hearted gloomy-dispositioned 
creatures. He shall amputate the hand of any who is the 
pot-companion of an executioner, and the finger of such as 
converse with his family. He should locate the cemetery 
outside of, and to the west of the city. He should prohibit 
liis adherents from wearing sombre garments in mourning 
and induce them to wear red. From the first till the nine- 
teenth of the month of Farwardin, during the whole month 
of Aban, the da 3 ’s of the sun’s passage from one sign of the 
zodiac to another, viz., the first of every solar month, the 
sixteenth of the same, the Ilahi festivals, the days of the 
eclipse of the sun and moon, and on the first day of the 
week, he shall prohibit men from slaughtering animals, but 
hold it lawful as a necessity for feeding animals used in 
hunting •and for the sick. He shall remove the place of 
execution to without the city and see that the Ilahi festivals 
are observed. He shall have lamps lit on the night of the 
Nauroz (New Year’s day) and on the night of the 19th of 
Farwardin. On the eve of a festival,' as well as on the 
festival itself he shall cause a kettle-drum to be sounded 
at each watch. In the"* Persian and Hindu almanacs, he 
shall cause the Ilahi era to be adopted and the beginning of 
the month according to the Hindu nomenclature he shall 
place in Shukla-pachch. 


40 


Am-I-AK.BAl<i 


A’IN V. 

The ‘^Aml-guzar or Collector of the Revenue. 

. Should be a friend of the agriculturist. Zeal and 
truthfulness should be his rule of conduct. He should con- 
sider himself the representative of the lord paramount and 
establish himself where every one may have easy access to 
him without the intervention of a mediator. He should 
deal with the contumacious and the dishonest by admoni- 
tion and if this avail not, proceed to chastisement, nor 
should he be in apprehension of the land falling waste. 
He should not cease from punishing highway robbers, 
murderers and evildoers, nor from heavily mulcting them, 
and so administer that the cry of complaint shall be stilled. 
He should assist the needy husbandman with advances of 
mone}^ and recover them gradually. And when through 
the exertions of the village headman the full rental is 
received, he should allow him half a hiswah^^ on each bigha, 
or otherwise reward him according to the measure of his 
services. He should ascertain the extent of the soil in 
cultivation and weigh each several portion in the scales of 
personal observation and be acquainted with its quality. 
The agricultural value of land varies in different districts 
and certain soils are adapted to certain crops. He should 
deal differently, therefore, with each agriculturist and take 
his case into consideration. He should take into account 
with discrimination the engagements of former collectors 
and remedy the produce of ignorance or dishouest3^ He 
should strive to bring waste lands into cultivation and take 
heed that what is in cultivation fall not waste. He should 
stimulate the increase of valuable produce and rei^it some- 
what of the assessment with a view to its augmentation. 
And if the husbandman cultivate less and urge a plausible 
excuse, let him not accept it. Should there be no waste 
land in a village and a husbandman be capable of adding 
to his cultivation, he should allow him land in some other 
village. 

He should be just and provident in his measurements. 
Let him increase the facilities of the husbandman j^ear by 
year, and under the pledge of his engagements, take noth- 
ing beyond the actual area under tillage. Should some 


The 20tli part of a 



47 


REVENUE COI-LKCTOR 

prefer to engage by measurement and others by appraise- 
ment of crops, let him' forward the contracts with all 
despatch to the rojml presence. Let him not make it a 
practice of taking only in cash payments but also in kind. 
This latter is effected in several ways. First, kankut : kan 
in the Hindi language signifies grain, and kut, estimate. 
The whole land is taken either by actual mensuration or 
by pacing it, and the standing crops estimated in the 
balance of inspection. The experienced in these matters 
say that this comes little short of the mark. If any doubt 
arise, the crops should be cut and estimated in three lots, 
the good, the middling and the inferior, and the hesitation- 
removed . Often, too, the land taken by appraisement, 
gives a sufficiently accurate return. Secondly, bdtai, also 
called bhdolij the crops are reaped- and stacked and divided 
by agreement in the presence of the parties. But in this 
case several intelligent inspectors are required, otherwise 
the evil-minded and false are given to deception. Thirdly, 
khet batdi, when they divide the fields after they are sown. 
Fourthly, Idng batdi; after cutting the grain, they form it 
in heaps and divide it among tjiemselves, and each takes 
his share home to clean it and turn it to profit. If it be not 
prejudicial to the husbandman, he may take the value of 
the corn-bearing land in cash at the market rate. If on 
this land they sow the best kinds of produce,®'"* in the first 
year he should remit a fourth of the usual assessment. If 
at the time of collection, the better produce is found to be 
larger in quantity than the previous year, but less land 
cultivated, and the revenue be the same, let him not be 
provoked or removed to contention. He should always seek 
to satisfy the owner of the crops.. He should not entrust the 
appraisement to the headman of the village lest it give rise 
to remissness and incompetence and undue authority be 
conferred on highhanded oppressors, but he should deal 
with each husbandman, present his demand, and separately 
and civilly I'eceive his dues. 

He must take security from land surveyors, assessors 
and other officers of revenue. He should supply the officials 
engaged in the land measurements, for each day on which 


Jins-i-Kdmil such as sugar, pan, indigo, opium or cotton in contradis- « 
tinction to jins4-ddna, inferior crops, such as- maize, 


48 ilN-I-AKBARI 


they are employed, with 16 ddms and 
monthly ration, on the following scale : 

31 

SBfSj 

and as a 

0 

1 

Grain 

. Vegetables 

\ :''ser / 

ser 

■ •; ser' 

&c. 

dam 

Superintendent of survey ... 5 . 


7 

4 

Writer ... ... 4 

Hand surveyor and four 


4 

4 

thanadars, each ... 8' 

1 

5 

5 


He shall affix a mark to the land surveyed and shall 
take a bond from the headman that there shall be no con- 
cealment regarding the land, and the various crops shall 
be dulj’' reported. In the process of measurement if any 
inferior portion of land be observed, he shall at once estimate 
its quantity, and from day to day take a note of its quality 
and this voucher he shall deliver to the husbandman. But 
if this discovery be made after the collection of the revenue, 
he shall gather information from the neighbours and from 
unofficial documents and strike an average. In the same 
way as tiit kdrkun (registrar of collections) sets down the 
transactions of the assessments, the muqaddam^ (chief 
village revenue officer) and the (land-steward) shall 

keep their respective accounts. The Collector shall compare 
these documents and keep them under his seal and give a 
copy thereof to the clerk. When the assessment of the 
village is completed, he shall enter it in the abstract of the 
village accounts, and after verifying it anew, cause its 
authentication by the karkun and patwdri, and this docu- 
ment he shall forward weekly to the royal presence and never 
delay it beyond fifteen days. After the despatch of the 
draft estimates to the imperial court, should any disaster to 
the crops occur, on ascertaining the exact particulars on 
the spot, he shall calculate the extent of the loss and re- 
cording it in writing, transmit it without delay in order 
that it may be approved or a commissioner despatched. He 
should collect the revenue in an amicable manner and 
extend not the hand of demand out of season. He should 
begin the collection of the spring harvest from the HoU, 
which is a Hindu festival occurring when the sun is about 
to pass from Aquarius and is entering or has reached mid- 
way in Pisces and the Autumn harvest from the Dasharah, 
^ which is a festival falling when the sun is in the middle or 


®^For muqaddam, Wilson, 351* 



REVENUE COEEECTION RUEES 


49 


last days of Virgo or the first ten of Libra. Let him see 
that the treasurer does not demand any special® kind of 
coin, but take what is of standard weight and proof and 
receive the equivalent of the deficiency at the value of 
current coin and record the difference in the voucher. He 
should stipulate that the husbandman bring his rents him- 
self at definite periods so that the malpractices of low inter- 
mediaries may be avoided. When there is a full, harvest, 
he should collect the appropriate revenue and accept no 
adjournment of payments on future crops. 

Whosoever does not cultivate land liable to taxation 
but encloses it for pasturage, the Collector shall take for 
each buffalo six dams, and for an ox, three dams yearty, 
but for a calf or a buffalo which has not yet cajved, he shall 
make no demand. He shall assign four oxen, two cows 
and one buffalo to each plough and shall lay no impost on 
these. Whatever is paid into the treasury, he shall himself 
examine and count and compare it with the day -ledger of 
the kdrkun. This he shall verify by signature of the 
treasurer and placing it in bags under seal, shall deposit it 
in a strong room and fasten the door thereof with several 
locks of different construction. He shall keep the key of 
one himself and leave the others with the treasurer. At the 
end of the month, he shall take from the writer (bilifechi) 
the account of the daily receipts and expenditure and for- 
ward it to the presence. When two lakhs of dams are 
collected, he shall remit them by the hands of trusty agents. 
He shall carefully instruct the pdtwari of each village to 
enter in detail in the memorandum which he gives to the 
husbandman, the amount he receives from the same; any 
balances he shall enter under each name in a book and for- 
ward it attested by the signatures of the headmen ; and 
these, at the next harvest, he shall recover without distress. 
He shall carefully inspect the suyurghal^ tenures, sending 
copies of them to the registry of6.ce to be compared. He 
should ascertain the correctness of the chakndmah,^'^ and 
resume the share of a deceased grantee or one who is an 

Zar4-khds in the text should be translated as His present Majesty’s 
coin. Jarrett took it to mean *any special kind of coin*, but this interpreta- 
tion is wrong. It is not necesary to read KMlis for Khds (from a variant) 
as suggested by Jarrett (-''fine gold**). /. 5. ^ 

An assignment of land revenue for charitable purposes : also a grant 
of land without stipulation of any condition or service. Wilson, 495. 

This is a grant of alienated lands specifying the boundary limits thereof, 
Chak, according to EJlliot, is a patch of rent-free land detached from a village. 
Wilson, 97. 

7 


50 


ain-i-^vkbari 


absentee or actually in service of the state. He should take 
care that land cultivated by the farmer himself and not by 
the tenant, as well as resumed lands, should not be suffered 
to fall waste; the property of the absentee or of him that 
dies without an heir he should duly keep under ward and 
report the circumstances. He should see that no capitation- 
tax be imposed nor interfere with the remission of dues 
granted by former governments. 

He shall not make the occasions of journeying, feasting 
or mourning an opportunity for exactions, and refrain from 
accepting presents. Whenever a muqaddam or patwdri shall 
bring money or, advancing to the dais, shall present a dam 
in obeisance, he shall not accept it. In the same way he 
shall renoixnce halkati, which is the practice of taking a 
small fee from each village when the harvest is ready for 
reaping. He shall also waive all perquisites on handicrafts, 
market-booths, police, travelling passports, garden produce, 
temporary sheds, enclosure, fishing rights, port-dues, 
butter, oil of sesame, blanketing, leather, wool, and the like 
malpractices of the avaricious who fear not God. He shall 
' I provide for the periodic appointment of one among those 

best acquainted with the district, to reside at the royal 
court and furnish it with the minutest particulars. Everj- 
month he shall submit a statement of the condition of the 
people, of the jdgirdars, the neighbouring residents, the 
submission of the rebellious, the market prices, the current 
rents of tenements, the state of the destitute poor, of arti- 
ficers and all other contingencies. Should there be no 
kotwdl, the Collector must take the duties of that office 
upon himself. 

A’IN VI. 

The BitikchP 

Must be conscientious, a good writer, and a skilful 
accountant. He is indispensable to the collector. It is his 
duty to take from the kanungo^ the average decennial state 

A word of Turkisli origin, signifying a writer or scribe. Enc, Isl. i. 

734 . ■ * ^ 

' An officer in each district acquainted with its customs and land-tenures 
and whose appointment is usually hereditary. He receives report from the 
paiwdris of new cases of alluvion and dilnvion, sales, leases, gifts of land &c. 
which entail a change in the register of mutations. He is a revenue officer 
and subordinate to the tahsildur, Carnegy, Kachh. TechnicaL Wilson, 260, 


ACCOUNI'AN'^ 


51 ; 

of the village revenues in money and kind, and having made 
himself acquainted with the customs and regulations of the 
district, satisfy the Collector in this regard, and lend his 
utmost assistance and attention. He shall record all engage- 
ments made with the agriculturists, define the village boun- 
daries, and estimate the amount of arable and waste land. 
He shall note the names of the munsif/^ the superintendent 
[sdbit), the land-surveyor and thdnaddr, also that of the 
cultivator and headman, and record below, the kind -of pro- 
duce cultivated. He should also set down the village, the 
pergunnah and the harvest, and subtracting the de&iency 
take the value of the assets, or after the manner of the 
people of the country, inscribe the name, the kind of produce, 
and the deficiency below the date of cultivation. 

When the survey of the village is complete, he shall 
determine the assessment of each cultivator and specify the 
revenue of the whole village. • The Collector shall take the 
revenue on this basis, and forward a copy of the surve}’’, 
called in Hindi kha'sm to the royal court. When drawing 
out the rolls, if the former documents are not available, he 
should take down in writing from the patwari the cultivation 
of each husbandman by name and thus effect his purpose, 
and transmit the roll together with the balances and cc llec- 
tions punctually, and he shall enter the name of the tahsildar 
below each village, in the day-ledger. He shall i ecord the 
name of each husbandman who brings his rent and grant 
him a receipt signed by the treasurer. Copies of the rolls 
of the patzmri and muqaddam by means of which tirey have 
made the collections, together Mth the sarkhat, that is the 
memorandum given to the husbandman, he shall receive 
from the patwari, and inspecting them, shall carefully 
scrutinize them. If any falsification appears, he shall fine 
them and report to the Collector daily and the collection 
and balances of each village and facilitate the performance 
of his duty. Whenever any cultivator desires a reference 
to his account, he shall settle it without delay and at the 
close of each harvest he shall record the collections and 
balances of each village and compare them with the patwari’ s, 
and enter each day in the ledger the receipts and disburse- 
ments under each name and heading, and authenticate it 


Mtmsif — An officer employed to superintend tUe measurement of the 
lands of a village in concert with the villagers. [Wilson, 356]. For the posi- 
tion of the mimsif in Sher Shah’s revenue system, see Mbbas Safvnlni, near 
the end, [/. 5.] 



AliJ-I-AKSARi 


S2 

by the signature o£ the Collector and treasurer. At the end 
of the month, he shall enclose it in a bag under the seal 
of the Collector and forward it to the presence. He shall 
also despatch daily the price-current of inohup and rupees 
and other articles under the seals of the principal men, and 
at the end of each harvest, he shall take the receipts and 
disbursements of the treasurer, and forward it authenticated 
by his signature. The abstract and settlement of the assess- 
ment, at the close of each year, he shall transmit under the 
signature of the Collector.. He shall enter the effects and 
cattle plundered in any village, in the day-ledger, and 
report the circumstances. At the year’s end, when the 
time of the revenue-collections has closed, he shall record 
the balances due from the village and deliver the record to 
the Collector and forward a copy to the royal court. When 
removed from office, he shall make over to the Collector for 
the time being his account- under the heads of balances, 
advances &c., and after satisfying him in this regard, take 
the detail thereof and repair to the Court. 


AIN VII. 

. 'Vhe Treasurer [Khazdnadar) 

Called in the language of the day FotaddrT The 
trea.sur3^ should be located near the residence of the governor 
and the situation should be such where it is not liable to 
injur\^ He should receive from the cultivator any kind of 
mohurs, rupees or copper that he may bring,- and not 
demand any particular coin. He shall require no rebate on 
the august coinage of the realm but take merely the 
equivalent of the deficiency in coin-weight. Coinage of 
former reigns he shall accept as bullion. He shall keep 
the treasure in a strong room with the knowledge of the 
shiqddf^ and the registrar, and count it every evening and 

The term fota is applied in Arabic, to « cloths used as waist wrappers 
brought from Sind, and the. word itself is supposed to be derived from 
that country and not to be of Arabic origin. The office was no doubt originally 
named from this distinguishing portion of apparel ; whence the conimoiz name 
Poddar applied to a .banker^ cash-keeper, or an officer in public establish- 
ments for weighing money or bullion. See Wilson’s Gloss., 160 and 422. 

Shiqddr, an officer appointed to collect the revenue from a certain 
division of land under the Moghul government; it was sometimes applied 
to the chief financial, officer of a ^province of to the viceroy in his financial 
capacity.— Wilson’s Glossary, 480.' For this officer in Slier Shah’s system, 
* Abbas Sarwani, near the end- 



Treasurer 


53 


cause a memorandum thereof to be signed by the Collector 
and compare the day-ledger with the registrars account and 
authenticate it by his signature. On the door of the trea- 
sury as sealed by the Collector, he slfould place a lock of 
his own, and open it only with the cognisance of the Collec- 
tor and registrar. He shall not receive any monies from 
the cultivator save with the knowledge of the Collector and 
registrar, and he shall grant a receipt for the same. He 
shall cause the patwdrVs signature to be afSxed to the ledger 
known in Hindustan as hahi, so that discrepancy may be 
avoided. He shall consent, to no disbursements without 
the voucher of the diwdn/^ and shall enter into no usurious 
transactions. If any expenditui'e should be necessary that 
admits of no delay, he may act under the authority of the 
registrar and shiqddr and represent the case to government. 
The aforementioned duties, from those of the commander 
of the troops up to this point, are primarily under the direct 
cognisance of the sovereign authority and as no one indi- 
vidual can perform them, a deputy is appointed for each 
function and thus the necessary links in administration are 
strengthened. 

Currency of the means of Subsistence, 

Since the benefit and vigour of human action are re- 
fer rible to bodily sustenance, so in 'proportion to its purity 
is the spirit strengthened; the body, were it otherwise, 
would grow corpulent and the spirit weak : the thoughts 
too under such a regimen, incline to refinement and actions 
to virtue. The seekers of felicity, sober in conduct, are 
before all things particularly careful in the matter of food 
and do not pollute their hands with every meat. To the 
simple in heart who fear God, labour is difficult and their 
means of living straitened. They have not that luminous 
insight which penetrating to the essence of things, dwells 
in repose, but through iedr of the displeasure of God, are 
sunk in exhaustion of soul from the pangs, of hunger. As 
for instance in the case of the man who possessed a few 
cows, his legitimate property, and subsisted on their milk. 
By the accident of fortune, it chanced that they were 

Dtwdn, This term was especially applied to the head financial minister 
whether of the state or of a province, being charged in the latter with tlie col- 
lection of the revenue, its remittance to the imperial treasury and invested with 
extensive judicial powers in all civil and financial causes. Wilson*s 
Glossary, I44-I45. For a full description, see vSarkar^s MugJml Adinimstratiorh 
Ch, 3, § 1-5. 


AiN-i-AfeSMt , 

carried off, and he passed some da\^s fasting. An active 
fellow after diligent pursuit brought them back, but he 
would not accept them and replied, “I know not whence 
those dumb animals have had food during these past few 
days.” In a short space this simple soul died. Many 
tales are told of such dull-witted creatures who have thus 
passed away. There are also avaricious worldlings who do 
not recognize the difference between other people’s pro- 
perty and their own, and gratify themselves at the expense 
of their spiritual and temporal good. The ignorant and 
distraught in mind, making their Own necessities an occa- 
sion of spoliation and seizure, prepare for themselves eternal 
punishment. 

Simple, innocent-minded folk consider that there are 
no unappropriated waste lands and were they obtainable, 
it would be difficult to furnish the implements of cultiva- 
tion, and if these could be had, the means of providing food 
which would enable them to labour, are not manifest. 
They can discover no mine to excavate, and if one were 
pointed out to them which had no owner, it would be 
extremely onerous, to obtain a living therefrom. They are 
averse too, from the profession of arms, lest dear life be 
the exchange for base lucre. Thej?’ withdraw themselves 
also from commerce for this reason that many ask a high 
price for their goods, conceal their deficiencies and praise 
them for qualities which are not in them, while they close 
their eyes to the evident excellencies of what they purchase 
and disparage it for faults it does not possess, preferring 
their own benefit to another’s loss. And thejr disapprove 
also of those who are content to hold lawful the sequestra- 
tion of the goods of rival sectaries, and they affirm that if 
the fautor of such pretension be discerning and wise, it will 
seem an occasion for additional anxiety rather than a 
sanction to retain the property of another ; for how can the 
illicit seizure of what is another’s be commendable on the 
score of a difference of faith? On the contrary, it is a 
suggestion of the evil one, a phantasy of the dreams of the 
avaricious and unfit for the ears of the good. At the 
present time His Majesty has placed a lamp upon the high- 
way before all men, that they may distinguish the road 
from the pitfalls, and sink not into the slough of perdition, 
nor pass their d^r lives in unprofitableness. 

Since there is infinite diversity in the natures of men 
and distractions, internal and external, daily increase, and 



heavy-footed greed travels post haste, and light-headed ra<.e 
breaks its rein, -where friendship in this demon-haunted 
waste of dishonour is rare, and justice lost to view there 
IS, in sooth, no remedy for such a world of confusion but 
in autocracy, and this panacea in administration is attain- 
able only in the majesty of just monarchs. If a house or 
a quarter cannot be administered without the sanctions of 
hope and fear of a sagacious ruler, how can the tumult of 

this world-nest of hornets be silenced save by the authority 
of a vicegerent of ^mighty power? How, in aucTa casl 
can t e property, lives, honour, and leligion of the people 
be protected notwithstanding that some recluses^ have 
ima,^ined that this can be supernaturally accomplished, but 
a well-ordered administration, lias never been effected with- 
out the aid of sovereign monarchs. That fiery wilderness 
of talismanic power tw, is haunted by spells and sorcerers 
and storms of confusion from this sea of undiscernment 
have arisen and arise, and many souls, through simplicity 
and shortsightedness, in the tuibulent billows of inexperi- 
ence have been and are still ever engulfed, while those 
who by the light of wisdom and through the orace of 
apceptance_ have bridled their desires and garnered provi- 
sions for the long journey to come, have, in the cross-roads 
of distraction, become the reproach of high and low, for 
heir folly, irreligion and unbelief. In that assembly of 
Ignorance should a philosopher of experience enter, he 
must needs take up the fashion of fools and so escape from 
the contumely of the base. 

It is evident that in all cultivated areas, the possessors 
of property are numerous, and they hold their lands bv ' 
ancestral descent, but through malevolence and despite, 
their titles become obscured by the dust of uncertainty 
and the hand of firmness is no longer stretched above 
A cultivator hold in awe the power of the 

Adorner of the universe and the Blixir of the living, and 
the merchant turn back from evil designing and re&ct in 
his heart on the favour of the lord of the world, the depo- 
sitory of divine grace, his possessions would assuredly be 
approved of wisdom. Thus the virtue of propertj?' lies in 
the pledge of intention, and a just ruler, like a' saltbed, 
makes clean the unclean, and the evil good. But without 
honest coadjustors, abundant accessories of state and a full 
treasury even he could effect nothing and the condition of 
subserviency and obedience would lack the bloom of 


56 


AIN-I-AKBARI 



discipline. Now the man of robust frame should, in the 
first place, choose the profession of arms and reflect on the 
assistance which he is capable of rendering, so as to regard 
his life as devoted to the task of preserving human society 
from dissolution. The means of sustenance are likewi.se 
as abundant to the labourer as forage for his cattle. But 
if a man is unequal to this, he should endeavour, in some 
way, to enter into the number of state servants. Thus the 
currency of the means of subsistence rests on a twofold 
basis, viz., the justice of sovereign monarchs and regard 
to the welfare of well-disposed dependents. The base 
materialist understands not the language of reason and 
never transcends the limits of bodily sense. This unfertile 
soil needs the water of the sword, not the limpid spring 
of demonstration. In the presence of the majesty of the 
prince, the proud and perverse of disposition sink into 
obscurity while the prosperity of the good who seek after 
justice is ever continuous. 

Of a truth, whatever be the recompense of the guar- 
dianship over the four^* priceless elements of the constitu- 
tion, it is both meet and expedient and according to the 
Almighty will. To the watchmen over the house, the lord 
thereof appoints the guerdon, and to the watchmen of the 
universe, its shepherds. If the whole of a man’s posses- 
sions were spent for the protection of his honour, it would 
be but fitting if in gratitude he further pledged his whole 
credit, how much the more when it is a question of the 
guardianship of the four great elements of State polity? 
But just monarchs exact not more than is necessary to 
efFect their purpose and stain not their hands with avarice ; 
and hence it is that this principle varies, as has been stated, 
according to diversities of age and country. From this 
suggestive digression, it will be. evident that whatever 
circumspect rulers exact from their subjects after due deli- 
beration and to subserve the interests of justice and grant 
to their submissive dependents, has a perfect propriet}’- and 
is universally in vogue. It is also clear that the main- 
tenance of the soldier should be ampler and more choice. 
Next follow the cultivators and then other artisans. 


In Vol. I. Abul FazPs preface, they are named as (1) the warriors, 
(2) the artificers and merchants, (3) the learned, and (4) the husbandmen 
and labourers, —who are respectively likened to the four elements, fire, air, 
’^’ater and earth. [J. S.] 


57 


KING AS peoples’ GUARDIAN 

Ancient GreeF® treatises afiB.rm that professions are cir- 
cumscribed to three classes, the Noble, the Base, and the 
Intermediate. The former refers to the mind and is, also, 
of not more than three kinds : the first concerns the pure 
intellect, as sagacity and capability of administration; the 
second, acquired knowledge, as composition or eloquence, 
the third personal courage, as military duty. The Base 
also is of three kinds ; the first is opposed to the common 
weal of mankind, such as the hoarding of grain; the 
second is the contrary of any one virtue, as buffoonery; 
the third is such as the disposition is naturally averse from, 
as the trade of a barber, a tanner or a sweeper. The Inter- 
mediate comprises various callings and trades; some that 
are of necessity, such as agriculture ; others which could 
be dispensed with, as dyeing; others again simple, as 
carpentry and ironmongery ; and some compound, as the 
manufacturing of scales or knives. 

From this exposition the distinguished character of 
the military profession is evident. In short, the noblest 
source of maintenance is to be found in a profession which 
is associated with just dealing, self-restraint and bravery 
and apart from evil doing and sensuality. The good regard 
three things as necessary in a profession — avoidance of 
tyranny, refraining from what is dishonourable, abstinence 
from all that is mean ; by what is dishonourable, is meant 
buffoonery and the like low pursuits ; by what is mean, is 
understood an inclination to base callings. 

When an appropriate means of maintenance is secured, 
it is a requisite condition of economy to husband a portion 
of one’s means, provided that the household is not thereby 
straitened. The mendicant should not be turned away 
disappointed nor subjected to the reproof of covetousness 
and greed. The proper control of an estate is conditional 
on the expenditure being less than the income; it is per- 
mitted to indulge a little in commercial speculation and 
engage in remunerative undertakings, reserving a part in 
coin and valuables, a part in goods and wares, and some- 
what invested in the speculations of others, and yet a por- 


The reference is, no doubt, to Aristotle’s Politics { A ) the true sense 
of which has been lost by filtration through some Arabic version or para- 
phrase. [H. S. J.] 

The reader will find most of these ideas in a rather different form in 
Aristotle’s Politics, Walford’s translation in Bohn’s Classical I/ibrary (1898), 
Bk. IV. Ch. IV (pp. 130 sqq.) Bk. III. Ch. V (p. 91). [J. S.] 

8 


58 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

tion in lands and immoveable estates, and a share may be 
entrusted to borrowers o£ credit, and expenditure regulated 
with circumspection, justice and modesty. Let such a one 
be frank in his commercial dealings and give no place in 
his heart to self-reproach. He should keep in view of his 
purpose, the will of God, not the hope of gratitude, the 
increase of reputation or the expectation of reward. He 
should also give freely to the needy whose destitution is 
unexposed. There is also a twofold manner of munificence 
which if exercised in just measure, is meritorious. Firstly, 
what is given in pure generosity or largesse such as a pre- 
sent and the like. This should be done quickly and 
secretly and without setting store on its amplitude or 
abundance, nor yet so as to cripple one’s resources or 
exhaust them. 

Secondly what is called for by occasional exigencies, 
either in procuring comforts or removing grievances, such 
as what is given to oppressors or to the profligate in order 
that person, property and honour may escape their injury. 
But in this he should use moderation. In procuring the 
conveniences of life, however, it is better that the bounty 
should be liberal. 

People of the world in the matter of living are to be 
resolved into three classes. One class are fallen into such 
heedlessness that spiritual needs do not enter their compre- 
hension, much less are practically considered. Another 
through their luminous fortune are so immersed in the 
consideration of essential truths that they give no thought 
to their means of sustenance. But those who seek the 
felicity to come, the circumspect in conduct, neglect not a 
just appreciation of life but make external conditions the 
instrument of interior well being in the hope of admission 
among those absorbed in divine love, and so attaining to 
the third degree of felicity, whence after traversing the 
arid waste of deliverance, the3'' may repose in the second.^® 

The dues of sovereignty have thus been set forth. The 
circulation of the means of sustenance, thus, is seen to rest 
on the justice of prudent monarchs and the integrity of 
conscientious dependents. And because the conditions of 


'“That is, according to the theology of the mystics, the third stage in 
the progressive spiritual life is the attraction of the soul to God Allah; 
the second is immersion in the Divine love fi-AIlah; the supreme stage is 
the unitive Ufa*" Allah reserved for his chosen saints. 


KING’S SHARE OE HAND PRODUCE 


59 





the royal state and prerogative vary in different countries, 
and soils _ ai-e diverse in character, some producing abun- 
dantly with little labour, and others the reverse, and as 
inequalities exist also, through the remoteness or vicinity 
of water and cultivated tracts, the administration of each 
state must take these circumstances into consideration and 
fix its demands accordingly. Throughout the whole extent 
of Hindustan where at all times so many enlightened * 
monarchs have reigned, one-sixth of the produce was 
exacted ; in the Turkish empire, Iran and Turan a fifth, 
a sixth, and a tenth respectively. In ancient times a capi- 
tation tax was imposed called, kMrdj. Kubad disapproved 
of this practice, and resolved that the revenue should be 
fixed upon arable land accurately surveyed. But his death 
occurred before he could accomplish his design. Noshir- 
wan (his son) carried it to completion and made the jarib 
of ten square reeds. This was sixty royal yards square. 
One fourth of this was taken as a. qafiz’^ and valued at three 
dirhams,^® and the thii'd part was fixed as the contribution 
due to the state. Qafiz is a measure, called also sda' weigh- 
ing eight rail/” and, some say, more. The dirham is equal 
in weight to one misqdl. When the Caliphate fell to Omar, 
at the suggestion of the learned, he adopted the plan of 
Noshirwan but through the vicissitudes of temporal con- 
ditions, he introduced some alterations which may be 
gathered from ancient volumes. In Turan and Iran from 
ages past, they have exacted a tenth, but the exactions have 
increased to more than a half which does not appear exor- 
bitant to a despotic government. In Egypt they take for a 

Fadddn of the best soil, 3 Ibrahimis 

,, „ ,, middling, 2 

„ „ ,, worst, 1 „ 

In the original, the word qabzah is written erroneously for qashah which 
is corrected in the subsequent page with the following note. “According to 
the glossaries, 6 barleycorns make an ash(i\ (finger breadth) : 4 asha\ a 
qabzah : 8 qabzah, a zama" (cubit) : 10 cubits, a qashah : 10 qashah, an as}il ; 
a jarib is I square ashl, i.e., 10 square qasbah or 100 square cubits. Accord- 
ing to the qxidmvah, 4 asba* is equal to a qabzah, and 10 qabzah a cubit, and 
60 cubits an ashU According to this,^ a jarib would be 60 square cubits.'' ^ 
Qafiz. — A. space of ground cofitaining from about 124 to 144 cubits 
square. It is also a dry measure. Enc. IsL ii. 622, 

Dirham in Ency. of Islam, i. 978; and Aii'hi-Akbari, Vol. I. Ain II. 

Rati is variously rated at 12 to 16 oz. At Bombay it is said to be 
equal to 36 Surat, rupees. In the Red Sea littoral the Rottolo, as it is 
corruptly called, varies from 10 to 24 oz. avoirdupois. Wilson's Gloss., 441. 


60 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Tlie faddan^^ is a measure of land of 100 square reeds, 
each of which is equal to ont baa\ An Ibrahimi is cuxrtnt 
for 40 kabifs and 14 kabirs is equal to a rupee of Akbar 
Shah. In some parts of the ATurkish empire, they exact 
from the husbandman 30 Akchehs for every yoke of oxen. 
The Ikcheh is a silver coin equal to 81 Ibrahiniis. And 
from crown lands the demand is 42 A kcheh, and from each 
' soldier 21, besides which the governor of the Subah takes 
15 more. In some parts for each plough 20, and from 
each soldier 7 Akcheh, while the Governor takes six. In 
others, the Sanjaqbegi^^ receives 27 and the Subashi 
(kotwal) twelve. Other systems are also given which 
obtain in that empire. 


Note on ifslamic land-tax. 

The very obscure and complicated subject of the land 
system of early Islam can be best studied in the Encylo- 
pcedia of Islam by piecing together information scattered 
under the following words : — Kharadf (ii. 902), Muqasama 
(Supph 154), 'Ushr (iv. 1050-1052), Ddr-al-Sulh (i. 919), 
and FaV (ii. 38). Abu Yusuf Ibn Yaqub’s Kitab-nd-Khirdj 
(Fr. tr. by E. Fagan) is not very helpful. The applica- 
tion of the system to India in Aurangzib’s reign is dis- 
cussed in detail in Jadunath Sarkar’s Mughal Administra- 
tion , 3rd ed., ch. XI. 

The term sulliiy, for the meaning of which Abul Fazl 
refers us to “ancient documents,” will be understood from 
the following passages of the Ency. Islam (i. 919, under 
Ddr ul SulK) : “With the Christian population of Najran 
Muhammad himself entered on treaty relationships, 
guaranteeing their safety and laying on them a certain 
tribute. See on the whole story, Baladhuri, Futuh-al- 
Bulddn. The constitutional situation on the matter is thus 


Faddan, a certain measure of land, subdivided into 24 qirdt — loosely 
reckoned as the quantity which a yoke of oxen will plough in one day and 
commonly defined as consisting of 333j^ qasabehs, the latter being 24 qahdah, 
and the qahdah being the measure of a man’s fist with the thumb erect, or 
about inches. Inane’s Arab. Leoc, Ency. Islam, ii. 36. 

Sanjaq is a word in Turkish, signifying a flag or standard : it also 
means a minor province of which several form one Eyalat or Government. It 
is in this latter sense that the word should probably be taken, signifying 
the provincial governor. An Akcheh is of a para and consequently the yi-ff 
of a piastre or the rV of a penny ; it is frequently mentioned under the name 
of asper, a corruption of the Greek equivalent for the proper Turkish word. 
lEncy. Islam, iv. 14S. Aqcha, in ibid., i. 229]. 


61 


ISLAMIC LANI)-I)AX EXPLAINED 

formally laid down by Mawardi : All territories . . . under 
Muslim control . . . fall into three divisions : (i) those taken 
by force of arms; (ii) those taken without fighting after 
the flight of their previous owners ; (Hi) those taken by 
tres-ty {Sulh). . . In the last (class) if the title to the soil 
remains with the original owners, . . . the terms of the 
treaty are that the owners retain their lands and pay a 
Khar a j from their produce ; that this khardj is regarded 
as a jizya which falls away when they embrace Islam; that 
their lands are absolutely their own to sell or pledge ; and 
that their country is neither D dr -ul-1 slam nor Ddr-til-Harb 
but Ddr-ul-Sidh. When these lands pass to a Muslim, 
Khardj can no longer be collected . . . Mawardi includes 
among the B Had al Islam this Ddr-ul-Sulh/'’ Also, ibid., 
ii. 38 under FaV : — “Verses lix. 6, 3 and 10 of the Qmdn 
were revealed when Muhammad had resolved not to divide 
the fields and orchards left by the Ban u’l Nadir, who had 
been driven out of the country, as booty of war among 
those who had taken part in the siege, but to give them to 
the Muhajirs exclusively. He justified this action by 
arguing that these were really obtained not by fighting, 
but in a peaceful fashion, by surrender.” 

“At a later period ‘Umar I thought that this principle 
should be applied to the newly conquered territories also. 
He ordered that only movable property captui'ed should be 
divided among the Arab conquerors, but not the land. . . . 
As a rule only the native population was to till the ground 
and pay . . . tribute to the Muslim treasury. This payment 
(khardj) was to be bound up with the possession of land for 
all time . . . The only exception was those districts, whose 
inhabitants had voluntarily surrendered on the approach 
of the Arab army on condition that they were allowed to 
retain possession of their lands. In such districts (the 
so called Ddr-al-Sulh) the land did not belong to the fdi/^ 
[/. Sarkar.'] 

The Muhammadans account conquered lands of 3 
kinds : U’shri, Khirdji and Sulhiy. The first two are sub- 
divided into five kinds and the last into two. U’shri, 1st 
kind; the district of Tehamah which comprises Mecca, 
Taif, Yemen, O’man, Bahrayn.®^ 2nd kind ; land of which 


®®The text has a word following “Bahrayn** which may possibly be read 
as a proper name. Bither Rabah or Rayah, but Abn’l Fazl quotes evidently 
from the Fatawa of Qazi Khan (A.H. 592, Haj. Khal.) where the definition 


62 AIN-i-AKBARi 

the owner has voluntarily embraced that faith. 3rd, I^ands 
which have been conquered and apportioned. 4th, Land 
on which an adherent of that faith has built a_ mosque or 
planted a vine or laid out a garden or fertilized it with rain 
water; otherwise other conditions apply. 4th, Waste land 
w'hich has been brought into cultivation by perfflission of 
the owner. Khimji Ist kind ; Persia proper and Kirman. 
2nd, Land which a tributary subject has laid out as grounds 
round about his house. 3rd, Land which a Muslim has 
reclaimed and irrigates from a source constructed from the 
public revenues. 4th, Land which has been acquired by 
convention. 5th, Land cultivated by means of water that 
pays revenue. Sn-lhiy, Lands of the Bani Najran and Bani 
Taghlib the details of these may be learnt from ancient 
documents. Likewise, in some treatises, land is regarded 
under three heads. 1st, Land cultivated by Muslims which 
they deem U^shr.^^ 2nd, Land of which the proprietors 
have accepted that faith. According to some, this is 
U'shri, and others say that ii is U’ shri or Khirdji, accord- 
ing to the determination of the Imam. 3rd, Land acquired 
by conquest, which some make U’shri and others khirdji, 
and others again affirm that its classification rests with the 
Imam. 4th, Land which those outside the faith retain 
on convention. This they call khirdji. Tribute paid by 
khirdji lands is of two kinds. 1. Muqdsamah (divided), is 
the 5th or 6th produce of the soil. 2. Wazifah^ which is 
settled according to the capability and convenience of the 
tributaries. Some call the whole produce of the revenue 
khirdj, and as the share of the producing body is in excess 
of their expenditure, the Zakdt^ is taken from the amount 
under certain stipulations and this they call a tithe, but on 


of tlie limits of U'shri are laid down exactly as in the text with the omission 
of Rabah. The Fatawa i ATamgiri follows Qazi Khan. From the variants 
of this doubtful reading given in the notes, it is clear that there is some 
corruption and perhaps the variant of M.S. Dal is correct. 

®®The text has Tha’lab, a misprint. The details of the submission of 
these two tribes may be gathered from Caussin De Perc. Essai siir Vhistoire 
dcs Arabes. Ency, Islam, iii. 825 (under Nadnrdn), Sup, 254 (under XJaail), 
Sup. 223 (under Taghlib). ^ 

®*This word signifies a tenth and is the tithe assessed on lands under 
Muslim rule. U^shri are therefore those lands subject to the tithe. 

Wazifah signifies a stipend or any thing stipulated or agreed upon ; 
hence, revenue collected at a stipulated or fixed rate for a certain quantity 
of land. Wilson ^s Gloss,, 557. 

Zakat, the poor rate, the portion therefrom given as the due of God by 
the possessor that he may purify it thereby, the root of the word, zaM, 
denoting purity. The proportion varies, but is generally a fortieth or 
2^ p.c. provided that the property is of a certain amount and has been in 
possession eleven months. Ency. Isl, iv. 1202-1204. 


ISIvAMIC 1,AND-TAX RULES 


63 


each of these points there is much difference of opinion. 
The Caliph Omar, during his time, taxed those who were 
not of his faith at the rate of 48 dirhams for persons of 
condition, 24 for those of the middle class, and 12 for the 
lowest class. This was called the Jady ah (capitation tax). 

In every kingdom government taxes the property of 
the subject over and above the land revenue and this they 
call Tamghah.^ In Iran and Turin they collect the land tax 
from some, from others the Jihdt and from others again the 
Saif Jihdt, while other cesses under the name of Wajuhdt 
and Farua^dt are exacted. In short, what is imposed on 
cultivated lands by way of quit-rent is termed Mdl. Imports 
on manufactures of respectable kinds are called Jihdt, and 
the remainder SaiF^ Jihdt. Extra collections over and 
above the land tax if taken by revenue officers are Wajuhdt; 
otherwise they are termed FMrMa‘’d^. 

In every country such demands are troublesome and 
vexatious to the people. His Majesty in his wise states- 
manship and benevolence of rule carefully examined the 
subject and abolished all arbitrary taxation, disapproving 
that these oppressions should become established by 
custom. He first defined the gaz, the tandb, and the highcih 
and laid down their bases of measurement : after which he 
classed the lands according to their relative values in pro- 
duction and fixed the revenue accordingly. 


The Turkish word tainghd means a royal seal or stamp: sometimes 
written altamgha from the Turkish dl. red. The word also signifies a royal 
grant under the seal of some of the former native princes and recognised by 
the British Government as conferring a title to rent-free land in perpetuity, 
hereditary and transferable. Although, perhaps, originally bearing a red or 
purple stamp, the colour of the imperial seal or signature became in Indian 
practice indifferent. Wilson’s Gloss., 19. Ency. TsL ii. 171. 

In its original purport, the word signifies moving, walking, or the 
remainder: from the latter it came to denote the remaining or all other 
sources of revenue in addition to the land tax from a variety of imposts, as 
customs, transit dues, houses, fees, market tax &c., in which sense it is 
current throughout India : the several imposts under this name were abolished 
by the British Government, except customs, duties on spirituous liquors and 
other nii.nor items. The privilege of imposing local taxes under the name of 
Sdir, was also taken away from private individuals, but it still applies to 
various items of the income from landed property not^ comprised in the pro- 
duce of culthation, as rent from fisheries,, timber, fruit-trees, bees ’-wax Kc. ; 
it also df^signates certain admitted manorial rights or prescriptive fees and 
cesses levied from residents in a village, or from cultivators by the proprie- 
tors, which have long been established and are upon the record : the former 
of these additions are usually taken into account, the latter not, in fixing 
the assessment. It is also a tax on personal property. In Marathi it also 
signifies the place where the customs are levied. Wilson’s Gloss., 454. 


64 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


The Ilahi Gaz 

Is a measure of length and a standard gauge. High 
and low refer to it, and it is the desire of the righteous 
and the unrighteous. Throughout Hindustan there were 
three such measures current, uia., long, middling and 
short. Each was divided into 24 equal parts and each part 
called Tassuj.^^^ A Tassuj oi the 1st kind was equal to 8 
ordinary barley-corns placed together breadthways, and of 
the other two respectively, to 7 and 6 barlej^-corns. The 
long gaz was used for the measurement of cultivated lands, 
roads, distances, forts, reservoirs and mud walls. The 
middling was employed to measure buildings of stone and 
wood, bamboo-built houses, places of worship, wells and 
gardens, and the short ga? for cloth, arms, beds, seats of 
state, sedan chairs, palanquins, chairs, carts and the like. 

In some other countries, although they reckon the gaz 
as consisting of 24 Tassttf, they make 


1 Tassuj equal to 

2 Habbah (grain) 

1 Habbah ,, 

2 Barley-corns. 

1 Barley-corn ,, 

6 Mustard seeds. 

1 Mustard seed ,, 

12 Fals. 

1 Fals 

6 Fatila. 

1 Fatila ,, 

6 Naqir. 

1 Naqir 

8 Qitmir. 

1 Qitmir ,, 

12 Zarrah. 

1 Zarrah ,, 

8 Haba. 

1 Haba ,, 

2 Wahmah. 

Some make 4 Tassuj equal 

to 1 Dang. 

6 Dang ,, 

1 Gaz, 


Others reckon the gaz as 24 fingers, each finger equal 
to the breadth of 6 barley-corns, and each barley-corn equal 
in thickness- to 6 hairs from the mane of a cob. In some 
ancient books they make the gaz equal to two spans and 
twice round the joint {girih) of the thumb, and they diAuded 
it into 16 girih and each girih was subdivided into 4 parts 


Tassuj is an arabicized, word from the Pers. tasii, a weight of 4 barley- 
corns, the 24th part of a weight measure or day, Ency, Islam, iy, 692 (under 
Tasudj), 


wliicli they called 4 palir, so that a pahr was the sixty-fourth 
part of a gaz. 

In other ancient records the gaz is reckoned of seven 
kinds. 1st, The Gaz i Sauda {Gaz oi txa&c) consisting of 
24 digits and two-thirds of a_ digit. Harun ur Rashid of 
the House of ‘Abbas took this measure from the hand of 
an Abyssinian slave who was one of his attendants: the 
Nilometer®**’ of Egypt is on this measure, and houses and 
cloths are also measured by it. 2nd, Ziraa'’ i qasbah, 
(Reed-yard) called also A 'amah, and Daur, of 24 digits : 
this was introduced by Ibn Abi Laila.® 3rd, The Yusufiyah, 
used by the provincial governors of Baghdad for the mea- 
surement of houses : it consisted of 25 digits. 4th, The 
short Hdshimiyah, of 28 digits and a third. BilaP the son 
of Abi Bardah introduced it : according to some it was Abu 
Musa Ash’ari his grandfather. 6th, The long Hdshimiyah 
of 29 digits and two-thirds which Mansur "the A’bbaside 
favoured. It is also called the and Ziyddiyah. 

Ziyad®’ was the so-called son of Abu Sufiyan who used it 
to measure the lands in Arabian I’raq. 6th, The Omariyah 
of 31 digits. During his Caliphate, Omar carefully con- 
sidered the long, short and middling gaz. He took the 
three kinds together and to one-third of the aggregate he 
added the height of the closed fist and the thumb erect. He 
closed both ends of the measure with tin and sent it to 
Hudaifah®^ and Othman®®-b-Hunaif which they used for the 
measurement of the villages in Arabian Iraq. 7th, The 
Mamuniyah of 70 digits less a third. Mamun brought it 
into use, and it was employed for measuring rivers, plains 
and road distances. 


The cubit of the Nilometer is supposed to be the same as that of the 
Jews, which is exactly two feet IJiiglish : if so the 24 digits will be precisely 
inches. A finger’s breadth may be safely taken as three quarters of an inch. 
Useful Tables, pp. 87, 88. .For Zird^ see Ency. IsL i. 959 funder Dliira'). 

Mtiham.mad-b-Abdiir Rahman, surnamed Ibn Abi hayla, was a distin- 
guished jurisconsult and one of the Tabus. He was Qadhi of Kufa where he 
was ]>orn A.H. 74, and died in A.H. 148. D’Herb. 

““ Bilal. — The grandson of Abu Musa al Asliari, Qadhi of Basrah, of which 
his grandfather had been Governor. See a brief notice of him in Ibn Khali. 
Vol. II, p. 2. 

Ziydd, the governor of Iraq. (Enc. Isl. iv. 1232). 

H'udaifah, one of the most eminent of the Companions of Muhammad. 
Omar appointed him to the government of Madain, where he died after the 
assassination of Othman and 40 days after the accession of ’Ali. Ibn Hajar. 
Biog. Diet. 

Othman. — ^He was governor of Basrah under the Caliph ’AH. Ibn 
Khali, p. 391, Vol. IV. 

9 


66 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Some in former times reckoned the cloth-measure 
(gaz) to be seven times the fist, and the fist was equal to 
four fingers closed ; according to others, one finger less. 
The survey gaz, according to some, was the same seven 
fists : others made it seven fists together with one finger 
(thumb ?) erect added to the seventh fist. Others again 
added another finger to that fist; while some made it seven 
fists with one finger adjoined to each fist. 

Sultan Sikander Lodi in Hindustan introduced another 
gaz of the* breadth of 41 Iskandaris and a half. This was 
a copper coin mixed with silver. Humayun added a half 
and it was thus completed to 42. Its length was 32 digits. 
But some authors anterior to his time make mention of a 
similar measure. Sher Khan and Salim Khan [Sur], 
under whom Hindustan was released from the custom of 
dividing the grain and its apportionment, in measuring 
land used this gaz. Till the thirty first-year of the Divine 
Era, although the Akbar Shdhi gaz of 46 fingers was used 
as a cloth-measure, the Iskandari gaz was used for culti- 
vated lands and buildings. His Majesty in his wisdom, 
seeing that the variety of measures was a source of incon- 
venience to his subjects, and regarding it as subservient 
only to the dishonest, abolished them all and brought a 
medium gaz of 41 digits into general use. He named it 
the lldhi gaz and it is employed by the public for all 
purposes. 


ATN IX. 

The Tanab.^ 

His Majesty fixed for the jarib the former reckoning 
in yards and chose the measurement of sixty square, but 
adopted the lldhi gaz. The Tandb (tent rope) was in 
Hindustan a measure of hempen rope twisted which became 


The Tanah, Jarib and Bigha seem to have been indiscx'iminate.lv used as 
nearly interchangeable terms. The Jarib in its original use, according to 
Wilson (Glossary), was a measure of capacity equal to 60 qafiz or 384 madd, 
about 768 pounds. It then became applied to a land measure, or as much 
land as could be sown witli a jarib of seed-corn, and then appears to have 
been loosely used for a bigha. In course of time it occurs as a measure of 
land of various extent, and as the chain . or rope for measuring. In the 
N. W.- P. the measurements were made by a chain, and the jarib is=to 5 


shorter or longer according to the diyness or moisture of 
the atmosphere. It would be left in the dew and thus 
fraudfully moistened. Oftentimes it would be employed 
in the early morning when it had got damp and had 
shrunk, and by the end of the day it had become dry and 
had lengthened . In the former case, the husbandmen 
suffered loss, in the latter the royal revenues were dimi- 
nished. In the 19th year of the Divine era, the jarib was 
made of bamboos joined by iron rings. Thus it is subject 
to no variation, and the relief to the public was felt every- 
where while the hand of dishonest greed was shortened. 


ATN X. 

The Bigha 

Is a name applied to the jarib. It is a quantity of land 
60 gaz long by 60 broad. Should there be any diminution 
in length or breadth or excess in either, it is brought into 
square measure and made to consist of 3600 square gas.®® 
They divide the bigha into 20 parts, each of which is called 
biswah, and this is divided into 20 parts each of which is 
termed biswdnsah. In measuring they reduce no further. 
No revenue is required from 9 biswansah, but ten they 
account as one biswah. Some, however, subdivide the 
biswansah into 20 parts, each of which they called taswan- 


chaiiis of 11 yards each, or. to 60 gaz or 20 gathas or knots. A square of one 
jarib is a bigha. Before the new system of survey, it was usual to measure 
lands paying revenue with a jarib of 18 knots only, two being coiled round 
the measurer, but free lands were measured with the entire rope of 20 knots. 
In Sindh a jarib is a measure of a 160 square feet. In Telegu, it is applied 
to garden land or its produce. The standard biglra of the revenue surveyors 
of the N. .W. P. is=to 3,025 sq. yds. or % of an acre. In Bengal the bigha 
contained only 1,600 sq. yds. or a little less than of an acre. Iii Benares 
at the time of the settlement, it was determined at 3,136 sq. yds. In other 
pergaiiahs it was equal to 2,025 to 3,600 or 3,925 sq. yds. A. kachha bigha 
is in some places a third, in others only a fourth of a full bigha. Akbar's 
bigha of 3,600 Ilahi gaz was* considered = to 3,025 sq. yds. of the bigha of 
Hindustan. In Cuttack the bigha is now considered to be an Bnglish acre. 
The Maratha bigha is called 20 pdnds or 400 sq. kdihis or rods of (each) 5 cubits 
and 5 hand-breadths. The Guzerat bigha contains only 284| sq. yds. Mr. 
Elliot specifies six variations' found in the Upper Provinces. See Wilson’s 
Gloss, under Bigha and Jarib. Ency. Islam, iii. 530-539 (under aUMizdn) and 
i. 1018 (under Djarib). Elliot Memoirs, dl 189 iJarib). ^ 

The text has an error of 60 for 600. 3600 sq. 2,600 sq. yards = 0*538 
or somewhat more than half an acre. U. T., p. 88. 


08 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


sah, which they again divide into 20 parts, calling each 
tapTvansah. This again they partition into 20 portions, 
and name them severally answansah. A bigha as measured 
by the tandb of hemp, was two bisimh and 12 biswdnsah 
smaller in extent than the bigha measured by the tandb of 
bamboo. This makes a difference of 10 bigha in a hundred. 
Although the tandb of hemp was of 60 gaz, yet in the twist- 
ing it shrank to 56. The Ildhi gaz was longer than the 
Iskandari by one biswah, 16 biswdnsah, 13 taswdnsah, 8 
tap-wdnsah, and 4 answdnsah. The difference between the 
two reduced the bigha by 14 biswah, 20 biswdnsah, 13 
taswdnsah, 8 tapwdnsah, and 4 answansah. In one hundred 
bighas the variation in the two measures amounted to 22 
bighas, 3 biswah and 7 biswdnsah. 


ATN XI. 

Land and its classification, and the proportionate 
dues of Sovereignty . 

When His Majesty had determined the gaz, the tandb, 
and the bigha, in his profound sagacity he classified the 
lands and fixed a different revenue to be paid by each. 

Polaj is land which is annually cultivated for each 
crop in succession and is never allowed to lie fallow. 

Parauti is land left out of cultivation for a time that it 
may recover its strength. 

Chachar is land that has lain fallow for three or four 
years. 

Banjar is land uncultivated for five years and more. 

Of the two first kinds of land, there are three classes, 
good, middling and bad. They add together the produce 
of each sort, and a third of this represents the medium 
produce, one-third part of which is exacted as the royal 
dues. The revenue levied by Sher Khan, which at the 
present day is represented in all provinces as the lowest 
rate of assessment, generally obtained, and for the con- 
venience of the cultivators and the soldiery, the value was 
taken in ready money. 


CLASSIFICATION OF LAND 69 

Produce of Folaj Land. ^ Spring Harvest, called in 
Hindi Asadhi. 



Produce of a bigha of the 
best sort of Folaj. 

Produce of a bigha 6f the 
middling sort. 

'■ ■ : ■ ■ ■ ■ ■■ . ■■ . ■ 

Produce of a bigha of the 
worst sort. 1 

Aggregate produce of 1 
three bighas of different 
sorts. 

One third of the preced- 
ing, being the medium 
produce of a bigha of 
polaj. 

1 One third of the medium 
liroduce, being the pro- 
portion fixed for the 
revenue. 


Md. Sr. 

Md. Sr. 

Md. Sr. 

Md. Sr. 

Md. Sr. 

Md. Sr. 

Wheat 

18 

12 

8 35 

38 85 

12 88J 

4 12i 

Ntikhud — (Vetches) ^ 

13 

10 20 

7 20 

81 0 

10 18i 

8 18 

Adas — Pulse (Cicer lins) in 







Hindi. Masiir \ 

8 10 

6 20 

4 25 

19 15 

6 18i 

2 6 

Barley 

18 0 

12 20 

8 15 

38 85 

12 38| 

4 12i 

Linseed ... 

6 20 

5 10 

8 80 

15 20 

5 7 

I 29 

Saffiower — (carthamus tinc- 







torius) ... ... 

8 SO 

6 30 

5 jo 

20 80 

6 86i 

2 12 

Millet (Penicum 







miliaceum (in Hindi 







China) 

10 20 

8 20 

5 5 

24 5 

8 IJ 

2 27i 

Mustard 

10 20 

8 20 

5 5 

24 5 

8 li 

2 27i 

Peas 

13 0 

10 20 

8 25 

32 5 

10 23 

3 28 

Fenugreek (Met hi) 

14 0 

11 0 

9 35 

34 35 

11 25 

8 85 

Kur rice 

24 0 

18 0i 

14 10 

56 10 

18 80 

6 10 


The revenue from -musk melons, afwdm {Ligusticum 
ajowan), onions and othey greens not counted as produce, 
was ordered to be paid in ready money at the rates herein- 
after mentioned. 


I have copied the form of the 4 following tables from Gladwin. Abnl 
Fazl makes the calculation for the 4th and 5th columns for wheat only. 
For vetches and pulse he omits the 4th column and omits the 4th and 6th 
of all the remainder. The fractions below a quarter of a seer are discarded 
in calculating the proportion fixed for revenue : the thirds are not always 
mathematically exact, and fractions are sometimes raised to a unit or alto- 
gether omitted. 


10 AIN-I-AKBARI 


' Polaj Land. 

The Autumn Harvest, called in Hindi Sawani. 



Produce of a bigha o£ the 
best sort of Polaj. 

Produce of a htgha of the 
middling sort. 

Produce of a bigha of the 
w^orst sort. 

Aggregate produce of 
three bighas of different 

sorts. 1 

_ ... 1 

One third of the preced- 
ing, being the medium 
produce of a bigUa o£ 
polaj. 

One third of the medium 
produce, being the pro- 
portion fixed for the 
revenue. 


Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 

Md. Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 

Molasses®^ 

13 

0 

10 

20 1 

7 

20 

31 

0 

10 13j 

3 

18 

Cotton 

SMH Miishkin — Dark co- 
loured, small in grain 
and white, fragrant, that 
ripens quickly and plea- 

10 

0 

7 

20 

5 

0 

22 

20 

7 20 

2 

20 

sant to taste 

Common rice, not of the 
above quality 

Mdash — in Hindi Miing 

24 

0 

18* 

0 

14 

10 

56 

10 

18 30 

6 

10 

17 

0 

12 

20 

9 

15 

38 

35 

12 88J 

4 

13 

(Phaseolus mungo) 

Mush Siah—H. Uridh (a 

10 

■ 

20 

7 

20; 

5 

10 

23 

10 

7 80 

2 

23i. 

kind of vetch) 

Moth (lentils), coarser than! 
the white mung and 

10 

20 

1.7- 

20 

5 

10 

23 

10 

7 SO 

2 

28i 

better than the dark ... 
JowdY (Andropogon Sor- 

6 

20 

5 

10 

3 

30 

15 

20 

5 

! I 

29 

ghum. Roxb.) , 

Shamakh—H. Sanwdn (Pa-, 
nicum frumentaceum. 

13 

0 

10 

20 

7 

20 

31 

0 

10 13i 

8 

18 

Roxb.) ... ... ' 

Kodron^^ (like Sanwan) S 
but its outer husk dark- j 

10 

20 

8 

20 

5 

5 

24 

5 

8 IJ 

2 

27J 

ish red ... ... ' 

17 

0 

12 

20 

9 

15 

38 

85 

12 88i 

4 

12i 

Sesame 

Kanguni (Panicum itali- 

8 

0 

6 

0 

4 

0 

18 

0 

6 

0 

2 

0 

cum) 

Tunya, hke mustard seed, 

6 

20 

5 

10 

3 

30 

15 

20 

. 

5 

7 

I 

29 

but inclined to red 

A rzan (Panicum miliaceum) 

6 

20 

5 

10 

8 

30 

15 

20 

5 

7 

1 

29 

generally a spring crop 
Lahdarah grows in ear, 
the grain like Kanguni 
Mandwah (Cynosurus co- 
rocanus) the ear like 
Sanwan, the seed like 
mustard seed, but some 

16 

0 

13 

20 

10 

25 

40 


13 

li 

4 

18J 

10 

20 

7 

20 

5 

10 

28 

10 i 

1 

7 30 

2 

23J 

red, some white 

11 

20 

9 

0 

6 

20 

27 

0 

9 

0 

8 

0 


The 4th and^ 5th columns have been omitted by Abul FazL 
A variant gives Kodon and Kodemm probably the same as Kodo — a 
small grain (Paspalum f rumentacetun) . Wilson*s Glossary, 292, 


71 


YIELD OF LAND’ CLASSIFIED 


The A^itumn Harvest, called in Hindi Sawaish. — Contd. 


Lobiya (Dolichos sinensis), 
resembles a bean, some- 
what small ... 

Kudiri, like Sdnwan but 
coarser 

Knit, (Dolichos unifiiorus) 
like a lentil somewhat 
darker, its juice good 
for camels : it softens 
stone and renders it 
easy to cut ... 

Barti, like Sanwdn but 
whiter (a species of Pani- 
cum) ... 


< 1 ; 


Cd O 

8 ° 
o <u 


Md. Sr.| 

10 20 
6 20 

10 20 

6 20 


I 




™ CO 

'o ba 
cu.a 

I's 

Ah 


Md. Sr. 

7 20 

5 10 

7 20 

5 10 




O O 
CO 
(U 

U 4^J^ 
3 ! CO 

n 

Ah 


Md. Sr. 

5 10 

3 30 


o c 

<u . 

gs 

So 

o. , 


cu 

of 5J 


Md. Sr.| 

28 10 
15 20 


5 10 i 23 10 


3 30 


15 20 


» rW tiJ 

nd s o 
0) n 

§ 

bJO 


V 


bi} O 

• S 

*53 <u 

A2 O 

--'V' 


be 


s.H 

O 




,rH .5*1 .’Ti, 

c 

4.i H-t 

A 

•Id K 

'Tj - . • 

^ tu 
•3 y A 3 
AJ ts Q 5 
Od y 

., 0 Jh S 
^ t! O 

^ di (2( 


Md. Sr.'Md. Sr, 


7 30 

5 7 


17 30 

5 7 


2 20J 
1 29 


2 20i 
1 29 


As a consideration for watching the crops a quarter of 
a seer (per mannd) is allowed in some places and in others 
more, as will be shown. 

The revenue from indigo, poppy, pan, turmeric, 
water chestnut^® (trapa bispinosa), hemp, kachdlu (arum 
colocasia) pumpkin, hinna (lyawsonia inermis) cucumbers, 
bddrang (a species of cucumber), the egg-plant (solanum 
melongena), radishes, carrots, kareld (momordica charantia) 
kakura (Momordica Muricata), tendas,^'^ and musk-melons. 


This is the Singdrah or Singharah. In the month of November, the 
nut ripens and such of the fruit as remains ungathered, falls off and sinks 
to the l 3 ottom of the pond. When the water dries up in May or June, these 
nuts or bulbs are found to have thrown out a number of shoots. They are 
then carefully collected and placed in a small hole in the deepest portion 
of the tank and covered with water. In the rains when the ponds begin 
to fill, the bulbs are taken up, each shoot is broken off, enveloped in a ball 
of clay to sink it and thrown into the water at different distances. They at 
once take root and grow rapidly until in a short time the surface of the water 
is covered with leaves. The fruit forms in October. The produce of a 
standard bigha is about 2j4 mans which at the selling price of 10 sets for 
the rupee, represent a total value of Rs. 10. It is much more extensively 
consumed by the Hindus' than the Mahomedans. Carnegie’s Kachhavi TbcH- 
nicciltf’i^ s 

Also called tendu : resinops fpuit of the tree Diospyros glutinosa. 



72 


AIN-I-AKBARI 



not counted as produce j was ordered to be paid in ready 
xnoney at the rates hereafter mentioned. 

Parauti land when cultivated, pays the same revenue 
as polaj. 

His Majesty in his wisdom thus regulated the revenues 
in the abovemention ed favourable manner. He reduced the 
duty on manufactures from ten to five per cent, and two 
per cent, was divided between the patwari and the qanungo. 
The former is a writer employed on the part of the culti- 
vator. He keeps an account of receipts and disbursements, 
and no village is without one. The latter is the refuge of 
the husbandman. There is one iii every district. At the 
present time the share of the qanungo (one per cent.) is 
remitted and the three classes of them are paid by the 
State according to their rank. The salary of the first is 
fifty rupees: of the second, thirty; of the third, twenty; 
and they have an assignment for personal support equiva- 
lent thereto. It was the rule that the commissaries of the 
shiqdar, karkunP^'- and Amin should receive daily 58 dams 
as a perquisite, provided that in spring they did not 
measure less than 200,-. nor in autumn less than 250 highas. 
His Majesty whose heart is capacious as the ocean, abolish- 
ed this custom and allowed only one dam for each, higha. 

Many imposts, equal in amount to the income of 
Hindustan were remitted by His Majesty as a thank-offer- 
ing to the Almighty. Among- these were the following : 

The capitation tax, jizya. 

The port duties, mir-bahari. 

Tax'®^ per head on gathering at places of worship, kar. 

A tax on each head of oxen, gdo-shunidri. 

A tax on each tree, sar-i-darakhti. 

Presents, peshkash. 

Distraints, qurq. 

A tax on the various classes of artificei's, peshawar. 

Ddroglia^s fees, ddroghdnah. 

Tahsilddids fees, tahsilddri. 

Treasurer’s fees, fotahddri. 

Karkun, the registrar of the collections under a Zamindar. The 
Amin was an officer employed either in the revenue department to take charge 
of an estate and collect the revenues on account of government, or to investi- 
gate and report their amount : or in the judicial department, as a judge and 
arbitrator in civil causes. Wilson’s Gloss., 261. 

The word is kar in the text, and is probably from the Sansk. ^ an 
impost, fee or cess. These imposts are called wajuhat in the text, and 
abwabs in the later Mughal days. For a full account of the abwabs, see 
Sarkar’s Mughal Adm., 3rd ed., ch. V. § 8 and 9, 


DAMAGED LAND, LOWER REVENUE 73 

Complimentary offerings on receiving a lease and tlie 
like, salami. 

Lodging ckarges, wajih kirdya. 

Money bags, kharitah 

Testing and exchanging money, sarrdfi. 

Market duties, hdsil-i-hdzdr. 

Sale of cattle (nakhds) ; also on hemp, blankets, oil, raw 
hides, weighing (Kayyali), scaling ; likewise butcher’s dues, 
tanning, playing at dice, passports for goods, turbans, 
hearth-money [dudi, har ke dtish dfruzad chize bar dehad, 
i.e., fee for illumination?] fees on the purchase and sale of a 
house, on salt made from nitrous earth, balkati on per- 
mission to reap the harvest, felt, manufacture of lime, 
spirituou;^ liquors, brokerage, catching fish, the product of 
the tree Al (Morinda citrifolia) in fine all those imposts 
which the natives of Hindustan include under the term Sair 
/ihat,'® were remitted. ' 


AIN XIL 
Chachdrland. 

When either from excessive rain or through an in- 
undation, the land falls out of cultivation, the husbandmen 
are, at first, in considerable distress. In the first year, 
therefore, but two fifths of the produce is taken : in the 
second three-fifths ; in the third,’® four-fifths and in the 
fifth, the ordinary revenue. According to differences of 
situation, the revenue is paid either in money or in kind. 
In the third 3 ^ear the charges of 5 per cent, and one dam 
for each bigha'®* are added. 


* Two words follow wdiich are marked in the text as doubtful, there is 
doubtless an omission. 

The word is pag, contraction of pcigi^h a turban. It was a kind of poll 
tax levied on every turban. 

From which a dye is extracted. 

See p. 63. 

There is probably an error in the text as the fourth year is omitted. 
Gladwin has **the third and fourth years fourth-fifths each.'* 

I take the wa between dah wa nim to be an error, as by retaining it 
the percentage would rise to 15 or at least to 10^. Five per cent, was levied 
on manufactures ; it may therefore have been an extra charge on land though 
I do not see its reason or its justice. Gladwin translates as I have done. 

10 



74 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


AIN XIII. 

Banjar land. 

When through excessive inundations production has 
seriousl}' diminished, the revenue is collected in the follow- 
ing proportions : 

Spring Harvest. 

Proportion of revenue from one Bigha of Banjar land 
for five years. 




1st year 

2nd year 

3rd year 

4th year 

5th year 



Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr, 

Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 


Wheat 

I. 

0 

20 

1 

0 

2 

0 

8 

0 

as i>Qlaj 

Mustard 

R. 

0 

5 

0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

10 


Vetches Nukhud 

I. 

0 

10 

0 

30 

1 

10 

2 

10 

»5 ■ 

Do. 

R. 

0 

5 

0 

80 

1 

10 

2 

10 

. . ,, 

Bariev 

I. 

0 

20 

1 

0 

2 

0 

8 

0 


Do. 

R. 

0 

5 

0 

35 

I 

20 

2 

20 

>> 

Pulse {Ciccr lens) Adas 

I. 

0 

10 

0 

30 

1 

10 

1 

80 


Do. 

R. 

0 

5 

0 

80 

1 

10 

1 

80 


Millet (Panicum mlliaeciim] 



I 








Arzan .. 

I. 

0 

lo' 

; 0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

' 0 

. if • 

Do. 

R. 

0 

5 

! 0 

25 

0 

85 

1 

" 


Dinseed 

I. “ 

0 

10 

1 ^ 

20 

0 

30 

1 

10: 


Do. 

R. 

0 

5 

: 0 

! 

5 

1 O''.. 

80 i 

. 

1 

10 



Note. I stands for inundated land, and R for that 
which has suffered from rain. 

Autumn Harvest. 


Proportion of revenue from one Bigha of Banjar land 
for five years. 



. .1 

j 

1st 

I 

year 

2nd year 

3rd year 

4th 

year 

5th year 



Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 

Md. 

Sr. 


Mash 

... I. 

0 

20 

1 

0 

1 

20 

2 

10 

as i>olai 

Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

20 

1 

0 

1 

20 


JowM' 

... I; 

0 

20 

1 

0 

2 

0 

8 

0 


Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

20 

1 

0 

2 

0 


Moth 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

20 

0 

30 

1 

10 


Lahdarah 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

20 

1 

10 

2 

0! 

Kodroii 

.... T. 

0 

20 

1 

0 

2 

0 

3 

0: 

Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

20 

1 

20 

2 

20 

Mandwah 

... I. 

0 

20 

1 

0 

2 

0 

3 

O' 

Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

80 

1 

10 

2 

10^ 

Kudiri 

... I. 

0 

10 

0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

10 „ ‘ 

Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

10 

Kanguni, (Pers. kdl) 

... 1. 

0 

10 

0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

10 

n 

Do. 

... R, 

0 

5 

0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

10 


Turiya 

... I. 

0 

20 

1 

0 

1 

10 

1 

20 


Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

10 


Sanwd-n (Pers. Shmmkh) 

... I. 

0 

10 

0 

25 

0 

35 

1 

10 


Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

25 

0 

85 

1 

10 


Arzan 

... L 

0 

10 

0 

80 

1 

0 

1 

10 


Do. 

... R. 

0 

5 

0 

30 

1 

0 

1 

10 


Sesame ... ... 

.... R. 

0 

5 

0 

20 

0 

80 

I 

10 



WASTE tAND, TAXATION 75 

In the 4th year the charges of 6 per cent, and one dam 
fox tach bigha were collected and this is still in force. 

In Ban jar land for the 1st year, one or two sets are 
taken from each bigha; in the 2nd year, 5 sets; in the 3rd 
year, a sixth of the produce ; in the 4th year, a fourth share 
together with one dam : in other years a third suffices. This 
varies somewhat during inundations. In all cases the 
husbandman may pay in money or kind as is most con- 
venient. Banjar land at the foot of the hills and land subject 
to inundations in the districts of Sanbhal and Bahraich, do 
not remain as banjar, for so much new soil is brought down 
with the overflow that it is richer and more productive than 
polaj. His Majesty, however, in his large munificence places 
it in the same class. It is in the option of the cultivator to 
pay in ready money or by kankut or hhaoli. 


AIN XIV. 

The Nineteen Years^ Rates 

Intelligent people have from time to time set them- 
selves to record the prices current of the Empire, and after 
careful inquiry the valuation of grain was accepted on this 
basis. 

The revenue rates for a bigha of polaj land were fixed 
as has been stated. From the 6th year of the Divine Era 
which runs with the Novilunar year 968 (A. D., 1560-1) 
and concluding with the 24th year of this reign, the statistics 
were collected and have been tabulated for reference after 
the most diligent investigation. The figures are entered 
under the heading of each year. 


Nineteen years correspond with , a cycle of the moon durin^tr which 
period the seasons are supposed to undergo a complete revolution, Gladwin, 
p. 292, Vol. I. 


spring Harvest of the Subah of Agra, Nineteen years^ rates. 


7(3 AlN-t-AKBAtl 


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Indian do 
Barley 
Pot-herbs 
Poppy 

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Adas (Pulse) 
Arzan (Millet) 
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Note. In these tables D stands for dam and J for fetal the 2oth part of a dam which is the 40th part of a rupee. 


spring Harvest of the Subah of Agra, continued. Nineteen years'' rates. 


AGRA, SPRING HARVEST 77 



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Mash 


Autumn Harvest of the Snbah of Agra, continued, Nineteen years^ rates 


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spring Harvest of the Subah of Allahabad. Nineteen years’ Rates. 


ALLAHABAD, SPRING HARVEST 79 


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Peas 

Persian Musk- 
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Indian do. .. 
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Carrots . 
Lettuce 


Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Allahabad. Nineteen years\rates. 


80 AIN-1-AKBAE.I 


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Autumn Harvest of the Suhah of Allahabad {continued). Nineteen years^ rates. 


ALLAHABAD HARVEST 


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spring Harvest of the Subah of Oudh. Nineteen years^ rates. 





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Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Oudh. Nineteen *y ear rates. 


OUDH HARVEST 


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Timya ... ... 80 80 80 ... 32 32 32 24-32 24-32 20-32 1^32 20-32 20-32 14|-24 


Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Oudh (continued). Nineteen years’ rates. 


84 


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! qO rooooocs .0 

1 Mcr .iNGoooog 

! .' " » 4 SJ. ' ' '. . 

Wheat 

Cabul vetches 
Indian do, ... 
Barley 

Pot-herbs 

Poppy 

Safflower 

I^inseed 

Blustard 


spring Harvest of the Subah of Delhi {continued). Nineteen years’ rate. 


DELHI HARVEST 85 


■ O 1 

' ■ OO<D<N(<0O'C0Tj<O'Ot0 i 

•TBSC 2^7 ! • ^ CO to 50 ■ 

1 o..c6 o o w o d> o c^i o6 i 

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M 00 C0 t>^0^ 

•xb^A 'pxsz 

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Q o 2 

Nineteen years’ rate. 

. -xb^A pnzz 

X dS 

d C4TP 

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ID 00 04 04 CO CO CO O ID 

* W ^ CO « « »D 0^ -np 

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t--i >-*< y-s OS T-K CO' IN IN CO r-^ 

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do. 

90-134 

47-57 

31-45 

43-65 

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104-130 

48-57 

32-45 

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Autumn Harvest of the Subah of 1 

•jBai qrjfri 

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26-28 

24-28 

120 

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40-54 

70 

70-78 

70 

19-24 

24-25 

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Sugar-cane {patinda) 
Com i non sugar -cane 
Dark coloured rice 
Shalt mushkrn 
Cominon rice 

Munji rice ...^ 



Autumn Harvest of the Suhah of Delhi — (continued). Nineteen years' rates. 


AIN-I-AKMM 




•jB3,c 

' O'. ' ■ ' 

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■ ' "^ ■ ^ CD CO CO in. in in CO CO B-4 »*;« .C^/CM « oo op .o op *-t 

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■gl SIS e S’w S § s 



spring Harvest of the Subah of Lahore — {continued). Nineteen y ear rates. 


LAHORE HARVEST 87 



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p CD :C 01 NG 0 CDg •COCO'tl^ . . CD CO • •?; • 

■ ir*s, ■■ ' 

Wheat 

■Cabul Vetches " 

Indian ditto 

Barley 

Potherbs 

Eoppy 

Safflower 

Binseed 

Mustard 

Adas 

Arzan ... 

Peas 1 .. 

Persian Muskmelons 
Indian ditto 

Kur rice 

Ajwdin 

Onions 

P'enugreek 

Carrots 

Lettuce 


D stands for Dam and J for JHaL In these sis columns, the J applies only to the Cabul Vetches and not to the following 



^Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Lahore. Nineteen years'" rates. 


88 


AIN-I-AKBARI 



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spring Harvest of the Subah of the Multan. Ninteen years' rates. 


MULTAN SPRING HARVEST 


89 



O -CO. OOOOOO CSI ■«??* O' ■ 'OO^O ■ 1 

« S| lsS3SS^S??|S2§35g:S8 

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AtUiimn Harvest of the Suhah of Multan— {contimied). Nineteen years^ rates. 


AUtliMN HARVEST 9l 



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Spring Harvest of the Siihah of MaJwah, Nineteen years^ rates. 


92 


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# Alii-I-AKBARt ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

AIN 15. 

The Ten Years^ Settlement. 

From the beginning of this immortal reign, persons of 
intelligence and void of rapacity, together with zealous men 
of experience, have been annually engaged in noting the 
current prices and reporting them to His Majesty, and 
taking the gross produce and estimating its value, they 
determined the rates of collection, but this mode was 
attended with _considerable inconvenience. When Khwajah 
Abdul Majid Asaf Khan was raised to the dignity of Prime 
Minister, the total revenue was taken at an estimation, 
and the assignments were increased as the caprice of the 
moment suggested. And because at that time the extent of 
the empire was small, and there was a constant increase of 
dignities among the servants of the State, the variations 
were contingent on the extent of corruption and self-interest. 
When this great office devolved on Muzafifar Khan and 
Rajah Todar Mull, in the 15th year of the reign, a re- 
distribution of the imperial assessment w^as made through 
the qanungos/&nd estimating the produce of the lands, they 
made a fresh settlement. Ten qanungos were appointed 
who collected the accounts from the provincial qanungos and 
lodged them in the imperial exchequer. Although this 
settlement was somewhat less than the preceding one, never- 
theless there had been formerty a wide discrepancy between 
the estimate and the receipts. 

When through the prudent mahagemtot of the 
Sovereign the empire was enlarged in extent, it became 
difficult to ascertain each year the prices current and much 
inconvenience was caused by the delay. On the one hand 
the husbandman complained of extensive exactions, and on 
the other the holder of assigned lands was aggrieved on 
account of the revenue balances. His Majesty devised a 
remedy for these evils and in the discernment of his -world- 
adorning mind fixed a settlement for ten years : the people 
were thus made contented and their gratitude was abun- 
dantly manifested. From the beginning of the IStli year 
of the Divine era to the 24th, an aggregate of the rates of 
collection w’as formed and a tenth of the total was fixed as 
the annual assessment ; but from the 20th to the 24th year 
the collections wete accurately determined and the five 
former ones accepted on the authority of persons of probity. 


95 


DASTUR-IIL*AMI/ described 

The best crops were taken into account in each year and 
the j^ear of the most abundant harvest accepted, as the 
table shows. 

(A Note on Dastuv-ul- aml : Sarkar, &c.) 

For a full description and discussion of the ofi&cial 
manuals called Dastur-ul-’ anil, see. ■]. Sarkar’s Mughal 
Administration 3rd. ed., ch. XIV. §2. 

Sir Henry Elliot writes, in his Supplemental Glossary, 
revised ed. by J. Beames, entitled Memoirs of the History 
&c. of N. W.P. (1869), :—“Dasiur-ul-aml, a body of in- 
structions, and tables for the use of revenue officers under 
the Native Government. . . . No two copies can ever be 
found which correspond with each other, and in most respects 
the}" widely differ. Those which profess to be copied from 
the Dastur-ul-^aml oi Akbar, are found to contain on close 
examination sundry interpolations of subsequent periods. 

“Besides the Dastur-ul-^aml, another book, called the 
^Aml Dastur, w'as kept by the Qanungoes, in which were 
recorded all orders which were issued in supersession of 
Dastur-ul-'’aml/^ (ii. 156-157.) 

“A Sarkdr is a subdivision of a subah. Each subah is 
divided into a certain number of sarkdrs, and each sarkdr 
into parganahs or mahals (which are used as equivalent 
expressions), and the parganahs again are aggregated into 
Dastur s or districts. . . . 

‘^Dastur besides signifying a rule, is also a minister, a 
munshi. Parganah means tax-paying land ; the Burhan-i- 
Qati’ gives the meaning Zamine ke dz an mdl wa khardj 
bagirand. ... 

“The words used before Akbar’s time to represent 
tracts of country larger than a parganah were shiqq, Khita, 
^arsa diydr, vildyat, and iqta" , but the latter (term) was 
generally applied when the land was assigned for the support 
of the nobility or their contingents.” (See Ikta^ in Encyclo- 
paedia of Islam, ii. 461, for a fuller treatment. J.S.) 

“I have endeavoured to restore the sarkars, dasturs, 
and parganahs (in the N. W. Provinces of Allahabad and 
Agra) as they stood in the time of the Emperor Akbar. 
The copies of the Ain-i-Akbari vary so much, and such 
ignorance is frequently exhibited by the transcribers, that 
to verify the names of parganahs has been a work of great 
labour. .... 


96 


AIN-I-AHBARI 


“But it is in separating the sarkdrs into dastufs that 
the ignorance of the copyists has been chiefly exhibited, for 
all the parganahs are. frequently mixed together, as if there 
were no meaning at all attached to dasttir.” (ii. 201-203.) 

The word dastur in the sense of a -subdivision of land 
for revenue purposes, went out of use in the official histories 
of the Mughal empire after Alcbar’s time. It may have 
lingered on in the N.W. Provinces up to the Mutiny, but 
only in the village records, as it does not occur in any 
history or revenue-manual of the Central Government of 
the later Mughals known to me. [Jadunath Sarkar.) 


The Subah of Allahabad comprises nine sarkdrs (dis- 
tricts) and possesses fifteen separate revenue codes, {dastur- 
ul-aml.) 

1. The Sarkdr of Allahabad includes fifteen mahals 
and has three revenue codes. 

The suburban district of Allahabad comprises three 
mahals, viz., the suburbs of Allahabad, Kantit, and a tract 
on the extreme limits of the sub ah of Agra, and possesses 
one revenue code. 

Jalalabad [ie., Arail] has three mahals and a revenue 
code. 

Bhadoi, seven mahals, viz., Bhadoi, Sikandarpur, 
Sordon, Singror, Mah, Kewdi, Hddidbds [=Jhusi]— and a 
revenue code. 

2. The Sarkdr of Bendres has eight mahals and a 
revenue code. The detail is as follows — ^the suburban 
district of Benares, the township of Benares, Pandrah, 
Kasufdr, Harhwd, Bydlisi. 

3. The Sarkdr of Jaunpur has 41 mahals and tw^o 
codes. 

The suburban district of Jaunpur, 39 mahals, one code, 
viz. : — 

Aldimao, Angli, Bhileri, Bhaddon, Talhani, Jaunpur, 
Suburban Jaunpur, Chandipur Badhar, Chdndah, Chiriyd 
Kot, Chakesar, Kharid, Khdspur Tdndah, Khdnpur, Deo- 
gaon, Rdri, Sanjholi, Sinkandarpur, Sagdi, Sarharpur, 
Shddi-dbdd, Zafardbdd, Karydt Mittu, Karydt Dostpur, 
Karydt-Mendia, Karydt Swetah, Gheswah, Ghosi, Kodiya, 
Gopdlpur, Kardkat, Mandidho, Muhammad-dbdd, Majhord, 
'Mau, Nizdmdhdd, Naigum, Nathupur, 



SUB-DIVISIONS OF AlrUAHABAD SUBAH 


97 


4. Sarkdr of Chanddah [ = Chunar], 14 mahals 

and one revenue _code, viz., the suburban district of 
Chanadah, Aherwarah, Bholi, Badhol, Tdndah, Dhos, 
RdghupiiY ^^^ — the villages on the western bank of the river, 
Majh'Wdrah, Mahdech, Mahwdri, Mahoi, Silpur, Naran. 

6. The Sarkdr of Ghdzipur, 18 mahals, one code, viz., 
the suburban district of Ghdzipur, Balid, Pachotar, Balhd- 
bds, Bharidhdd, Bardich, Chausd Dehma, Sayyidpur 
Namdi, Zahurdbdd, Karydt Pali, Kopd Chhit, Gadhd, 
Karandah, Lakhnesar, Madan Bendras, Muhammaddbdd, 
Parhdbdri. 

6. The Sarkdr of Karrah, 12 mahals, one code, viz., 
the township of Karrah, its suburban district, Aichhi, 
Atharban, Aydsd, Rdri, Kardri, Kotla, Kaunra commonly 
called Karson, Fatehpur Hanswah, Hatgdon, Hanswah. 

7. The Sarkdr of Korah, 8 mahals, 3 codes, viz., thus 
detailed. The suburban district of Korah has one code and 

2 mahals, viz., itself and Ghdtampur; Kotid, 3 mahals, 
Kotid, Goner, Keranpur Kindr,^^^ and one code ; Japnau, 

3 mahals, viz., Jdjmau, Muhsinpur, Majhdon, and one code. 

8. The Sarkdr of Kdlinjar, 10 mahals, one code, viz., 
Kdlinjar with its suburbs, Ugdsi, Ajigarh, Sihonda, Simoni, 
Shddipur, Rasan, Khandeh, Mahqbd, Maudhd. 

9. The Sarkdr of Mdnikpur, 14 mahals, 2 codes. 
The suburbs of Mdnikpur have 10 mahals and one code, 
viz., Mdnikpur together with its suburban district, Arwal 
Bhalol, Salon, Jaldlpur Balkhar, Karydt Kardrah, Karydt 
Paegdh, Khatot, Ndsirdbdd. 

Rde Bareli, etc., 4 mahals, one code, viz., Rde Bareli, 
Talhandi, Jdes, Dalmau. 


A note to the text gives Ralhupur as the present name of this mahal— 
the other names have nearly all variants in the MSS., no doubt due as much 
to dialectic variations in pronunciation as to errors of copyists. Tieftenthaler 
adds to the above, the fortress of TscMnarghar (Chanar) built of stone, on an 
eminence on the western bank of the Ganges. 

Thus in all MSS. but BHiot has Khatpur Kananda. 

13 



spring Harvest of the Subah of Allahabad — Ten Years^ rates. 


98 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


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In these tables, D stands for dam and J for jetal, tlio 25th part of a dam which is the 40th part of a rupee. 


Autumn Harvest of the Suhah of Allahabad. 


ALIvAHABAd aWumn harvest 


99 



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100 


AIN-I-AlCBARl 

The Subali of Owih comprises five sarkars and possesses 
twelve codes. 

1. The Sarkar oi Oudh, 21 niahals, 3 codes. The 
suburban district has 19 mahals and one code. Two par- 
ganahs are comprised in Khairabad. They are as follows : 

Oudh with its suburban district; Anhodha, Anhonah, 
Pachhamrdth, Bileliri, Basodhi, Thdnah Bhaddon, Bakthd, 
Darydbdd, Rudauli, Selak, Sultdnpiir, Sdtanpur, Supahah, 
Sarwdpdli, Satrakah, Gawdrchah, Manglasi Naipur. 

Ihrahimdbad and Kishni are each a parganah with 
one code. 

2. The Sarkdr of Bhar ditch has 11 mahals, one code. 
The suburban district of Bhar ditch, 8ic. 8 mahals, one code. 
Bharditch with its suburbs 6 mahals, Bahrah, Husampur, 
Wankdun, Rajhdt, Sanjhauli, Fakhrpur, Fort Nawdgarh. 

Firuzdbdd, &c., two parganahs, one code, viz., Firuzd- 
bad, Sultdnpur. 

Kharosna, one mahal, one code. 

3. The Sarkdr of Khairabad, 2 mahals, 3 codes. 
Khairabad, &c., 12 parganahs, one code, viz., suburbs of 
Khairdbdd,Basdrd, Baswah, Basrah, Chhitdpur, Khairigarh, 
Sadrpur, Kheri, Kharkhela, and Laharpur, two mahals; 
Machharhattah, and Hargaraon, two mahals. Pdli, &c. has 
8 mahals, one code, uia., Pdli, Barurdnjnah, Bdwan, Sdndi, 
Sirah, Gopaman, Khankatmau, Nirnkhd; Bharwdrah, &c. 
two mahals, included in Oudh, viz. Bharwdrah and Pild , — 
and one code. 

4. The Sarkdr of Gorakhpur, 24 parganahs, one code. 
The suburban district of Gorakhpur with, the town, 2 
mahals, Atrauld, Anhold; Bindekpur &c. 4 mahals, Bdhmni- 
pdrah, Bhdwdpdrd, Tilpur, Chilupara, Dharyapara, Dhewa- 
pdrd and Kotlah [Kuhdnd'] 2 mahals, Rihli; Ramgarh and 
Gauri 2 mahals, Rasulpur and Ghaus 2 mahals; Kathld, 
Khildpdrd [ — Rihldpara'j Maholi, Mundwah, Mandlah; 
Maghar and Ratanpur, 2 mahals; Maharanthoi. 

5. The Sarkdr of Lucknow has 55 mahals, 2 codes. 
The suburban district of Lucknow, &c., 47 parganahs, one 
code. Abethi, Isauli, Asiyun, Asohd, Unchah Gdon, Balkar 
Bijlourf [Bi/«or], Bdri, Bharimau Pangwan, Betholi, 
Panhan, Parsandhdn, Pdtan, Bdrdshdkor, Jhaloter, Dewi, 
Deorakh, Dadrah, Ranbirpur, Rdmkot, Sandilah, Saipur, 
Sarosi, Sahdli, Sidhor, Sidhupur, Sandi, Saron, Fatehpur, 


OUDH SPRING HARVESi? 


101 


Fort of Ambhati, Kursi, Kakori, Khanjrah, Ghatampur, 
Karanda, Konhhi Lucknow with its suburbs, Lashkar 
Malihdhdd, Mohan, Mordon, Madidon, Makonah, Manawi, 
Makrded, Hadha, Inhdr. 

Ondm %LC., 8 parganahs, oue code, viz., Ondm, 
Bilgrdon, Bangarmau, Hardoi, Sdtanpur, Fatehpur 
Chaurdsiy Kachhdndu, Maldwah. 


Spring Harvest of the Sub ah of Oudh. 



Pargaiiah of the 
suburban district 
of Oudh, &c. 

Ibrahimabad, &c. 

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D. J. 

D. J. 

B* J. 

B. J. 

B. J. 


Wheat 


54-20 

62-15 

58-4 

54-20 

55-23 

55-20 


Indian Vetches 


34-17 

39-3 

39-3 

33-14 

32-11 

33-14 

Note. — The dif- 

Mustard seed 

{Khar- 


40-6 

« 

... 



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dal) 

• • • 







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89-3 

45-21 

42-12 

38-0 

35-20 

38-0 

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Adas ... 


23-12 

35-20 

23-12 

22-9 

21-6 

22-10 

is in the size 

Safflower 


71-14 

72-0 

83 21 ! 

71-14 

69-8 

71-14 

and colour of 

Poppy 


127-15 

115-20 

156-13 

127-12 

127-11 

127-11 

the grain. 

Potherbs 


69-9 

76-1 

68-5 1 

56-12 

54-20 

56-12 


I/inseed 


29-0 

35-20 

32-15 

27-24 

26-21 

27-24 


Mustard seed {Sarshaf) 

30-5 

38-0 

27-24 

29-2 

29-2 ; 

29-2 


Arzan 


20-3 

24-15 

16-19 

-15-3 

7-22 

23-4 ’ 


Peas 


29-2 

38-0 

29-2 

25-8 

24-15 

25-15 


Carrots 


30-5 

36-21 

36-21 

28-7 

29-2 

29-2 


Onions 


78-0 

80-18 

79-10 

78-7 

78-7 

78-7 


Fenugreek 


55-22 

54-20 

58-4 

58-4 

78-20 



Persian Muskmelons ... 

115-20 

230-4 

150-1 

110-20 

115-20 

115-30 


Indian do. 


4-13 

14-23 

17-22 

15-16 

15-16 

15-16 


Cumin seed ... 

... 

79-15 

61-12 

•«. 


... 

... 


Coriander seed 



150-2 

... 

... 

... 

... 


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46-24 

46-24 

45-21 

44-18 

45-21 


Ajwdin 


... 

97-5 

79-10 

83-21 

83-21 

82-21 



AuUimn Harvest of the Stibah of Otidh, 


102 


Ain-i-Akbari 


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108 


SUB-DIVISIONS OF AGRA SUBAH 

1. /The Sarkar of Agra—~hh.e royal residence. 44 
parganahs, 4 codes. The suburban district of Agra, &c., 
6 mahals, one code, viz., Agra and its suburbs, Chanwar, 
Jalesar, the city of Agra, Dholpur, Mahdwan, Bednah &c., 
33 mahals, one code; the suburbs of Bednah, 2 mahals, 
Oudehi, Od, 01, Bhasdwar Xodahhhim, Bindwar, Chausatli, 
Khanwd, RajhoJiar, Fatehpur known as Si%ri, Seonkar 
Seonkri, Mathura, Maholi, Mangotlah, Bhaskar, Wazirpur, 
Helak, Hindon, Rapari, Bd,ri, Bajwdrah. Etd-xah &c. 3 
mahals, ..one code, viz., Etdwah, Rdpri,^'^ Hatkdnt. Man- 
ddwar &c. 2 mahals, one code, viz., Manddtvar, Kakhonmar. 

2. Sarkar of A'lwar. 43 paragraphs, 3 codes. The 
parganahs of Alwar &c. 33 mahals, one code, viz., the 
suburbs of Alwar, Dhard, Dadekar, Bahddurpur, Pandin, 
Khelohar, Jaldlpur, Bihrozpur, Rath, Bdlhattah, Bahrkol, 
Hdjipur, Budahthal, Anthulah Hdbru, Pardt, Balhdr, 
Barodah Fathkhan, Barodahmeo, Basdnah, Hasanpur, 
Badohar, Hasanpur Gorij Deoli- Safari, Sakhan, Kiydrah, 
Ghat Seen, Kohrana, Monkond, Manddwarah, Naugdon 
Ndhargarh, Harsori and Harpur, 2 mahals, Plarsdnd. 
Bachherah, &c. 5 mahals, one code, viz., Bachherah, 
Khoharirand, Bhiwdn, Ismailpur, Amran, Muhdrakpur, 
&c., 5 mahals, one code, viz., Muhdrakpur, Harsoni, 
Manddwar, Khirtahali, Mojpur. 

3. 4. Sarkdrs of Tijdrah and Erdj, 4 codes. The 
Sarkar of Eraj, 16 mahals, viz.. Era j, Parhdr, Bhdnder, 
Bijpur, Pdndur, Chhatrah, Riydhdnah, Shdhzddahpur, 
Khatolah &c., Kajhodah, Keddr, Kunj, Khekas, Kdnti, 
Khderah, Maholi. The Sarkar of Tijdrah, 18 mahals, 1 
code, viz., Tijdrah, Indor, Ujaina, Umdra Umari, Por, 
Begwdn, Basohrd, Chamrdwat, Khdnpur, Sdkras, Santha- 
ddri, Firuzpur, Fatehpur Mongarta, Kotlah, Karherd, 
Nagindn. Thdnah of Kahwdr, one code. Besru, one code. 

5. Sarkar of Kanauj, 6 codes. The suburban district 
of Kanauj, &c. 11 mahals, one code. The suburbs of 
Kanauj Bard, Bithur, Bilhur, Bilgrdon, Deohd, Sikandar- 
pur, Seoli, Seonrakh, Malkusah, Ndnamau. Saketh &c. 
6 mahals, one code. Saketh, Kardoli, Barnah, Sahdr , 
Patidli, Sahdur. Bhagaon,' &c. 10 mahals, one code. 
Bhogdon, Sonj, Sakrdon, Sakatpur, Saror, Chhabarmau, 


A note to the text suggests this name to be an emr, as not in 'Elliot 
nor in the account of the province of Agra, Neither is it in 1 ieffenthaler. 



104 


Am-I-AKBARI 


Shanishdbdd, Pali *AUpur, Kanpal, Bhojpur. Sinkandar- 
pur, one code. Phapund, one code. 

6. Sarkdr of Sahdr. Sahdr, Szc. 6 madals, one code, 
viz., Sahdr, Pahdri, Bhadoli, Kdmah, Koh Majahid, Modal. 
Nonher a, one code. 

7, 8, 9. Sarkdr of Gwalior, &c., one code. Sarkdr of 
Gwalior, 13 mahals, one code. Sarkdr of Narorpanj, 5 
mahals, one code. Sarkdr of Beanwan, 28 malials, one code. 

10. Sarkdr of Kalpi, 16 parganahs, one code. Ulai, 
Bildspur, Badhneth Derdpur, Deokali, Rath, Rdipur, 
Suganpur, Shdhpur, suburbs of Kdlpi, Kendr, Khandot, 
Khandela, city of Kdlpi, Muhammaddbdd, Hamirpur. 

11. Sarkdr of Kol, A codes. Thdnah Farida, &c. 10 
mahals, one code, viz., Thdnah Farida, Pahdsu, Danhhdi, 
Malikpur, Shikdrpur, Nuh, Chandos, Khurjah, Ahdr, Papal. 
Suburban district of Kol, &c., A mahals, one code, viz., Kol, 
Jaldli, Sikandar rdo, Gangeri. Mdrharah, &c., 5 mahals, 
one code, viz., Mdrharah, Balrdm, Soron, Pachldnah and 
Sidhpur, 2 mahals. Akbardbdd, 2 mahals, one code, viz., 
Akbardbdd, Atrauli. 

12. Sarkdr of Ndrnol, A codes. Suburban district of 
Ndrnol, &c., 8 mahals, viz., suburbs of Ndrnol and city, 
Bdrh, Kot Potli, Bdbdi, Khandela, Sankhdna, Kdnori, 
villages at the foot of the hill. Barodah r ana, &c. 2 mahals, 
viz., Barodah rand Ldpoti. Chdl Kaldnah, &c. 2 mahals, 
Chdlkaldnah, Khoddnd. Kanodah, &c. 3 mahals, Kanodah, 
Narharah, Jhojeon. 


See Table next page. 



spring Harvest of the royal residence of Agra, 


AGRA SPRING HARVEST 


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Common . rice 

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Arzan ... ‘ 

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Hinna 

Hemp 

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Kachrah 

Pan 

SingMi'ah ... 

Lobiya ... ... 

Jowari 

Kiiri 

Lahdarah 

Kodaram ... 

Mandwah ... 

Sesame seed 

Shamdhh 

Mung 



Supplement to the Spring Harvest of the Suhah of Agra. 


AGRA SRRING HARVEST', SUPPLEMEN'f 


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Ktir rice 

A f wain 



'upplement to the 'Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Agra. 


108 AIN-I-AKBARI 


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Sugarcane 

ipaunda) 

Common Sugar- 
cane 

Dark coloured rice 
Common rice ... 
II 

Mash 

Cotton ..- 

Moth 

Gal ... 

Ttiriya 

Afzan 

Indigo 

Hinna 

Hemp b.. 

Potherbs 

Kachrah 

Pan 

Smghdrah 

Lohiya 

Jowari 

KuH 

Lahdarah 

Kodaram 

Mmdwah 

Shamdkh 

Peas 

Turmeric 


100 


AJMERE SUBAH— parganahs 

Subah oi Ajmer e, 7 Sarkars, 9 codes. 

__ 1. Sarkdr of Ijmere, 2 codes. Suburban district of 
Ajmere, &c. 24 Parganahs, 1 code. City and suburbs of 
Ajmere, 2 mahals, Ardine, Parbat, Bahndi,^'^ Bhardnah, 
Bawdl, Bdhal, Bdndhan Sandheri, Bharonda, Tusinap* 
Jobnair,"^ Deogdon, Roshanpur, Sdnbhar, Sarwdr, Satheld, 
Sulaimdndbdd, Kekri, Kherwah, Mdhrot, Masauddbad, 
Naraina, Hars or, Anber, &c., 4 Parganahs, 1 code, viz., 
Anber, Bhakoi, Jhdg, Muzdbad. 

2. Sarkdr qi Jodhpur, 21 Parganahs, 1 code. Suburbs 
and city of Jodhpur, Asop, Endrdoti, Bhodhi, Palpdrah, 
Beldrd, Pali, 8ic., 3 mahals, Bdhilah, Podhh, Bhadrdjaun, 
Jetdran, Dotard, Sujhat, Sdtalmer, Sewdna, Kherwa, 
Kheonsar, Kundoj, Maherwah. 

3. Sarkdr of Chitor, 28 P^ganahs, 1 code. Suburbs 
and city oi Chitor, 2 mahals, I sldmpur commonly Rdmpur, 
Udaipur, &c., d mahals, Aparmdl,^^^ Artod, I sldmpur 
commonly Mohan, Bodjmur, Phulid, Banhera, Pur, Bihin 
Surur, Bdgor, Begun, Pati Hdjipur, Jeran, Sdnwarkhdti, 
Sdndri, Samel with the cultivated land, Kosidnah, Mdndal- 
garh, Mdndal, Maddriya Nimach &c., 3 mahals. 

4. Sarkdr of Ranthambor, 4 codes, Ranthambor &c., 
36 Parganahs, 1 code. Suburban district of Ranthambor, 
Alhanpur, Etdda, A ton,! sldmpur, Iwdn Bosamer, Barodah, 
Bhadldon, Bakldnt, Paldtidh, Bhosor, Belonah, Bdlakhatri, 
Bhoripahdri, Bdrdn, Taldd, Jetpur, Jhdin, Khaljipur, Dhari, 
Sanhusdri, Kotd; Khanddr, Khatoli, Kadaud, Lakhri, 
Londah, Lahaud, Mdngror, Momeddnah &c., 16 mahals. 
Chdtsu &c., 16 Parganahs, 1 code, viz., Chdtsu, Barwdrah, 
Uniydrd, Pdtan, Banhatd, Sarsup, Boli, Bejri, Kharni, 
Nawdhi, Jhaldwah, Khankharah, Sui Supar, Maldrnah, 
Karor, Bondi, Delhwdrah, &c., 7 Parganahs, 1 code, viz., 
Delhwdrah, Rewdndhnah, Nagar, Antrorah, Deldnah, 
Amkhorah, Loharwdrah, Todd, &c., 3 Parganahs, 1 code, 
viz., Todd, Tank, Tori, 

5. Sarkdr of Ndgor, 30 Parganahs, 1 code. Suburban 
district of Ndgor, Amar Sarnain, Inddnah, Bhaddnah, 


Bahacoi, Tiefi. 

Bossina, Ibid, 
Zounbora, Ibid* 
Aparpdl, Ibid, 



110 


Ain-i-Akbari 

Baldubalmi/^^ Batodha, Baroda, Bdrah gain, Chdel, 
Charodah, Jdkhrah, Khdrijkhatu, Dend^dnah, Donpur, 
Rewdsd, Ron, Rasulpur, Rahot, Sddelah, Fathpur Jhanj- 
mun, Kdsli, Khdelah Kojurah, Kolemah, Kumhdri, Keran, 
Lddon, Merath, Manohar nagar, Nokhd. 

6 & 7. Sarkdrs oi Sarohi and Bikaner. The codes of 
these two Sarkdrs are not laid down. 



Spring Harvest of the Suhah of Ajmere. 



Suburban district 
of Ajmere, &g. 

H-( 

o . 
o 

da:: 

«J u 

5h 

be rj 
ca 

Parganah , of 
Jodhpur, &c. 

Parganah of 
Chitor, &c. 

Parganah of 
Rantambhor &c. 

Parganah of 
Cliatsu, &c. 

Parganah of 
DeiliAvarah, &c. 

o a 
cy 

H ^ 

cd .Cl 
d ca 

CC 

be o 

d. 

Parganah of 
Nagor, &c. 


D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D- J- 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D- J- 

Wheat ... ... 

49-5 

31-8 

100-16 

55-23 

55-23 

53-18 

67-2 

46-24 

100-16 

Indian Vetches ... 

33-14 

20-3 

55-23 

31-8 

31-8 

38-0 

42-12 

27-24 

55-23 

Barley 

33-14 

20-3 

67-2 

33-14 

33-14 

38-0 

49-5 

32-11 

67-2 

Adas 

22-3 

13-11 

».» 

22-9 

22-9 

24-15 

20-3 

«*• 

mmm 

Safflower 

62-15 

38-9 

67-2 

55-23 

55-22 

58-9 

59-4 

36-29 

67-2 

Poppy ... ... 

85-15 

60-9 

115-20 

89-24 

84-24 

115-20 

116-8 

77-4 

115-20 

Potherbs ... ... 

55-23 

85-20 

62-15 

55-23 

55-23 

46-8 

55-22 

36-24 

62-15 

Linseed 

31-8 

20-3 

31-8 

26-21 

26-21 

26-21 

29-2 


31-8 

Mustard seed ... | 

44-18 

26-21 

55-23 

2521 

24-15 


27-24 

18-11 

55-23 

Arzan 

20-9 

13-11 

55-23 

13-11 

13-11 

17-22 

17-22 

H-15 

55-23 

Peas 

26-9 

20-3 

• •• 

22-2 

20-9 

••• 


*•* ' 

>.* 

Carrots 

26-21 

15-16 


22-9 

22-21 


27-24 

18-11 

««* 

Onions 

67-2 

44-18 

67-2 

59-21 

59-21 

80-13 

89-13 

53-17 

68-2 

Fenugreek 

«»» 


55-0 

... 

67. 


*«• 

55-23 

*«« 

Persian Musk-Melons 

100-16 

67-2 

... 

83-11 

89-11 


89-11 

89-8 


Indian ditto 

11-5 

6-18 

■ ' . . . ' : 

13-11 

13-11 

13-11 

13-11 

13-11 

8-24 

Cumin 

70-7 

53-17 

77-8 

67-2 

67-2 

80-13 

80-13 

53-17 


Kur rice 

51-11 

334) 


52-14 

52-24 

40.6 

33-14 

>•* 

' ■ 

Ajwdin 

70-7 

53-17 

78^7 

67-2 

67. 

80-13 

80-13 

53-17 

88-7 


In the text Bafedtt, but the above is the name in the account of this 
Subah which occurs later on. 


Ill 


DELHI SUBAH— SUBDIVISIONS 


Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Ajmere. 



Suburban district 
of Ajmere, &c. 

Parganah of 
Amber, &c. 

■3 

§ & 

Parganah of 
Chitor, &c. 

d 

c5 

® o 
3 

II 

b/j c! 

Parganah of 
Chatsii, &c. 

■6 

M-i . , 

o ^ 
,73 

'W" 

rfl IC3 

CO > 

« H 

CO ' 

: bo O 

Sfi 

ft 

! 

o o 

CO .C3 

ft 

0 o 

•3 c 
38, 

ft 


D. J. 

D. J. 

D- J- 

D. J. 

D- J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

Sugarcane 










{paundc^h) 

1154-20 

... ■ . 


239^ 

239-6 


■' ^ 



Common sugarcane 

86-1 

115-8 

115-8 

115-8 

134-4 

115-20 

81-16 

115-20 

Dark coloured ■ rice 

55-23 

35-20 

55-23 

67-2 

68-2 

72-20 

67-22 

44-18 

Common rice 

44-20 

23-2 

44-2 

53-17 

50-17 

67-2 

46-24 

31-8 

44-18 

Mash ... 

33-14 

29-2 

31-7 

33-14 

33-14 

393 

27-24 

18-15 

31-8 

Cotton .... 

60-15 

40-6 

67-2 

76-1 

76-1 

78-8 

72-17 

54-0 

67-0 

Moth 

24-15 

15-16 

36-3 

26-1 

26-1 

22-9 

40-6 

26-21 

20-3 

Gal ... 

13-15 

8-24 

38-21 

13-15 

13-15 

15-16 

16-16 

10-16 

38-8 

Ttiriya ... 

38-1 

24-16 


33-14 

33-14 

15-5 

... 

... 


Afzan 

17-22 

12-7 

55^21 

17-22 

17-22 

17-22 

22 9 

17-24. 

566 

Indigo 

134-4 

85-11 

134-4 

111-20 

134-4 

134-4 

134-4 

89-11 

134-4 

Hinna 

67-2 

44-18 

67-2 

55-23 

55-23 

67-2 

62-15 

40-21 

67-2 

Hemp 

82-19 

53-8 

87-7 

78-8 

78-7 

89-15 

76-13 

76-13 

53-17 

Potherbs 

55-22 

35-20 

62-15 

55-23 

55-23 

62-15 

76-13 

26-9 ' 

62-15 

Kachran 

13-2 

8-24 

13-11 

11-5 

15-5 

13-11 

13-11 

8-24 

13-11 

Singharah 

115-20 

116-20 

115-20 

115-20 

115-20 

115-20 

115-20 

118-20 

115-20 

Lobiya 

31-20 

20-9 

22-9 

31-8 

31-8 

32-11 

22-9 

13-14 

22-9 

Jowari 

24-15 

11-16 

31-8 

29-2 

29-12 

32-22 

42-2 

30-0 

31-8 

Lahdarah 

20-3 

12-8 

17-20 

22-9 

22-9 

25-18 

31-8 ; 

19-0 

17-22 

Kodarama 

22-3 

11-5 


22-9 

22-9 

33-14 

33-14 

27-24 


Mandwah 

22-2 

14-4 


22-3 

22-9 

26-21 

26-21 

17-22 


Sesame seed 

33-14 

20-3 

3^*4 

33-14 

33-14 

24-16 

34-17 

22-24 

33-14 

Shanvdkh 

15-5 

6-18 


11-5 

11-5 

11-5 

11-5 

6-0 

... 

Mung 

Kuri 

24-11 

15-16 

2^21 

40-6 

40-6 

36-22 

42-12 

27-10 

2621 

21-5 

6-18 


8-24 

8-24 


11-5 

6-3 


Kali 

... 


... 


33-14 

... 


22-9 

... 


The rates of the Sarkars of Bikaner and Sarohi are not given. 


The Subah of Delhi, 8 Sarkars, 28 codes. ' 

1. The Sarkdr of Delhi, 48 Parganahs, 7 codes. The 
old suburban district, the new ditto Pdlam, Jhdrsah, 
Masauddbdd, Tilpat, Luni, Shakarpur , Bdghpat, Kdsnah 
Ddsnah’ Sulaimdndhdd’ Kharkhudah, Sonipat, Talbegani- 
pur, Taldlpur. 

Pdnipat, &c., 2 Parganahs, 1 code, viz.> Pdnipat, 
Karndl, Safedun, Kutdnah, Chhaproli, Tdndah Bhagwdn, 
Conor, Jhanjhdnah Kdndhlah Gangerkhera. 

Baran, &c.> 8 Parganahs- 1 code. Baran, Siydnah, 
Jewar, Dqnkor, Adh, Pothh, Senthhah^ Sihandqrdbdd, 



112 


Am-I-AKBARI 


Merath/ Sic., 7 Parganahs- 1 code. Merath, Hdpur, 
Barndwah, Jaldldbdd, Sarwdrah, Garh Muktesar, 
Hatnawar 

Jhajhar, &c., 4 Parganahs, 1 code. Jhajhar, Dadri- 
Tdha> Mdndothi, Beri Dobaldhan. 

Rohtak, 1 Parganah, 1 code. 

Paloh 1 Parganah, 1 code. 

2. Sarkdr of Baddon, 16 Parganahs, 1 code. Ajdon, 
Apnla, Baddon and suburbs, Bareln Barsar, Pond, Telhi, 
Sahsdwn, Soyidsi Mandehah’ Saniyd, Kant, Kot Sdlbahan, 
Golah. 

3. Sarkdr of Hisdr Firozah 18 mahals, 4 codes. 
Suburbs oi Hisdr Firozah, &c., 7 parganahs, 1 code. 
Suburbs and city of Hdnsi, Barwalah, Barwd’ Toshdm and 
Agrohah, 2 mahals, Fatehdbdd. Gohdnah, &c., 4 parganahs, 
1 code. Gohdnah, Ahroni, Bhattu and 16 villages. Sirsd, 
1 parganah- 1 code. Muhim, &c., 6 parganahs, 1 code. 
Muhim> Rohtak, Jind, Khdndah, Tahdnah, Athkerah. 

4. Sarkdr of Rewdri, 11 m&hals, 4 codes. Rewdri, 
&c., 8 parganahs- 1 code. Rewdri, Bdwal, Kot Kdsim Ali, 
Pdtaudi, Bhoharah, Ghelot, Ratdi Jatdi, Nimrdnah. Tdoru, 
1 parganah, 1 code. Suhnah, 1 parganah,' 1 code. Kohdnah, 

1 parganah, 1 code. 

6. Sarkdr of Sahdranpur, mahals, 4 codes. Deo- 
band, &c.- 26 mahals, 1 code. Deoband, Sahdranpur, Bhat- 
khanjdwar, Manglor* Ndnoth Rdmpur, Sarot, Purchhapdr, 
Jordsi, Sikri Bhukarhari, Sarsdwah, Charthdwah Rurki, 
Baghra, Thdnah Bhewan, Muzujfardbdd, Raepurtdtdr, 
Ambeth -Nakor and Toghlaqpur, 2 mahals, Bhogpur’ 
Bhattah, Thdnah Bhim, Sanbalhera, Khodi and Gangwah, 2 
mahals- Lakhnauti Kerunah, &c., 2 parganahs- 1 code. 
Kerdnah Bedoli. 

Sardhanah, &c., 7 parganahs, 1 code. Surdhanah, 
Bhonah, Suranpalri, Badhdnah, Joli, Khatoli and Baghra, 

2 mahals. Indri. 1 mahal, 1 code. 

6. Sarkdr of Sirhind^ 2 mahals, 4 codes. Suburbs of 
Sirhind, &c.- 13 parganahs. Suburbs of Sirhind’ Rupar, 


,Hctstinapur, BlHot & Tieff, 



113 


DELHI SUBAH, SUBDIVISIONS 

Pdel, Benor, Jahat, Dhotah, Dor dlah, Deoranah, Kuhrdm, 
Masenkan, villages of Rde Samu, Amhdlah and Kaithal. 
Thdnesar, &c.' 8 parganalis. Thdnesar, Sadhurah Shdhdbdd^ 
Khizrdbdd, Mustafa-dbad, Bhodar, Sultanpur, Pundri. 
Thdrah, &c., 2 parganalis. Thdrah, Ludhidnah, Samdnah, 
&c. , 9 parganalis. Samdnah, Sunndm,’ MaTtsurpur^ Mdlner, 
Hapi^n, Pundri, Fatehpur and Bhatindah, Machhipur. 

8. Sarhdr of Sambal, {Sambhal) 47 mahals, 3 codes. 
City of Sambal, &e., 23 parganahs. City of Sambal, suburbs 

01 Sambal, Sar si, Naroli, Manjholah, Jadwdr, Conor , Neo- 
dhanah, Deorah, Dabhdrsi, Dhakah, Rajabpur, Amrohah, 
Ujhdri, Kachh, Aazampur, Islimpur Dargu, Isldmpur 
BharU, Afghdnpur, Chopdlah, Kundarki, Bachharaon, 
Gundor. Chdndpur, &c.> 16 parganahs. Chdndpur, Sherkot, 
Bijnaur, Manddwar, Keratpur, Jalalabad, Sahanspur, 
Nihtor, Naginah, Akbardbdd, Islimdbad, Seohdra and Jhala, 

2 mahals. Lakhnor, &c., 11 parganalis. Lakhnor, Shdhi, 
Kdbar and Kdnkhari 2 mahals. Hatamnah, Rdjpur, 
Dodelah, Lesu/ah, Sarsdwah, Basdrd< Parohi [ = Barohi]. 

Sarkdr of Kumdon. (The names of its parganahs are 
not entered in the MSS.) 



112 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Meratkj &c.y 7 Targaxiah^^^ 1 code. Merath, Hdpur, 
Barndwah, Jaldldhdd, Sarwdrah, Garh Muktesar, 
Hatndwar.^^^ 

Jhajhar, &c., 4 Barganahs, 1 code. Jhajhar. Dddri- 
Tdha> Mdndothi, Beri Dobaldhan. 

Rohtakj 1 Parganah, 1 code. 

Paloh 1 'Parganah., 1 code. 

2. Sarkdr of Baddon, 16 Parganahs, 1 code. Ajdon, 
Aonla, Baddon and suburbs, Barelk Barsar, Pond, Telhi, 
Sahsdwn, Sondsi Mandehak Saniya, Kdnt, Kot Sdlbahan, 
Gdlah. 

3. Sarkdr of Hisdr Firozah 18 mahals, 4 codes. 
Suburbs of Hisdr Firozah, &c., 7 parganahs, 1 code. 
Suburbs and city of Hdnsi, Barwalah, Barwd’ Toshdm and 
Agrohah, 2 mahals, Fatehdbdd. Gohdnah, &c., 4 parganahs, 
1 code. Gohdnah, Ahroni, Bhattu and 16 villages. Sirsd, 
1 parganah* 1 code. Muhim, Sue., 6 parganahs, 1 code. 
Muhim> Rohtak, find, Khdndah, Tahdnah, Athkerah. 

4. Sarkdr of Rewdri, 11 mahals, 4 codes. Rewdri, 
&c., 8 parganahs* 1 code. Rewdri, Bdwal, Kot Kdsim Ali, 
Pdtaudi, Bhoharah, Ghelot, Ratdi Jatdi, Nimrdnah. Tdoru, 
1 parganah, 1 code. Suhnah, 1 parganah,' 1 code. Kohdnah, 

1 parganah, 1 code. 

5. Sarkdr of Sahdranpur, 36 mahals, 4 codes. Deo- 
band, &c.' 26 mahals, 1 code. Deoband, Sahdranpur, Bhat- 
khanjdwar, Manglor^ Ndnoth Rdmpur, Sarot, Purchhapdr , 
Jordsi, Sikri Bhukarhari, Sarsdwah, Charthdwab Rurki, 
Baghra, Thdnah Bhewan, Muzu§ardbdd, Raepurtdtdr, 
Ambeth -Nakor and Toghlaqpur, 2 mahals, Bhogpur’ 
Bhattah, Thdnah Bhim, Sanbalhera, Khodi and Gangwah, 2 
mahals- Lakhnauti Kerunah, &c., 2 parganahs* 1 code. 
Kerdnah Bedoli. 

Sardhanah, &c., 7 parganahs, 1 code. Siirdhanah, 
Bhonah, Suranpalri, Badhdnah, Joli, Khatoli and Baghra, 

2 mahals. Indri. 1 mahal, 1 code. 

6. Sarkdr of Sirhind^ 2 mahals, 4 codes. Suburbs of 
Sirhind, &c.* 13 parganahs. SuburlDS of Sirhind’ Rupar, 


,Hastinapur, Blliot & Tieff. 


113 


DELHI SUBAH, SUBDIVISIONS 

Pael, Benor, Jahat, Dhotah, Dor alah, Deoranah, Kuhrdm, 
Maserikan, of Rde Samu, Amhdlah and Kaithal. 

Thanesar, &c.’ Q paxganahs. Thdnesar, Sadhurah Shdhdhdd^ 
Khizrdbdd, Mustafa-dbdd, Bhodar, Sultanpur, Pundri. 
Thdrahj &c., 2 parganahs. Thdrah, Ludhidnah, Samdnah, 
Szc., 9 parganahs. Samdnah, Sunndm> Mansurpur> Mainer, 
Hdpuri, Pundri, Fatehpur and Bhatindah, Machhipur^ 

S. Sarkdr of Samhal, {Samhhal) 47 malials, 3 codes. 
City of Samhal, &c., 23 parganahs. City of Sambal, suburbs 
of Sambal, Sarsi, NaroU, Manjholah, Jadwdr, Conor , Neo- 
dhanah, Deorah, Dabhdrsi, Dhakah, Rajabpur, Amrohah, 
Ujhdri, Kachh, Aazampur , Islimpur Dargu, Isldmpur 
Bharu, Afghdnpur, Chopdlah, Kundarki, Bachharaon, 
Gundor. Chdndpur, &c.’ 16 parganabs. Chdndpur, Sherkot, 
Bijnaur, Manddwar, Keratpur, Jalalabad, Sahanspur, 
Nihtor, Naginah, Akbardbdd, IsUmdbad, Seohdra and Jhala, 
2 mahals. Lakhnor, &c., 11 parganahs. Lakhnor, Shdhi, 
Kdbar and Kdnkhari 2 mahals. Hatamnah , Rdfpur, 
Dodelah, Leswah, Sarsdwah, Basdrd> Parohi [ = Borohi]. 

Sarkdr of Kumdon. (The names of its parganahs are 
not entered in the MSS.) 



spring Harvest of the S4hah of Delhi. 


114 


AIK-I-AKBARI 




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Supplement to the Spring Harvest of the Subah of Delhi. 


116 AIN-I-AKBARI 



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t la O S 


118 


AIN-I-AKBARt 


The Subah oi Lahore contains 8 populated areas”** 
{Tiejf. pagi et oppida). 

1. The area of Ldhore> &c. has 20 mahals, 1 code. 
Area of Lahore, &c. 4 mahals; metropolitan area, Ban 
Dodb; Barhidsatp^ lands oi Panj Bari Shdhpur : lands of 
Kdlapand, Rachndu Dodb. 

Panjdb, 16 mahals : Tappah*^' Bheluwdl of the Bari 
Dodb, Tappah Bharli, Tappah Phulwdri, Punjgardmi, 
Sandhwdl, Sdhu Mali, Sidhpur, Mankatwdlah, Ghdzipur, 
Chandanwarak, Amrdki Bhatah, Parsaror, Rachnau, Sidh- 
pur Panchnagar, Garbandwdl. 

2. Sarkdr oi Jdlandhar, SO ha.ha.ls. 1 codo. Jalandhar , 
Sultdnpur, Shaikhpur, Melsi, Lohi Dheri, Nakodar, Talon, 
Muhamniadpur, Miani Nuriya^ Kharkharaon, Rahimabad, 
Jalalabad, Hddidbdd, Bajwdrah, Harhdnah, and Akbarabad, 
2 mahals, Balot, Bhonkd, Hdjipur, Pati Dhindt, Dardak 
Sdhimalot, Andwarah, Dadidl, Kard Jdlarl Sarkar {!)• 
Deswahah, Chaurdsi, Naunankal, Nobi. . 

3. Sarkdr of Batdlah, &c. 14 mahals, 1 code. Battdlah 
Kanuwdhan, Kaldnor, Jamdri, Hanwdd and Baba, 2 mahals, 
Thandot, Ddbhdwdlah, Khokhowdl, Paniyal, Bhalot, 
Katwahd and Bethdn, 2 mahals, Salimabad separate from 
Battalah. 

4. Pati Haibatpur, &c., 6 mahals, 1 code. Haibatpur, 
Hoshidr Kamdlah, Firozpur, Qasur, Muhammadot, 
Deosah. ? 

6. Sarkdr oi Parsaror, &c., 7 mahals, 1 code. Parsaror, 
Maukri, Mahror, Pati Zafarradl, Pati Bdrmak, Haminagar. 

6. Sarkdr of Rohtds, &c., 9 mahals- 1 code. Rohtds, 
Kari, Karidli, Bahni, Andarhal, Losdah, Sardahi, Malotrai 
Keddri, Nandanpur. 

7. Sarkdr of Sidlkot, &c., 11 mahals, 1 code. Sidlkot, 
Mdnkot, .Wa«> Sodrah, Narot, Renhd, Jimah Chatah, Marat, 
Mankoknor Sialkot ? 

The term sawM is usually applied to the towns and villages of Arabian 
Iraq {i.e., the sown or cultivated area, as distinct from the desert], as those 
in Kliurasan are called rustdk, and in Arabia Felix makMlif. 

This name does not occur Jn the account of Tahore later on. The 
variants are Barhidt, BarMt, Barsdhat, Bctrsahasat. It is scarcely necessary 
to note that the words Fan' and RachAia in connection wdth Doab are formed 
by the crasis of Beds and in the former case, and Ravi and Chendb in’ 

the latter. ■ . . 

Tappah denotes a small tract or division of country smaller than a 
parganah, but comprising one or more villages. In some parts of the North- 
West, it denotes a tract in which there is one principal town or a large 
village with lands and villages acknowledging the supremacy of one amongst 
them and forming a sort of corporate body, although not otherwise identical, 
Wilson’s Gloss. 


119 


LAHORE SUBAH HARVEST 

S/ Sarkdr oi Hazarah, &c., 16 mahals, 1 code. 
Hazdrah, Chandanwat of the Chendu Dodh Bherah, Kho- 
kharwdh Khushdb , Kal Bhelak,^^^ Khar Darwdz ah, Tdral, 
Shot, Shamshdbdd, separate from Bherah^ Shorpiir separate 
from Chandanwat, Shakarpur separate from Shor. 


Spring Harvest of the Sub ah of Lahore. 



'M 

1 

’c3 

. a ;■ 

Battalah, &c. 

Parsaror, &c. 

1 o 

.... JU 

.. 

jl4 : 

¥■ 

« o 

ft 

. 

a 

■ c3 , 

m 

■ ■ JcS 
■ ^ 

■ d . 

, S ■ 

o 

■ irt 

. m : 

..d . 

" c§ . ■ ' 

ft . 

I 

NV 

CS ■ 

... K . 


D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D, J. 

H. J. 

Wheat 

50-13 

•-49-5 

53-17 

53-17 

53-17 

44-18 

38-17 

55-28 

Cabul Vetches ... 

64-21 

..... 

... 


... ■ 

60-10 

70-15 


Indian do. 

85-20 

33-14 

85-20 

33-14 


31-8 

85-20 

3^17 

Barley 

46-0 

35-20 

38-0 

38-0 


81-8 

38-0 

38-0 

Adas 

26-21 

24-15 

24-15 

24-15 


22-9 

23-21 

26-2 

Safflower 

79-10 

79-10 

78-10 

79-2 


67-2 

78-7 

79-10 

Poppy ... ... 

129-17 

129-17 

129-17 

129-17 


115-20 

129-18 

129-17 

Potherbs 

71-14 

67-2 

67-2 

67-2 


55-20 

67-0 

67-2 

I/inseed ... ... 

31-8 

27-24 

27-24 

31-8 


22-9 

29-22 

31-8 

Mustard seed 

31-8 

29-2 

31-8 

31-8 


26-21 

81-8 

35-21 

Arzan 

21-6 

19-0 

19-0 

21-6 


15-16 

20-3 

20-3 

Peas 

24-15 

26-21 

27-4 

26-21 


26-21 

81-8 

27-24 

Carrots 

24-15 

25-18 

24-15 

24-15 


19-0 

24-15 

24-15 

Onions 

83-21 

83-21 

86-18 

83-21 


71-13 

88-21 1 

84-24 

Fenugreek ... 

50-8 

46-24 

61-12 

40-6 


60-10 

67-2 1 

36-28 

Persian Water Melons 

115-20 

115-20 

115-20 

115-20 


89-15 

111-20 

111-20 

Indian ditto ... 

15-16 

15-16 

15-16 

15-16 


11-18 i 

15-16 

15-16 

Cummin 

57-5 

84-24 

84-5 

87-5 


81-4 

84-24 

87-5 

Ajwdin ... ... 

87-5 

84-24 

84-0 

87-0 


71-4 

i i 

84-84 

87-5 


Autumn Harvest Of the Subah of Lahore. 



d 

i 

... o ■ 

cr 

Battalah, &c. 

Parsaror, &c. 

. 

W if: 

P-f 

u 

. oj ^ 

ft' 

nd 

3 d 
dS od 

ICC 

. "h— J . ■ 

' d 
cd 

07 

: tCC ■■ .- 

»cl • 

d '• 

cd 

'. ■*S‘ , 

1 

icC 

W 

... ■ . 

Hazarah, &c 


D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

J. 

B. J. 

B. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

Sugarcane (paundah) 

240-12 

240-12 

240-12 

240-12 

240-12 

183-12i 

1 

240-12J 

Common Sugarcane ... 

145-9 

136-10 

145-0 

134-4 

123-0 

123-0 : 


170-15 

Dark coloured rice ... 

64-21 

60-9 

60-15 

^ 60-15 

58-4 i 

f 50-8 

67-0 

66-0 

Common rice 

49-5 

40-6 

40-6 

46-24 

46-1 2i 

33-14 

41-9 

49-5 

Kalt 

32-11 

31-8 

31-8 

80-5 

32-15 

26-21 

81-8 

29-2 

Mash 

35-20 

33-4 

35-20 

38-14 

33-14 

31-8 

35-20 

36-23 

Cotton ... ...j 

: '80-15 1 

85-0 

87.5 

88-5 - 

89-15 

76-5 

77-5'^' 

91-18 


In the account of X/ahor, BMak, 


120 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Lahore.— continued. 



d 

oj' 

w 

O 

3 

6 

<3 

s - 

IS 

d ■ 

; . 

u . 

■ o.-. . 

u 

cd 

: , ■ « 

Cd 

d, 

cd cy 

^ d 

fu 

Jalandhar, 

&c. 

; .d 

' 

, or 

; 'S ' 

: o ■ 

' ■ 

■■'d' : 

' . LP ■' 

O 

■■ 

Sy'"' 

d 

■: S ■ 

Cd 

, U ' 

icd 

N 


D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

B. J. 

'D.' 

J. 

Mom 

209 

22-9 

23-23 

22-9 

22-9 

20-3 

23-124 

23 

-124 

(jr&l ... ■ ... 

17-22 

15-16 

17-20 

17-20 

15-16 

13-12 

■ 16-15 

19 

0 

Turiya 

... 

33-14 

35-20 

26-21 


31-8 

38-0 



Arzan 

20 9 

17-0 

17-22 

22-9 

15-22 

14-14 

17-22 

29- 

2 : 

Indigo 

15623 

156-13 

156-13 

156-13 

156-13 

134-4 

134-18 

158- 

19 

Hinnu 

70 0 

70-0 

74-23 

76-0 

74-23 

67-6 

74-23 

77- 

24 

Hemp 

93-23 

93-23 

93-23 

93-23 

89-15 

80-12 

93-23 

93- 

23 

Potherbs 

80-12 J 

80-17 

80-17 

80-12^ 

80-17 

60-9 

70-17 

80- 

124 

Kachrah 

12-8 

! 12-8 

12-8 

12-8 

12-8 

10-6 

12-8 

13- 

11 

Pan 

123-15 

123-15 


123-15 

... 



123 

15 

Singharah ... 

115 20 

115-20 


115-20 



■ . ... 

115. 

20 

Jowari 

40-6 

35-20 

3^0 

38-0 

35-20 

■ . 31^ 

38-0 

38 

0 

Lahdarah ... 

31-8 ! 

29-2 

30-5 

j 29-2 

26-21 

24-15 ' 

23-2 

31 

8 

Kodaram 

33-14 

35-20 ; 

34-17 

I 31-8 

33-14 

31-8 

35-20 

35. 

20 

Mandwah ... 

33-14 i 

31-8 

31-8 

! 32-15 

26-21 

26-21 

21-20 

32- 

15 

Sesame 

4624! 

42-12 

42-12J 

; 44-18 

40-6 

33-14 

48-124 

i 46- 

24 

Shamdkh ... ^ ... 

13-15 

12-20 

12-8 

12-8 

12-9 

10-2 

12-8 

1 13- 

15 

Mung 

40-1 2i 



... 

40-6 

26-21 

44-18 

i 44- 

18 

Kori ... ... 

13-15 

12-8 

12-8 

12-8 

15-5 

10-2 . i 

12-8 

i 12. 

8 

Turmeric 

133-0 

1 

1330 

138-0 

134-4 

133-0 

115-20 1 

134-4 

133- 

20 


Subah of Mdlwah. 

1. Sarkdr of Ujjain, 10 mahals. Gity of Ujjain with 
suburban district, Dipdlpur, Ratldm, Nawldi, Badhnd'War , 
Kanel, Anhal, Khdchrod, Sdnwer, Pdnbihdr. 

2. Sarkdr of Hindiah, 22 mahals. 

3. ,, ,, Kotri, 9 do. 

4. ,, ,, Sdrangpur,23 do. 

5. , ,, „ Bijagarh, 32 do. 

6. ,, ,, Gdgron, 11 do. 

7. Sarkdr s oi Raisin and Chanderi, 1 code. Sarkdr of 
Raisin, Asdpori, &c.' 6 makals. Bhilsah, Bhoru Bhojpur, 
Bdldhhat, Thdnah Mir Khan, Jdjoi, Jhatdnawi, Jalodah, 
Khiljipur, Dhdmoni, Dekhwarah, Deorod, Dhdniah Raisin 
with suburban district, Sewdnu Sarsiah, Shdhpur, Khim- 
Idsah, Khera, Kesorah, Khamgarh, Kargarh, Korai> Lahar- 
pur, Mdhsamand. Sarkdr of Mando, 12 mahals. City of 
Mando, Amjharah, Mahesar, Dikthdn, Dharmagdon, 
Sdnkor, Panmdn, . Dhdr, Barodah, Hdsilpur, Sanasi, 
Kotrah, Mandwarah Nalchah and Hawaii, 2 mahals. 




SPRING harvest MULTAN 


121 



Subah of Multan. 

Sarkdr of Dipalpur. Dipalpur, &c. ,14 mahals ; one 
Dastur; Dipalpur, Lakhi bald Bhoj, Lakhi Kalndrki, 
Lakhi Yus fdni,^'^ Lakhi. Rhokhardin, Kabulah, Lakhi 
Rahimdbdd, Lakhi Chahni, Lakhi Qiydmpur, Lakhi Jangli, 
Lakhi Adlampun Jaldldbdd, Tappah Sadkarah, 2 mahals. 
T appall Sadkarah, Shahzddah Baloj, Rural, Rhdnpur, 
Rasulpur, Shahzddah Hajrau, Mundi. 


Spring Harvest of the Spring Harvest of the 
Subah of Multan.'^ Subah of Mdlwah. 



M. stands for Muzaffari, see Vol. I, p. 23. 

In this and the table of the Spring harvest of Lahore I consider mang a 
misprint for mashang which occurs in this order in all the previous tables. 
Mung, the Phase alas mungo, is recorded only in the Autumn harvest, 

•16 



122 ADSr-I-AKBARI 

Autumn Harvest of the Autumn Harvest of the 
Subah of Multan. Suhah of Malwah. 



"3 ” 

d 

is 

£*'3 

■a a 
52: 

d 

c9 . 

^ s 

a ^ 

d 

,5* 

■ d 

■ ; c;3: : 

d ' 

<u 

’S 

' 0^5 , 

■ d ■ ■ ■ 

1 


D. J. 

D. J. 

D. J. 

M. D. J. 

D. J. 

M. D. J. 

Sugarcane 







{paundah) ... 


240-12 240-11 

1 21 

239-6 


Common Sugarcane 

134-4 

126-9 

143-3 

4i 5 8 

48-15 

6 i 0 

Dark coloured rice 


60-3 

64-21 


70-18 


Common rice 

49^5 

49-15 

49-5 


55-3 


Kali 


27-24 

81-3 


46-6 


Mash 

40-0 

32-11 

35-20 




Cotton 

93-23 

87-5 

89-11 

2| T 2 

87-5 

2f 3 1 

Moth ... 

38-0 

22-9 

28-12 


26-21 


Cxdi ... 

26-21 

17-22 

19-0 


8-8 


Arzan ... ..h ■ 

31-20 

23-12 

22-9 




Indigo 

145-9 

150-19 '159-22 

2i 1 2 

i ^24 


Hinna ... 

76-0 

76-0 

76-0 



2i T 1 

Hemp 

85-0 

91-17 

93-23 




Pot-herbs ... ... 

73-20 

77-4 

82-18 




Pan 


123-0 





Singhdrah ... 


111-0 

... 

4i 's 20 

11^20 

T 7 

Lobiya 

3^*0 

38-0 

33-14 




ijowdri 

42-12 

35-20 

38-0 


44-18 


Kuri 


13-11 

12-8 


15-16 


Lahdarah 

44-18 

29-2 

81-2 




Kodaram 


33-14 

33-14 

• •• 



Mandwah ... 


30-19 

31-8 


3h8 


Sesame 

41-9 

43-15 

44-18 


40-12 


Shamdkh 

12-8 

12-8 

13-11 


■' ... 


Mung 



... \ 


40-5 



Note, — cannot understand nor explain the notation in Muzaffaris and 
am not sure if I have interpreted it correctly. 


123 


DESCRIPTION OF THE SUBAHS 

EDITOR’S NOTE 

On the correction of place-names and dynastic lists in 
Jarrett^s translation, vol. II. 

In tracing the Hindu personal names and the numerous 
less important place-names, the variant readings given in 
the printed Persian text of the ‘^Ain-i-A kbari are of no help 
to us, unless we know the correct names from other sources, 
such as (in the case of topography) large-scale maps and 
the records in the modern revenue and judge’s courts of 
those areas. Similarly, Tieffenthaler’s Geography of 
Hindustan (Fr. trans. by Bernoulli, 1786) is of no real use 
to us ; he merely translated from Persian mss of the ^Ain, 
and where his names differ from those in our printed 
text of the ‘Ain, he can be correct only in the rare instances 
of his having had a more correct and legible ms. of the 
book before him and his having transcribed these names 
in Roman letters without a mistake. Most of the mistakes 
in the proper names are due to the ignorance or careless- 
ness of the Muslim clerks of Abul Fazl and the later copyists 
of his book. Students of Persian mss know that the usual 
sources of mistake in mss are the confusion, in writing, of 
.the letters R, D, and W, (and sometimes also HU for DU) 
and the wrong placing (or omission) of dots {nuqta) by which 
B, T, N, Y, P and H are confounded together. 

The only dependable means of correcting the place- 
names in the ‘Ain-i-Akbari is to use the Survey of India 
maps (quarter-inch or even one inch to the mile sheets), and 
this I have done. But absolute certainly on this point can 
be gained only by carefully verifying these names from the 
old revenue and civil court records of each particular sub- 
division included in the ‘Ain. I wish that local inquirers 
would do this work and send the result to the Royal Asiatic 
Society of Bengal (Calcutta) for incorporation in a futui'e 
edition of this translation. 

Unlike his brother Faizi who was a Sanskrit scholar, 
Abul Fazl did not know that difficult language. So, the 
author of Akbar’s Imperial Gazetteer had to engage a 
number of Brahman pandits and Kayasth scribes, and they 
read out and summarised in Urdu the legendary Hindu 
history from the Sanskrit epics and Puranas and quasi- 
historical works like the Rajatardngini and the guide-books 



124 


An^-I-AKBAItl 


to famous Hindu shrines {i.e., mdhdtmy as &nd khandas.) 
These summaries were put down in Persian by Abul Fazl’s 
clerks. Pickings from these Persian notes went to the 
making of ancient Hindu history as given by Abul Fazl 
in the final shape of the ‘Ain-i-Akbari. 

When Col. Jarrett made his translation of the second 
volume of the ‘'riin-i-rifefoari in the Eighteen-eighties, his 
only sources for ancient Hindu history were Wilson’s 
Vishnu Purdna and Prinse-p's Useful Tables, nnd for early 
Muslim history, Firishtah, Riydz-us-Saldtin and similar 
uncritical early works. During the sixty years and more 
that have passed since then, the study of Indian history has 
made such a great advance that it would be an injustice to 
the modern reader— and also to Jarrett ’s memory,— to 
reprint his notes from obsolete authors. I have therefore 
felt it necessary to sweep awajvhis heaps of dead leaves 
(as I have called them in my introduction to the revised 
edition of the third volume of the ‘A in), and to give extracts 
only from modern authorities, such as the Dacca University 
History of Bengal (vol. I. Hindu period, vol. II. Muslim 
Rule), R. D. Banerji’s History of Orissa in 2 volumes 
(1930-1931, replacing the ante-diluvian Hunter’s Orissa of 
1872, which Jarrett cited,), the Cambridge History of India, 
Elliot and Dowson, &c. 

In fact, Abul Fazl’s Hindu history is of no real value, 
as it was entirely drawn from traditions and myths, long 
before the age of critical historiography based upon inscrip- 
tions, coins and records. Hence, I have not wasted paper by 
trying to refute every error in this portion of the ‘Ain, but 
I have given exact references to modern sources, where the 
reader will find the necessary correct information on the 
subject. 

The pandits employed by Abul Fazl have made a hotch- 
potch of the old history of Hindustan by mixing together 
legendary and historical kings, inserting real royal names 
of one dynasty or province into the dynastic list of another, 
and- thus inextricably mingling truth and, fancy together, 
e.g., Anangahbima was a real king of Orissa (three of the 
dynasty bearing that name) shortly before the Muslim 
invasion, but Abul Fazl makes him the son of the pre- 
historic Bhagadatta, the comrade of Dur 3 ?-odhan of the 
Mahdbhdrat and a king of Bengal! So also, Bhoja, who 
reigned elsewhere than in Bengal and was a Kshatriya, is 



125 


tlSl^ O^ BENGAt KINGS 

made in the ''ylw a Kayastha and the founder of the second 
line of Bengal kings. 

As for Raja Nawyah/ Abul Fazl is confused, making 
him the last king of the Sena dynasty in one place, and 
the father of Lakshman Sena in another. I cannot conceive 
how Ndrdyan can be misspelt in Persian writing as Naujah. 
I suggest the emendation Budh-sen (a real king at the end 
of the Senas) for Naujah in the list, and Raja of Nudia iox 
Raja-i-Naujah at the first mention. 

Correct list of the Pala kings of Bengal — 


Gopala I., accession ... ... c. 760 A. D. 

Dharma-pala ... ... 770 

Deva-pala ... ... ... 810 

Vigraha-pala I or Sura-pala I ... 860 

Narayana-pala ... ... 854 

Raj5m-pala ... ... ... 908 

Gopala II. ... ... ... 940 

Vigraha-pala II ... ... 960 

Mahi-pala I ... ... ... 988 

Najm-pala ... ... ... 1038 

Vigraha-pala III ... ... 1055 

Mahi-pala II ... ... 1070 

Sura-pMa II ... ... ... 1075 

Rania-pala ... ... ... 1077 

Kumara-pala ... ... 1120 

Gopala III ... ... ... 1125 

Madana-pala ... ... 1140 

Govinda-pala ... ... 1156 

(D.U. Bengal, i. 176-177.) 


Correct list of the Sena kings of Bengal — 

Vira-sena (progenitor, not Raja) 

Samanta-sena 

Hemanta-sena, 1st Raja, in Rarh acc. c. 1080. 
Vijava-sena, conquered all Bengal except Gaur, (r. 
1125-58)" 

Vallala-sena, r.c. 1158-1179 

Lakshman-sena, r.c. 1179-1206. His sons Vishwa- ' 
rupa-sena and Keshav-sena ruled in East Bengal till c. 1230. 
Surj^a-sena and Purushottama-sena were probably the sons 
of Vishwa-rupa, and were in power till c. 1246. Among the 



126 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

chiefs with names ending in Sena, in Eastern India in the 
13th century, are Buddha-sena (of Pithi) and his son Jay a- 
sena, and Madhu-sena (date prob. 1289) ; but they were 
mere local barons or zamindars and not ruling sovereigns. 
(D.U. Bengal, i. 205-228.) 

Correct list of the Pre-Mughal Muslim rulers of Bengal 
(leaving, out the viceroys and rebel sultans from Qutbuddin 
Aibak to Md. Tughluq Shah, 1202-1839.)— 

Ala-ud-din Ali (Mubarak) accession 1339 a.d. 

Early Ilyas Shahi dynasty 

Shams-ud-din Ilyas (Bhangara), ... r. 1348-’57 
Sikandar Shah ... ' ... r. 1367-c. ’91 

Ghiyas-ud-din A'zam Shah ... c. 1391-1409 

Ghiyas-ud-din A'zam Shah ... c. 1391-1409 


Saifuddin Hamza Sh. ... 

Shihabuddin Bayezid Sh. (title 
Shams-ud-din) ... 

‘Alauddin Firuz Sh. ... ... 

1409-10 

1411-13 

1414 

Hindu dynasty 


Ganesh {var. Kans) ... ... 

Jalaluddin, s. of Ganesh ... 

Shams-ud-din Ahmad 

1414-1418 

1418-31 

1431-42 

Later Ilyas Shahi dynasty. 


Nasir-ud-din Mahmud I ... 

Rukn-ud-din Barbak Sh. ... 

Shams-ud-din Yusuf Sh. -... 

J alal-ud-din Path Sh. . . . 

1442-59 

1459-74 

1471-81 

1481-87 

Abyssinian dynasty. 


Barbak Shah ... 6 months, 

Saif-ud-din Firuz Sh. 

Nasir-ud-ditt Mahmud II ... 

Shams-ud-din Muzaffar ... 

1487 

1487-90 

1490- 91 

1491- 93 

{Arab) Husain Shahi dynasty. 


A‘la-ud-din Husain Shah, 
Nasir-ud-din A. M. Nasrat Sh. ... 
A‘la-ud-din Firuz 

Ghiyas-ud-din Mahmud, 

1493-1510 

1519-32 

1532- 33 

1533- 38 



MUSLIM SULTANS GF BENGAL 
Sur dynasty . ^ ^ 

Sher Shah ... ... 1539-45 

Islam Shah ... ... 1545-53 

Shams-Tid-din Md. Sh. ... 1553-55 

Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur (Khizr Kh.) 1556-60 

Ghiyas-ud-din 11 ... ... 1561-63 

His son ... ... 7 months, 1563 

Ghijms-ud-din III ... one. year 1664 

Karrdni dynasty (Afghan). 

Taj _Kh. Karrani ... ... r. 1564-65 

Sulaiman Karrani ... ... 1565-72 

Bayezid Karrani ... ... 1572 

Daud Karrani ... ... 1573-76 

(See D.U. Bengal, vol. II) 

Note on the SM'kars of Bengal in Akbar^’s time. 


127 


In view of the frequent changes in the administrative 
geography of Bengal under British rule and the radical 
change resulting from the partition of Bengal in August 
1947, it is impossible to indicate briefly the extent of any 
of the sarkdrs of the ^Ain in terms of the districts of the 
two parts of Bengal as they are today. Among the striking 
points of difference are that under Mughal rule (a) southern 
and western Midnapur belonged to Orissa and not to 
Bengal, (b) the district of Purnia and the eastern portion 
of Bhagalpur were attached to Bengal and not to Bihar, and 
(c) Sikhar-bhum (old name of Packet), Dhaval-bhum, and 
Singbhum formed parts of the Sarkdr of Mandaran belong- 
ing to Bengal. 

The following table of approximate equivalents betw'een 
Akbar’s sarkdrs and the Bengal districts in the last stage of 
British rule may be of some help to the modern reader. 

Sarkars Districts 


Udanibar 

Jannatdbdd 

Fathdbdd 

Mahmudabad 

Khilafatabad 


Rajmahal subdivision, N.W. Mur- 
shidabad, and N. Birbhum. 

Malda (mainly) 

Farid pur. South Bakarganj and the 
islands at the mouth of the Ganges . 
North Nadia, North Jessore, and 
West Faridpur. 

South Jessore and West Bakarganj. 



128 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkars 

Districts 

Bakla ... 

... North and East Bakarganj and 
S.-W. Dacca. 

Tajpur 

... East Pumia and West Dina j pur. 

Ghoraghat 

... S. Rangpur, S.-E. Dinajpur, and 
N. Bogra. 

Pinjara 

... Dinajpur and pai'ts of Rangpur and 
*Rajshahi. 

Barbakabad 

... mainly Rajshahi, S.W. Bogra and 
S.E. Malda. 

Bazuha 

... partly Rajshahi, Bogra, Pabna and 
Dacca. 

Sonargaon 

... We,st Tippera and Noakhali. 

Sharifatabad 

... mostly Burdwan. 

SulaimanabM 

... North Hugli, and adjacent parts of 
Nadia and E. Burdwan. 

Satgaon 

... 24 Parganas, W. Nadia (?) and 

Howrah. 

Mandaran 

... Bankura, Vishnupur, S.E. Burdwan 


and W. Hugli. 

Bdzuha — This word is the Persian plural of bdzu mean- 
ing ‘an arm’, i.e., the direction of a locality with reference 
to a central point such as the capital town. In early times 
the provinces of a kingdom were indicated as its different 
directions {e.g.j Tarf, subah horn sub, whence the titles of 
provincial governors Tarf-ddr, subah-ddr, &c.) As will be 
noticed in the lists of the “^Ain, in Orissa locality-names are 
compounded with the word dik meaning direction of the 
compass, and in Bengal and' elsewhere with the word dast, 
meaning the right arm or the left arm, of the speaker. In 
Akbar’s time the portion of Bengal known as Bdzuha had 
not yet been consolidated into a compact area, but lay 
sprawling over many neighbouring districts and having no 
clear-marked boundaries. Rdst arid chap mean the right and 
left hands respectively. 


J. Sarkar. 


129 


BENCAt SUBAH 

ACCOUNT OF THE TWELVE SUBAHS. 

In the fortieth year of the Divine Era [1694] His 
Majesty’s dominions consisted of one hundred and five 
Sarkdrs (divisions of a Subah) subdivided into two thousand 
seven hundred and thirty-seven townships {qasba). When 
the ten years’ settlement of the revenue was made (which 
amounted to an annual rental of three Arhs, sixty-two 
krors, ninety-seven lakhs, fifty -five thousand two hundred 
and forty-six ddw 5 [Rs. 9, 07, 43, 881] and twelve lakhs oF 
betel leaves), His Majesty apportioned the Empire into 
twelve divisions, to each of which he gave the name of Subah 
and distinguished them by the appellation, of the tract of 
country or its capital city. These were Allahabad, Agra, 
Oudh, Ajmer, Ahmadabad, Behar, Bengal, Delhi, Kabul, 
Labor, Multan, Malwah : and when Berar, Khandesh and 
Ahmadnagar were conquered, their number was fixed at 
fifteen. A brief description of each is here set down, and 
an account of their rulers together with the periods in which 
they flourished, duly recorded. 

BENGAL SUBAH. 

Since the conceptions of sovereign rule embrace the 
universe, I propose to begin with Bengal which -is at one 
extremity of Hindustan a:nd to proceed to Zabulistan^ and 
I hope that Turan and IrSn and other countries may be 
added to the count. The country lying to the east will be 
first described, followed by the north, the south, and the 
west. 

This Subah is situated in the second clime. ^ Its length 


^ Kabul and the adjacent territory as far as Gliazna and even beyond come 
under this appellation which is derived by Yakut, Ma-jmu'a-nl-Buldan) from 
Zabul, grandfather of Rustam. 

^ Iqlim; literally a slope or inclination, was used in the mathematical 
geography of the Greeks with reference to the inclination of various parts of 
the earth's surface to the plane of the equator. Before the globular figure, 
of the earth was known, it was supposed that there was a general slope of 
its surface from S. to N. and this was called klima. But as the science of" 
mathematical geography advanced, the word was applied to belts of the earth's 
surface, divided by lines parallel to the equator, those lines being determined 
by the different lengths, at different places, of the shadow cast by a gnomon 
of the shme altitude, at noon of the same day. This division into climates 
was applied onlv to the N. hemisphere as the geographers had no practical 
knowledge of the earth S. of the equator. There were 19 climates as given 
by Ptolemy {Geogr. i, 23). The term was afterwards applied to the average 
temperature of each of these regions and hence our modern use of the word, 
(Smith’s Diet af Antiq, 2nd ed., art. Climates; also Ency, of Islam, ii, 460). 

17 



13G 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


from Chittagong to GarWis four hundred kos. Its breadth 
from the northern range of mountains to the southern 
frontier oi the Sarkar of Manddr an, is two hundred kos, and 
when the country of Orissa was added to this Subah, the 
additional length was forty-three kos and the breadth 
twenty-three. It is bounded on the east by the sea, on the 
north and south by mountains and on the west hy the Subah 
of Behar. Bhe tract of country on the east called Bhafi/ is 
reckoned a part of this province. It is ruled by Isa Afghan 
and the Khutbah is read and the coin struck in the name of 
his present Majest5^ In this country the mango trees grow 
to the height of a man or not so- high and produce abundant 
fruit. Adjoining it, is an extensive tract of country in- 
habited by the Tipperah tribes. The name of the ruler 
is Bijay Mdnik, Whosoever obtains the chieftainship, bears 
the title of Manife after his name, and the nobles that of 
N drain. He has a force of two hundred thousand footmen 
and a thousand elephants. Horses are scarce. To the north 
is a country called K-uch. Its chief commands a thousand 
horse and a hundred thousand foot. Kdmrup, commonly 
called also Kdonrup and Kdmid, is subject to him. The 
inhabitants are as a race good looking and addicted to the 
practice of magic. Strange stories are told regarding them. 
It is said that they build houses, of which the pillars, walls 
and roofs are made of men. Some of these they compel by 
the power of sorcery, and criminals deserving of death are 
also thus made use of. Whoever voluntarily surrenders 

The Arabs adopted this system but restricted the number to seven. They 
considered three-fonrths of the globe to be submerged and one-fourth above 
water. Of this latter was habitablo and the remainder waste or desert. 
The habitable poi'tion wa.s 33 150,000 square miles in extent, each mile being 
4000 cubits, each cubit 24 digits. ' It was situated between the Bquator and 
the N, pole and was divided into 7 climates. 

® This is Teliagarhi, a pass in the Santhal Parganahs, Bihar, lying between 
the Rajmahal hills on the S. and the Ganges on the N. Formerly of strategic 
importance as commanding the military apnroaches to Bengal proper. The 
ruins of a large fort still exist, through which the B. I. Railway passes. It 
seems never to have been completed and -was constructed in the last century 
by the Teli zamindar who was forcibly converted by the Muhammadans. 
Hence the name of the fort and the parganah in which it is situated. Imp. 
Gazetteer. 

^ The kos. is for convenience generally taken at two Bnglish miles. The 
basis of all linear systems is the same, ^iz., the cubit or human forearm. 
Proceeding upwards four hdths or cubits =a danda or staff : and 2000 da^idas 
a kos, w^hich by this calculation should be 4000 vards Bnglish or nearly 2% 
miles. Useful Tables, p. '87. Also BUioHs Memoir of Races, N. W. P. 11, 194. 

^ The name given by the Muhammadan historians to the coast-strip of 
the Sundarbans from Hijili to the Meghna Bat. 20^ 30' to 22° 30' N., long, 
88° to 91° 14' B. The name means "low lands overflowed by the tide’’ and 
is still applied to the Sundarban tracts of Khulna. and Bakarganj 'Districts, 

■ J, G. For Isa Kh., D.IJ. Bengal, ii, 1^212, 



, BBNCiAt ^ ^ 131 

himself for this purpose, escapes retribution for a year. 
Various conveniences are reserved for him. In due time, men 
armed with swords cut them down, and from their movements 
or immobility or other aspects, they have cognizance of scar- 
city or plenty or duration of years [of the reign] or the longe- 
vity of the ruler or defeat of enemies. They also cut open 
a pregnant woman who has gone her full term of months 
and taking out the child, divine somewhat as to the future. 
There grows a wonderful tree whose branches when cut, 
exude a sweet liquid which quenches the drought of those 
athirst. They have also a mango tree® that has no trunk; 
it trails like a climbing vine, over a tree and produces fruit. 
There is likewise a flower® which after it has been gathered 
for two months, does not wither nor lose its colour or smell. 
Of this they make necklaces. 

Bordering on this country are the dominions of the 
Rajah of Asham (Assam) whose great pomp and state are 
subjects of general report. When he dies, his principal 
attendants of both sexes voluntarily bury themselves alive 
. in his grave. Neighbouring this is Lower Tibet and to its 
left is This is also called Mahachm which the 

vulgar pronounce Machin. From Khan Bdligh^ its capital, 
to the ocean, a forty days’ journey, they have cut a canal 
both sides of which are embanked with stone and mortar. 
Alexander of Greece advanced to that country by this route.® 
Another road is also mentioned which can be traversed in 
four days and four nights. 


^ The Willoughbcia edulis. It is known to natives of Bengal, Assam and 
the Chittagong Hill tracts, as the Loti A'm [Loiij for Sanskrit lata, a creeper) 
but botanically is far removed from the true mango. The fruit is said to 
be pleasant to. taste. The leaf of the dried specimen is very similar to the 
ordinary mango leaf : the fruit is about 2% inches long and 2% . broad 
(Dr. King.). , . - " 

The TuUi, (Ocymum Sanctum). 

^ China for nearly 1000 years, writes Yule {Margo Polo, 2nd ed. Introd., 
p. 11) has been known to Asia under the name of Khitai, Khata or Cathay 
and is still called Khitai by the Russians. [Ency, Islam, ii. 737 under Kara 
KhitaK] 

■ ® De Guignes {Hist, des Htms. gives this name to Pekin, called also 
Tatou the grand court or Khan Baligli, the court of the Khan. Several towns 
have received this name which as it signifies the royal residence is transfer- 
able to any that the monarch may honour with his presence. It is the, 
Cambalu of Western geographers and historians and placed by them in 
Northern China or Grand Tartary, while the Orientals locate it in China 
Proper. (Ency. Islam, ii. 898). 

“ In B.C. *329 Alexander crossed the Oxus in pursuit of Bessus and after 
putting him to death, he passed the Jaxartes (Sir Daria) and defeated several 
Scythian tribes north of that river. This was the northernmost point that 
he" reached. A. Fazl is merely relating the Muslim legend of Alexander, 
for which see Ency. Islam, ii. 533 under al-Ishandar. [J. S.] 


m 


AnJ-I-AKfeARt 


To the south-east of Bengal is a considerahle tract 
called Arakan which possesses the port of Chittagong. 
Elephants abound, but horses are scarce and of small size.’® 
Camels are high priced : cows and buffaloes there are none, 
but there is an animal which has somewhat of the charac- 
teristics of both, piebald and particoloured, whose milk the 
people drink. Their religion is said to be different to that 
of the Hindus and Muhammadans. Sisters may marry their 
own twin brothers, and they regain only from marriages 
between a son and his mother. The ascetics, who are their 
repositories of learning, they style Walt whose teaching they 
implicitly follow. It is the custojn when the chief holds a 
court, for the wives of the military to be present, the men 
themselves not attending to make their obeisance. The 
complexion of the people is dark and the men have little or 
no beard. 

Near to this tribe is Pegu which is also called Chin. 
In some ancient accounts it is set down as the capital city 
of Chin. There is a large military force of elephants and 
infantry, and white elephants are to be found. On one 
side of it is Arakan. There are mines of rubies, diamonds, 
gold, silver, copper, naphtha and sulphur, and over these 
mines there is continual contention between this country 
and the Maghs as well as the tribes of Tipperah. 

The original name of Bengal was Bang. Its former 
rulers raised mounds measuring ten yards in height and 
twenty in breadth throughout the province which were called 
Tk' From this suffix, the name Bengal took its rise and 
currency. The summer heats are temperate and the cold 
season very short. The rains begin when the sun is midway 
in Taurus, (May) and continue for somewhat more than six 
months,, the plains being under water and the mounds alone 
visible. For a long time past, at the end of the rains, the 
air had been felt to be pestilential and seriously affected 

The domestic animals of the Arakan Hill Tracts according to the Imp. 
Ga^. are the gayal, buffalo, cx, goat,, pig, dog. **The Gayal {Bos Frontalis) 
has ^interbred with the common Indian cattle; these hybrids are brought 
down by the Bhutialis to the annual fair in the Darmng District : though they 
thrive in Shillong they soon die if kept in the plains. The Gayal is plentiful 
along the spurs of the Bhutan hills, amongst the Duftlas, Tusliais, and along 
the hilly tract well into Chittagong.'’ Sport in British Burmah by Lieut-Coi. 
Pollock. An alternative reading gives, ^‘horses are scarce, and asses and 
camels are high-priced," which Gladwin has adopted. 

^ Sansk. dli a mound of earth , or ridge for crossing ditches, dividing 
fields and the like; 


BENG-At SdBAH 


133 


animal life, but under the auspices of his present Majesty, 
this calamity has ceased. 

Its rivers are countless and the first of them in this 
province is the Ganges •. its source cannot be traced. The 
Hindu sages say that it flows down from the hair of Maha- 
deva’s head. Rising in the mountains towards the north, 
it passes through the province of Delhi, and imperial Agra, 
and Allahabad and Behar into the province of Bengal, and 
near Qdzihattah in the Sarkar of Bdrbakdbdd, it divides 
into two streams. One of these, flowing east-wards, falls 
into the sea at the port of Chittagong. At the parting of 
the waters, it takes the name of Padmdwati and pursues a 
southern course. It is divided into three streams ; one, the 
[Saraswati] ; the second the Janma (Jamuna) and 
the third the Ganges, celltd collectively in the Hindi 
language. T rib eni/ and held in high veneration. The third 
stream after spreading into a thousand channels, joins the 
sea at Sdigdon [Hugh]. 'The Sarsuti and the Jamna unite 
Mjith it. In praise of this stream the Hindu sages have 
written volumes. From its source to its mouth it is con- 
sidered sacred, but some spots have a peculiar sanctity. Its 
water is carried as an offering of price to far distant places. 
Believing it to be a wave of the primeval river, they hold 
its worship to be an adoration of the supreme being, but 
this is no part of the ancient tradition. Its sweetness, light- 
ness and wholesomeness attest its essential virtues. Added 
to this, it may b« kept in a vessel for years without under- 
going change. 

Another river is the Brahmaputra. It flows from 
Khatd^ (China) to Kuch and thence through the Sarkdr of 
Bazuha and 'fertilising the country, falls into the sea. 

And again there is the sea which is here a gulf of the 
great ocean, extending on one side as far as Basrah and on 
the other to the Egyptian Qulzum'* and thence it washes 


® Sansk. tribeni three braids of hair. Wilford says {Asiatic Research, Voh 
XIV, p, 396) that the waters of these three rivers do not mix. The waters 
of the Jumna are blue, those of the Sarasvati white and the Ganges is of a 
muddy yellowish colour. 

s its rise is supposed to be from the S. B. base of the .sacred Kailas hill, 
on the opposite side of the water-parting in which the Sutlej and the Indus 
also take their rise. Its course, con-fiuents and history may l^e read in the 
r. G. 

*This is the ancient Klysma, the site of the modern Suez, in the neigh- 
bourhood of which the Tel Qulzdm still retains the name which has been 
given to the Red Sea. Ency, Islam, ii> 1114. ^ 



134 AiN-i-AKSAIll 

both Persia and Bthiopia where are Dahlak and Suakin, 
and is called (the Gulf of) Oman and the Persian Sea. 

The principal cultivation is rice of which there are 
numerous kinds. If a single grain of each kind were 
epllected, they would fill a large vase. It is sown and reaped 
three times a year on the same piece of land with little 
injury to the crop. As fast as the water rises, the stalks 
grow, so that the ear is never immersed, inasmuch as those 
experienced in such matters have taken the measure of a 
single night’s growth at sixty cubits.^ The people are sub- 
missive and pay their rents duly. The demands of each 
year are paid by instalments in eight months, they them- 
selves bringing mohars and rupees to the appointed place 
for the receipt of revenue, as the division of grain between 
the government and the husbandman is not here customary. 
The harvests are always abundant, measurement is not 
insisted upon, and the revenue demands are determined by 
estimate of the crop. His Majesty in his goodness has con- 
jfirmed this custom. Their staple food is rice and fish; 
wheat, barley and the like not being esteemed wholesome. 
Men and women for the most part go naked wealing only a 
cloth (lungi) about the loins. The chief public transactions 
fall to the lot of the women. Their houses are made of 
bamboos, some of which are so constructed that the cost of a 
single one will be five thousand rupees or more and they last 
a long time. Travelling is by boat, especially in the rains, 
and they make them of different kinds for-purposes of war, 
carriage or swift sailing. ‘For attacking a fort they are so 
constructed that when run ashore, their prow overtops the 
fort and facilitates its capture. For land travel they employ 
the Sukhdsan. This is a crescent-shaped litter covered with 
camlet or scarlet cloth and the like, the two sides of which 
have fastenings of various metals, and a pole supporting it is 
attached by means of iron hooks. It is conveniently adapted 
for sitting in, lying at full length or sleeping during travel. 
As a protection against sun and rain they provide a commo- 
dious covering which is removable at pleasure. Some enjoy 
the luxury of riding on elephants but they rarely take to 
horseback. The mats made here often resemble woven silk. 


® Gladwin has six for sixty. The long steninied rice, according to the 
LG, is extensively cultivated in the swamps. ^ The seed is sown when the 
marshes are dry or nearly so, and when the rains set in the plant .shoots up 
with the rise of the water and can be grown in water to a depth of from 18 
to 20 feet, but even this is not in one night. 



BENGAL SUBAH 


135 


Tria® inde genera eunuchorum veniunt, quo Sandalos, 
Badamos et Kafuros nuncupant. Priores, partibus genitali- 
bus radicaliter exsectis, Atlises etiam nominant. BMamis 
pars solum penis relinquitur. Kafuros adhuc teneroe aetatis, 
testes vel compressi conficiuntur vel . exsecantur : tamen 
notatum est, castrationem, quae pervicaciam cateris omnibus 
animalibus tollit, hominibus solis excitare. 

Salt is in great demand and is brought from long 
distances. Diamonds, emeralds, pearls, cornelians and 
agates are imported. Flowers and fruit are in plenty. The 
betel-nut is of a kind that stains of a red colour the lips of 
those who chew it. 

Jannatdbdd is an ancient city ; for a time, it was the 
capital of Bengal and was widely known as Dakhnauti and 
for a while as Gaur. His Majesty the late Emperor 
Humayun distinguished it by this title of Jannatabad. It 
has a fine fort and to the eastward of it is a lake called 
Chhatidpatid in which are many islands. Were the dam 
that confines it to break, the city would be under water. 
About a kos to the north of the fort, is a large building and 
a reservoir, monuments of great antiquity. From time 
immemorial, its water has been considered to be of a poison- 
ous character. The place was called Piydshdri (abode of 
thirst), aiid criminals condemned to death, were there 
confined who in a short time perished from the effects of 
this brackish water. At present in the blessed reign of His 
Majesty, this practice has been discontinued. 

Mahmudd'bdd. — ^The marshes around the fort have 
added to its impregnability. The ruler of this district, at 
the time of its conquest by Sher Khan, let some of his 
elephants loose in its forests from which time they have 
abounded. Fong pepper grows in this tract. 

The Sarkdr of Khalifatdbdd is well wooded and holds 
wild elephants. The Sarkdr of Bakld extends along the sea 
shore. The fort is surrounded by woods. On the first day 
of the new moon the sea steadily rises until the fourteenth, 
and from the fifteenth till the end of the month as gradually 
falls. In the 29th year of the Divine Era, a terrible inunda- 
tion occurred at three o’clock in the afternoon, which swept 


® I have imitated the example of Gladwin in veiling the following passage 
under the mash of a learned language and with a slight alteration have 
borrowed his words. (Jarrett.) 



136 


AIN-I-AKBARl 


over the whole 5arfear. The Rajah held an entertainment 
at the time. He at once embarked on board a boat, while his 
son Parmanand Rae with some others climbed to the top of 
a temple and a merchant took refuge in a high loft. For 
four hours and a half the sea raged amid thunder and a hurri- 
cane of wind. Houses and boats were engulfed but no dam- 
age occurred to the temple or the loft. Nearly two hundred 
thousand living creatures perished in this flood. 

In the Sarkdr of Ghoraghdt, silk is produced and a kind 
of sackcloth [jute]. Numbers of eunuchs are here and hill 
ponies in plenty are procurable. There are many kinds of 
indigenous fruits, especially one cdlled Latkan J It is the 
size of a walnut with the taste of a pomegranate' and contains 
three seeds. 

The Sarkdr of Bdrhakdhdd produces a fine cloth called 
Gangdjal {Ganges water) , and a great abundance of oranges. 

In the Sarkdr of Bdzuhd are extensive forests which 
furnish long and thick timbers of which masts are made. 
There are also iron mines. 

The Sarkdr a^Sondrgdon^ produces a species of niuslin 
very fine and in great quantity. In the township of Egdra 
Sindur is a large reservoir which gives a peculiar whiteness 
to the cloths that are washed in it. 

In the Sarkdr of Sylhet there are nine® ranges of hills. 
It furnishes many eunuchs. 

There is a fruit called Fwniarah’® in colour like an orange 

^ Dr, King of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, considers this to be 
a species of Eloecarpus. The fruits of all the species are a good deal alike, 
varying in size from an olive to a walnut, having an external flush}!^ pulp 
more or less palatable, (in some species of fair flavour) and containing a stone. 
The later is usually found to be divided into 3 cells, one of -which contains 
a mature seed, the seeds in the other two being abortive: The taste of the 
pulp of the E. serratus and E. lancceofolius (both natives of Rangpur) is 
a good deal like that of the pomegranate. 

* This was the ancient Mahammadan capital of Eastern Bengal but is now 
an insigniflcant village called Pain to in the Dacca District. LG. 

^ In the south of the district, says the Gazetteer, eight low ranges'" of 
hills run out into the plain, being spurs of the Tipperah mountains. The 
highest is about 1000 feet above sea level. There is also a small detached 
group, the Ita hills, in the centre of the district. 

Commonly Sangtarah, The name is supposed to be a corruption of 
Cintra, but its mention by Baber in his Memoirs seems subversive of this 
derivation, for though the fruit is said to have been an eastern importation 
into Portugal, it is improbable that the foreign name could have been current 
in India at so early a date. Humayun praises it highly saying that no one 
cares for any other fruit who has this.. He states that it is found only at 
Sondrgaon in Bengal and in the greatest perfection only at one place. A 
note to the Memoirs (p. 329) says that the description of the fruit by Baber 
suits more the Citrus decumana than any other, and its Bengali name Batavi 
nimhu, the Batavia lime, denotes its being an exotic, 


137 


BENGAL PLANTS AND BIRDS 

but large and very sweet. , The China root^ is produced in 
plenty. _ In ancient times it had not been discovered until 
some scientific travellers from European Turkey introduced 
it to universal notice. Aloes-wood is abundant in these 
mountains. At the end of the rains they fell the trees to the 
ground, and after a certain time they give them various 
names according to their greenness or maturity. 

The. Bhangraf is a bird of a black colour, with red eyes 
and a long tail. Two of the feathers extend to a length of a 
gaz. They are snared and tamed. It catches the note of any 
animal that it hears, and eats flesh. 'The Sherganj is of the 
same kind but its beak and legs are red ; in imitating sounds, 
it matches the other and pursues sparrows and the like and 
eats them. 

Chdtgdon (Chittagong) is a large city situated by the 
sea and belted by woods. It is considered an excellent port 
and is the resort of Christian and other merchants. 

In the Sarkdr of Sharifdhdd is a beautiful species of 
cattle, white in colour, and of a fine build ; like camels they 
are laden kneeling down and carry fifteen man weight. It is 
noted for the Barbary goat and for fighting cocks. 

In the Sarkdr of Sdtgdon/ there are two ports at a dis- 
tance of half a kos from each other ; the one is Satgaon, the 
other Hugli : the latter the chief ; both are in the possession 
of the Europeans. Fine pomegranates grow here. 

® The root of a species of smilax of a pale reddish colour with no smell 
and very little taste. The smilax glabra or lanceoefoUa, not distinguishable, 
according to Roxburg, by the eye from the drug known as China root. It 
is a native of Sylhet and the adjacent Garrow country. 

® Bhringa-raj, Edolius paradiseus or large racket-tailed Drongo. Plumage 
uniformly Wack with a steel-blue gloss. Length to end of ordinary tail 14 
inches ; wing ; tail to middle 6^4 ; outer tail feather 12 to 13 inches more ; 
the shaft having the terminal end for about 3^/ inches barbed Externally, 
but towards the tip only on the inner side, and turning inwards so that the 
under-side becomes uppermost. It will eat raw meat, lizards, and almost any 
kind of food offered to it. It imitates all sorts of sounds, as of dogs, cats, 
poultry. The Bhring-rdj, (king of the bees) is found in the dense forests of 
India from the Himalays to the Eastern Ghats as far S. as N.L.15°. Jerdon. 
Sherganj Cissa Sinensis, Brisson, Cissa Venatoida, Blyth — ^the green jay. It 
is found in the South Eastern Himalays and in the hill ranges of Assam, 
Sylhet, Arakan and Tenasserim. These birds wander about from tree to tree 
and pick grasshoppers, mantides and other insects, are frequently tamed and 
caged and are amusing and imitative.,, They sing lustily a loud screeching 
strain and are highly carnivorous. The shrike-like habit, in confinement, 
of placing a bit of food between the bars of their cage is in no species more 
exemplified than in this — Jerdon. 11,^ 312. 

^ The traditional mercantile capital of Bengal from the Puranic age to 
the time of the foundation of the town of Hugli by the Portuguese. Its 
decay commenced in the latter part of the 16th century owing to the silting 
up ofthe channel of the Saraswati. In 1632, Hugli being made a royal port, 
all the public ofi&ces were withdrawn from Sitgaon which soon sunk into ruin. 
Stat, A-Cct, of Eofigal ,III, 307~“ 310, 

18 


138 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


In the Sarkdr of Manddran is a place called Harpah. in 
wliicli there is a diamond mine producing chiefly very small 
stones. 

Orissa. 

This was formerly a separate State. The climate is 
extremely healthy. His Majesty apportioned it into five 
Sarkdrs, viz., Jalesar, Bhadrak, Katak {Cntt&ck), Kaling 
Dandpdt and Raja Mahandrah. These five are now included 
in the province of Bengal. It contains one hundred and 
twenty-nine masonry forts. Its ruler is entitled Gajpati.' 
The rainy season extends over eight months ; there are three 
cold months and one month only that is hot. The staple 
cultivation is rice and the food of the inhabitants consists of 
rice, fish, the egg-plant and vegetables. When the rice is 
cooked, they steep it in cold water and eat it on the second 
day. The men are effeminate, anointing their bodies with 
sandal oil and wearing golden ornaments. The women cover 
only the lower part of the body and many make themselves 
coverings of the leaves of trees. The walls of their huts 
are of reeds and their temples are of stone and of great 
height. Elephants abound. The inhabitants of Bengal do 
not understand the language of this country. A woman may 
have more than one husband. They write on palm leaves^ 
with an iron pen, holding it with the clenched fist, and pen 
and ink are rarely employed. The litters called Sukhdsan 
are much in use ; cloths are manufactured and the province 
furnishes eunuchs : fruits and flowers are in great plenty, 
especially the gul-i-nasrin* which is very delicate and sweet- 
scented i its outer petals are white, the inner yellow. The 
keorah^ grows in great abundance and there are various 
kinds of betel-leaf. Money transactions are in kauris which 
is a small white shell generally divided down the middle ; it 
is found on the sea shore. Four kauris make a ganda, five 
gandas, a budi, four budis, a pan, sixteen or according to 


^ I/ord or rider of the elephant. The suit of cards used by Akbar (Vol. I. 
p. 316) under the name of Gajpati, symbolised the power and reputation of 
Orissa in the possession of these animals. 

® For the leaf-wearing tribes of Orissa, the Juangs or Patwas, see Hunter’s 
Orissa, ii. 116, Banerji, Orissa, i. 19 et. 

^ The Brahmanical archives of the temple of Jagannath consist of bundles 
of palm leaves, neatly cut and written over with a sharp iron pen without 
ink. I. G. 

In Hindi, Seoti the Rosa glanduUfera, Roxb, 

* fandamis odoratissimus, Roxb, 



JAgannath' at PURI 

some twenty pan, a khawan [kdhan] and ten khawan, a 
rupee. , 

Kfliafe (CuPTACK.) The city has a stone fort situated 
at the bifurcation of the two rivers, the Mahdnadi, held in 
high veneration by the Hindus, and the Katjuri.^ It is the 
residence of the governor and contains some fine buildings. 
For five or six fees round the fort during the rains, the 
country is under water. Rajah Mukund Deo’’ built a palace 
here nine stories in height ; the first story was taken up for 
the elephants and the stables : the second was occupied by 
the artillery and the guards and quarters for attendants: 
the third by the patrol and gatekeepers : the fourth b3^ the 
workshops : the fifth, by the kitchen ; the sixth contained 
the public reception rooms : the seventh, the private apart- 
ments ; the eighth, the women’s apartments, and the ninth, 
the sleeping chamber of the governor. To the south is a 
very ancient temple. Overlooking this, in the cit\^ of 
Purushottama (Puri) on the sea shore stands the shrine of 
Jagannath. Near to it are the images of Krishna and of his 
brother and sister,® made of sandal-wood. It is said that 
over four thousand years ago Rajah Indradaman (Indra- 
dyumna) ruler of the Nilgiri hill sent a learned Brahman 
to select a suitable spot for the building of a city. He 
wandered much in search of his object and found a fitting 
site which he preferred to all other places. On a sudden he 
beheld a crow plunge into the water and after bathing itself, 
pay its devotions to the sea. He was astonished at this 
action and as he understood the language of animals, he 
inquired of the crow the reason of its proceeding. He 
received this answer. “I was once of the number of the 
deotas and through the curse of an ascetic was transformed 
into this shape. A spiritual guide of high illumination 
affirms that the Supreme Creator has a special regard for 
this spot and whosoever dwells here and applies his soul to 
the worship of God, quickly attains his desire. For some 
years past I have supplicated for my deliverance in this 

‘ One of the deltaic tributaries of the Mahanadi dividing into two 
branches, one of which retains its own name while the other takes that of 
Koyakhai and snpplks tlie Puri district. 

^Telinga Mukund Deo (Harickandan) ; in this reign the sovereignty of 
Orissa was overthrown W the King of Bengal. Banerji, Orissa, i. 342 — 348, 
palace-building not supported by history, ^ 

« Purush-ottama means “the best' of men” Le., Vishnu or Krishna. His 
brother and sister are Baiabhadra and Subhadra. The images are rude logs 
coarsely fashioned in the shape of a human bust, and are actually in^ the 
sanctuary itself. For a description of the temple and other local shrines, 
Banerji, Orissaj ii. 369—418. 



140 


ABSt-I-AKBARl 

manner and the time is now at hand when my prayer will 
be answered. Since thou art essentially meritorious, watch 
in expectation and comprehend the wonders of this land.” 
The Brahman in a short time witnessed with his own eyes 
the things he had heard. He apprised the Rajah of these 
occurrences, who built a large city and appointed a special 
place of worship. The Rajah, one night, after having 
administered justice, was reposing on the couch of divine 
praise when it was thus revealed to him, ‘‘On a certain day, 
watch in expectation upon the sea shore. A piece of wood 
of fifty-two fingers in length and a cubit and a half in breadth 
will approach : this is the special image of the deity : take 
it and placing it in thy house, guard it for seven days and 
whatever shape it then assumes, place it in the temple and 
enshrine it. ’ ’ After waking, the thing happened in the same 
wise, and by a divine inspiration, he named it Jagannath 
and decked it with gold and jewels. It became a place of 
devotion to high and low and many miracles are reported® 
regarding it. Kali Pahar the General of Sulayman 
Karrani, on his conquest of the country, flung the image into 
the fire and burnt it and afterwards cast it into the sea. But 
it is now restored and these popular fables are related of it. 

The three images are washed six times every day and 
freshly clothed. Fifty or sixty priests wearing the Brah- 
manical thread, stand to do them service and each time large 
dishes of food are brought out and offered to the images, so 
that twenty thousand people partake of the leavings 
[prasad.] They construct a car of sixteen wheels which in 
Hindi, they call Rath, upon which the images are mounted, 
and the}?’ believe that whosoever draws it, is absolved fi'om 
sin and is visited by no temporal distress. Near Jagannath 
is a temple dedicated to the Sun. [at Konarak]* Its cost 
was defrayed by twelve years revenue of the province. Fven 
those whose judgment is critical and who are difidcult to 
please stand astonished at its sight. The height of the wall 
is 150 cubits high and 19 thick. It has three portals. The 
eastern has carved upon it the figures of two finely designed 
elephants, each of them carrying a man upon his trunk. 
The western bears sculptures of two horsemen with trappings 

® The legend will be found related at length in Hunter’s Orissa, Vol. I, 
p. 89. 

Kalapahar’s desecration of the Jagannath temple and images, Banerji’s 
Orissa, i. 345. 

* Konarak temple, description in Banerji’s Orissa, ii. 380 — 392 ; its art, 
ii. 410-415. 


^EMPtES OF KONARAK 


141 




(.1 






and ornaments and an attendant. The northern has two 
tigers, each of which is rampant upon an elephant that it 
has overpowered. In front*® is an octagonal column of black 
stone, 50 yards high. When nine flights of steps are passed, 
a spacious court appears with a large arch of stone upon 
which are carved the sun and other planets. Around them 
are a variety of worshippers of every class, each after its 
manner with bowed heads, standing, sitting, prostrate, 
laughing, weeping, lost in amaze or in wrapt attention and 
following these are divers musicians and strange animals 
which never existed but in imagination. It is said that 
somewhat over 730 years ago. Raja Narsing Deo completed 
this stupendous fabric and left this mighty memorial to 
posterity. Twenty-eight temples stand in its vicinity ; six 
before the entrance and twenty -two without the enclosure, 
each of which has its separate legend. Some affirm that 
Kabir Mua’hhid (monotheist) reposes here and many 
authentic traditions are related regarding his sayings and 
doings to this day. He was revered by both Hindu and 
Muhammadan for his catholicity of doctrine and the illumi- 
nation of his mind, and when he died, the Brahmans wished 
to burn his body and the Muhammadans to bury it. 

The Subah of Bengal consists of 24 Sarkdrs and 787 
Mahals. The revenue is 59 crores, 84 lakhs, 69,319 dams 
(Rs. 14,961,482-15-7) in money. [Of this Orissa has 6 
sarkars, 99 mahals and 1,25,732,638 dams.] The zamin- 
dars are mostly Kayaths. The troops number 23,330 
cavalry, 801,150 infantry, 1,170 elephants, 4,260 gTins, and 
4,400 boats. 

N.B . — The Parganahs will now be entered in alphabeti- 
cal order in long double columns to each page accompanied 
by a few 'descriptive notices. 

In the list of mahals, the editor has given the 
correct name first, with the letter R"*" or A* added, to mean 
that the place has been found in Rennell’s Maps or in the 
Atlas of the Survey of India (quarter-inch scale). The 
name of the place as misspelt in the Persian text or wrongly 
transcribed Jarrett has been given within brackets after 
the word mistake. — ^J. Sarkar. 

This HOW stands in front of the Tion-gate of Jagannath. Orissa, I. 290* 
The Konarak temple was built by Narasimha I. of the Eastern Ganga 
dynasty (r. 1238—1264.) Banerji, Orissa, 7, 267—269. For Kabir, Ency. Islam, 
in 592 (T. W. Arnold) and Hastings, Ency. Religion and Ethics, vii. 632 — 
634. (R. Burn). 


142 


Am-l-AKBARi 

Sarkat of Udambar commonly known as Tdnddd 
Containing 52 Mahals. Rev. 24,079,399^1 Daw5. 



Ddms. 

Ag mahal ... 

133,017 

Achla J 


Darsanparah t .. 

O 

00 

Ashrafnihal j 


Ibrahimpur 

360,357 

Ajiyal-ghati ... 

231,957 

Amgachtii ... 

369,357^ 

Barhgangal 

666,200 

Bhatal 

415,470 

Bahadurpur ... 

314,870 

Bahrari 

24,655 

Phulbari ... 

193,025 

Bahadur Shahi ... 

138,102 

Tanda with Subur- 


ban district ... ' 

4,326,102 

Tajpur ... 

291,997 

Taalluq Barbhakar 

11,725 

Tanauli 

196,380 

Chunaghati 

589,967 

Chandpur 

190,027 

Nasibi 

160,205 

Chungnadiya ... 

145,305 

Hajipur 

106,255 

Husainabad 

266,545 

Khanpur 

31,410 

Dhawab 

250,597 

Deviyapur 

559,557 



Dams. 

Daud Shahi 

242,802 

Dugachlii 

225,745 

Rampur 

115,532 

Rubaspur ... 

138,122 

Sarup Singh ... 

1,368,877 

Sultanpur Ajiyal 

456,394 

Sulaiman Shahi 

198,742 

Sulaimanabad . . . 

197,760 

Salimpur ... 

187,097 

Sambala 

174,550 

Shershahi 

178,230 

Shams Khani . . . 

361,952 

Sherpur 

163,097 

Firozpur ... 

347,787^ 

Kunwar-partab 

1,607,200 

Kanakjok 


[Kankjol] ... 

1,589,332 

Kathgarh 

1,265,632 

Gankarah 

894,027 

Kashipur 

36,240 

Kachla 

36,240 

Kafurdiya 

1,440 

Mudesar 

1,503,352 

Mangalpur 

226,770 

Receipts from 


scattered estates* 45,837 

Nawanagar 

825,985 

Nasibpur 

377,750 


^ For Udambar the reading Udner was accepted in the 1st ed. Tanda 
became the capital of Bengal after the decadence of Gaur : no-w a XDetty 
village in Maldah District; it was to the S. W. of Gaur beyond the Bagirathi. 
Old Tanda has been utterly swept away by the changes in the course of the 
Pagla. Sulaiman Shah Ivarrani, the last but one of the Afghan kings of 
Bengal, moved the seat of government to Tanda in 1564, A.D. eleven years 
before the final depopulation of Gaur. It was a favourite residence of the 
Mughal governors of Bengal until the middle of the following century. In 
1660 the rebel Shah Shujaa* was defeated in its vicinity. 

* The term Mazkurain was applied in old revenue accounts to small and 
scattered estates not included in the accounts of the district in which they 
are situated, and of w^hich the assessments were paid direct to the Govern- 
ment officers : subsequently it denoted a revenue payer, paying through the 
intervention of another, except in Cuttack where it implied the reverse, or 
the heads of villages paying the revenue immediately to the Collector. 
Wilson’s Gloss, 



MAHALvS OF LAKHNAUFI 


143 


Sarkdr of Jannatdbad or Lakhnauti. 

66 Mahals. 18,846,967 Dams. 

Castts Kdyaths and Brahmans. Cavalry 500. 


Infantry 

Dams. 

Jannatabad, com- 
monly known as 
Gaur. It has 
been a brick fort 7,869,202 


Ad j acent villages ' 
of Akra form- 
ing IdParganahs 


as follows : ... 

1,573,296 

Ajor 

138,925 

Bazkhokra ... 

192,508 

Baler 

127,060 

Akra suburban 


district 

211,260 

Dhanpur ... 

140,340 

Deviya 

112,208 

Serhwar’ 

71,000 

Shahbala 

98,400 

Shahlalsari 

8,000 

Khektar 

50,200 

Madnawati 

151,890 

Modi hat 

6,980 

Nahat 

242,710 

Hashtganjpur . . . 

28,515 

Adjacent villages 
of Darsarak 16 
mahals as fol- 

lows : 

2,009,344 

Acharikhanah 
where they sell 

undried giiiger 

7,800 

Bhatiya 

826,432 

Belbari 

91,560 

Bazari Kadim 

(Old Bazar) ... 

3,720 


^ T. Sirapour, G. Seernoor. 
t Probably a mistake for Mandavi 


17,000. 


1. 

Dams. 

Darsarak 

62,835 

Rangamati 

3,200 

Sair duties from 


Gangapat and 


neighbourhood of 


Hinduiy 

170,800 

Sherpur and Gan- 


' galpur 2 mahals 

2,000 

Shahbazpur with- 


in the city 

400 

Ghiyaspur 

41,920 

Kamala 

16,377 

Kathachhapa ... 

12,000 

Modi Mahal ... 

13,000 

Mewa Mahal ... 

360 

Duties from the 


New Market ... 

11,760 

1 Adjacent villages 


1 of Dihikot 7 


I mahals 

869,000 

1 Bararipinjar 

698,900 

j Pakor 

37,720 

Dihikot 

31,624 

Dahlgaon 

130,320 

Shahzadahpur . . . 

84,360 

Maligaon 

141,460 

Modipur 

61,880 

Adjacent villages 


of Ramrauti 7 


mahals 

749,795 

! Badhtahli 

207,500 

j Ramauti 

194,767 

] Selghariya 

103,000 

1 Sangkalkara 

93,320 


i 


or grain-mart, emporium, 



144 


' AIN-I-AEBARI 


Sultanpur ... 

Dams. 

29,210 

Sangdwar 

14;447 

Mahinagar ... 

107,550 

Adjacent villages 
of Sarsabad rev. 
of 10 mahals 13,192,377 

Akbarpur 

9,736 

Pardiyar 

85,280 

Khizrpur ... 

396,100 

Sarsabad 

553,080 

Kotwali 

788,427 

Garhand 

334,880 

Garhi 

200,000 


Sarkdr of 
31 mahals. Rev. 


Dams. 

Makrain ... 106,480 

Manikpur and 
Hatanda, 2 mokafe 630,770 

Adjacent villages 
of Maldali, 11 
mahls. 

Barbakpur, Bazar i Yusuf, 
Suburban district of Mal- 
dah, Dherpur, Sujapur, 
Sarbadahlpur, Sankodiya, 
Sbalesari, Shahmandawi, 
Fathpur, Mui’zzu’ddin- 
pur. 

Fathdbdd. 

7,969,568 dams. 


Zamindars of three classes (i.e. castes). 
Cavalry, 990. Infantry, 50,700. 



Dams. 

Psracharaj 

34,024 

Bholiyabil 

... 384,452 

Belor 

... 124,872 

Bhagalpur 

2,115 

Badhadiya 

1,442 

Telhati 

... 377,290 

Charnlakhi 

35,645 

Charhai 

30,200 

Suburban district 

and town 

of 

Fathabad 

... 902,662 

Salt duties 

... 277,758 

Hazratpur 

... 11,640 

Market dues 

11,467 

Rasulpur 

... 103,767 

Sondip 

... 1,182,450 

Sarharkal 

... 787,430 



Dams. 

Sarisani 

173,227 

Sardiya 

53,882 

Sadhwa 

37,127 

Sawail, commonly 


called Jalalpur 

1,857,230 

Shahbazpur 

732,172 

Kharagpur 

118,135 

Kasodi3^a 

102,405 

Kosa 

68,350 

Makorgaon 

3,157 

Masnadpur 

55,312 

Miranpur . 

22,172 

Receipts from 


scattered estates 

133,365 

Yaklesar 

49,422 

Yia’matpur 

20,960 

Hazarahati . . ! 

21,597 

Yusufpur 

258,025 



Sarkar of Mahmudabdd. 

88 mahals. Rev. 11,602,256. 


Caste Kdyath. 

Cavalry, 

200. Infantry, 10,100. 



Dams. 


Dams. 

Adniya 


76,113 

Husain Aj^al ... 

345,135 

Anupampur 


43,365 

Haweli [suburb] 

91,575 

Ajiyalpur 


37,307 

Khalispur 

56,805 

Indarkalli 


11,250 

Khizrakhani 

1,092 

Amdah 


192 

Khurrampur . . . 

265 

Bazu-rast 


652,507 

DakasP 

51,740 

Bazu-chap 


271,240 

Durlabhpur 

13,776 

Baradi 


604,122 

Dbuli ... 

13,665 

Bisi 


25,247 

Deora ... 

107 

Barin Jumlah 


102,210 

Dahlat Jalalpur 

1,200 

Betbariya 


96,117 

Dostihna 

1,062 

Batbnan 


85,447 

Dhomarhat 

42,505 

Batkan 


41,317 

Sadkichal Kotiya 


Belwari 


80,195 

or Kota 

8,205 

Bandwal 


26,155 

Sarotiya 

6,530 

Patika mara 


22,710 

Sarsariya 

72,147 

Babhankarla 


14,895 

Sankardiya 

10,212 

Paranpur 


12,572 

Salimpur 

23,637 

Barmahptir 


6,717 

Soltara Ajiyal, 


Patkabari 


3,567 

commonly Koma 

789,220 

Pipalbariya 


2,045 

Suruppur 

7,482 

Baghotiya 


217 

Salibariya 

6,760 

Belkasi 


123,387 

Sator ... 

290,727 

Taragona 


675,790 

Shahajiyal 

644,787 

Tiyagbati 


96 

Sherpurbari 

9,402 

Taraajiyal 


391,365 

Sberpur Utasholi 

2,797 

Chhaduiya or 



Azmatpur 

14,422 

Cbhaddiya 


9,125 

Ghaznipur 

12,367 

Jiyarukbi 


11,505 

Farhatpur 

301,790 

J agannatlipur 


762 

Fathpur Nosika 

102,525 

Chadibariya’ 


44,007 

Qutabpur 

23,352 

Jediya 


44,700 

Qazipur 

2,652 

Chitanbazu^ 


952,950 

Kandaliya 

20,417 


^ T. and var. Jedi'bariya. 

^ G. Cliytun, var. Jastan and Chain. 
® T. and var. Dakari. 

19 


146 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Mahmuddbdd--Contd. 



Ddms. . 

Ddms. 

Khelphati ... 

19,940 Madhodiya* ... 

695 

Kandi Nawi 

8,477 Maruf-diya 

2,302 

Kolbariya 

6,517 Naldi 

804,440 

Kaudasa^ ... 

6,435 Nasrat Shahi . . . 

272,450 

Kaliyanpur 

26,235 Nagarchal Kotiya 

61,235 

Kali Mahal ... 

26,7l7 Nagar Banka . . . 

3,382 

Daniyan 

313,286 Nashipur called 


Launkohal 

15,426 also Ujain 

91,080 

Mihman Shahi ... 

675,727 Hemtapur 

477,360 

Makhiya ... 

14,505 Halda 

122,566 

Mahmud Shahi 

226,552 Hawal Ghati ... 

66,217 

Mirpur 

2,370 Hatapan { ?Hatian) 

3,665 

Maheswarpur ... 

42,852 Hosipur 

17,425 


Sarkdr of Khalifatdbdd. 

35 mahals. Rev. 5,402,140 ddms. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 100. Infantry, 15,150. 

Ddms. Ddn 

Bhal, with township 475,102 Chhalera^ ... 60, J 

Bhalka ... 230,516 Suburban dist. of 

Polah ... 135,932 Khalifatabad ... 31,4 

Potka ... 104,205 Khalispur ... 32,7 

Bagh Mara ... 81,807 Daniya ... 522,^ 

Bhanga ... 25,300 Rangdiya ... 129, € 

Bhades ... 11,225 Sahaspur ... 260,? 

Bhaliyanah ... 9,527 Sulaimanabad ... 168, £ 

Phulnagar ... 66,660 Sahas ... 91, £ 

Taalluq of Kasinath 297,720 Sobhnath ... 61,6 

Tala .... 174,676 SMesarbahP ... 11,4 

Taalluq of Srirang 26,427 Imadpur ... 97,1 

„MahesMandal 23,727 Khokral ... 105, £ 

Damodar Ranges, Taalluq 

Bhattacharaj 13,860 I'armanand ... 166,? 

Sripat KavWj^ 8.676 M*ha ... 126. 

Jesar, commonly, Madhariya ... 45,C 

Rasulpur • ... 1,723,850 Mangorghat ... 16,6 

Charaula ... 99,550 Mahresa ... 11,1 

^ G. T. and var. Gauda, 

^ G. and var. Chabrah. 

* X* and G. and var. Sales^j 


Sarkar of Bakla. 

Containing 4 mahals. Rev. 7,150,605. 


Castes, various. Elephants, 320. Infantry, 15,000. 



Dams, j 


Dams. 

Ismailpur, commonly 

Shahzadalipur ... 

977,245 

Bakla 

... 4,348,960 

Adilpur 

m . ^ 

Srirampur 

... 252,000 

[Idilpur] 

1,553,440 


Sarkar of Purniyah. 


9 

mahals. Rev. 

6,408,775 dams. 



Infantry 

5,000. 



Dams. 


Dams. 

Asonja 

... 734,225 

Sripur 

390,200 

Jairampur 

... 467,785 

Sdir duties from 


Suburban dist 
Purniyab 

of 

... 2,686,995 

elephants 

85,000 

Dalnialpur 

... 671,530 

Kathiyari 

590,100 

Sultanpur 

... 502,206 

Kadwan 

280,592 


Sarkar of Tdjpur. 


29 

mahals. Rev. 

6,483,857 dams. 


Castes, various. Cavalry 

, 100. Infantry, 

50,000. 


Dams. 

i ' 

Dams. 

Pangat {mist. 


Malduar {mist. 


Bankat) 

... 3,307,885 

Taldwar) 

208,540 

Badokhar 

... 238,855 

Chhapartal 

243,255 

Phali 

60,860 

Suburban dist. and 

Bandol 

... 190,830 

town of Tajpur 

886,254 

Bobara 

23,192 

Dilawarpur 

944,055 

Bhonhara 

... 118,295 

Daihat 

124,196 

Badgaon 

9,330 

Sesahra 

376,760 

Basigac^ 

... 104,492 

Shujapur 

244,607 

Bangaon 

... 115,990 

Shahpur 

126,235 

Bahadurpur 

96,012 

Kuwarpur 

406,000 

Bahanagar 

91,630 

Kasargaon 

258,742 

Badalka 

71,564 

Gopalnagar 

233,160 



Goghra ... 

Matur {mist. 

Mahon) ... 

Nilnagar (Nilpur) 


Sarkar of Tafpur- 
Ddms. 

... 147,392 


-Contd. 


194,476 

267,612 


Nilun 

Yusuf ... 

Zakat (tax) ... 

Sarkar of Ghordghdt. 

84 mahals. Rev. 8,083, 072 ddms. 


Dams. 

147,610 

146,240 

78,487 


Castes, various. Gavalry, 900. Elephants, 60. 


Infantry, 



Ddms. 

Adhwa 

91,292 

Andhar ... 

76,010 

Andalgaon 

164,337 

Anwarban ... 

31,022 

Algaon ... 

171,696 

Ambathura, Abthura 26,326 

Ahmadabad ... 

18,617 

Anbalagachhi . . . 

9,200 

Anwar Malik ... 

8,020 

Al Hat 

7,608 

Ilahdadpur ... 

2,190 

Bazu Zafar Shahi, 


2 mahals 

736,836 

Bazu Faulad Shahi 

711,412 

Bagdwar ... 

102,440 

Phulbari 

6,680 

Barbakpur 

84,962 

Bamanpur 

349,070 

Town of Nasrata- 


bad ... . 

336,446 

Barsala 

233,680 

Bari Sabakbala 

146,767 

,, Ghoraghat 

166,827 

Bayazidpur 

144,227 

Pataldeh 

41,366 

Balka 

30,336 

Bholi 

12,040 

Bajpatari 

7,900 


32,800. 

Ddms. 

Banwarkajar 

4,462 

Belghati 

3,246 

Bazar Chhataghat 
Palasbari' 

387 

Panch Malka ... 

6,340 

Tulsighat 

164,340 

Taalluq Husain 

35,410 

, , Balnath 

27,962 

,, Siwan 

16,490 

,, Kasai 

15 ,.267 

Tachahal 

8,290 

Taalluq Ahmad 


Khan 

238,475 

Hamila 

6,680 

Khairabadi 

5,602 

Khasbai'i 

2,736 

Rungpur [Ruknpur] 10,960 

Sultanpur 

108,377 

Sikhshahar^ 

93,071 

Sathipur 

49,670 

Sirhata 

344,097 

Sabdi 

206,224 

Sitpur 

128,775 

Siriya Kandi . . . 

24,622 

Saghat 

16,412 

Sherpur Koibari 

'# 

(S. Kafura) ... 

16,675 

Fathpur 

353,356 


^ In text figures wanting, G. has 7,000. Var. 5,340 
* Var, Sabtakah, Besliekh, Silah. T.: Sankha. 



Sarkdr of Ghoraghat—Contd. 


Dams. 

Khetari ... 1,344,280 

Gayapur ... 107,206 

Kabulpur ... 98, 465 

Ganj Saklimala 98,465 
Kkadkliadi ... 81,565 

Gokul ... 56,865 

Kothi Bari 2 mahals 48,807 
Khalsi ... 264,322 

Kandibari ... 125,797 

Kuli Bazar, com- 
monly Jorpuri 115,680 

Gobindpur Akhand 40,67 5 
KanktaP ... 40,367 

Kanak Sakhar ... 28,065 

Ghatnagar ... 27,922 

Kawa Gachhi ... 24,600 

Kalibari ... 24,847 


Dams. 

Kora, receipts 
from Zakat ... 18,000 

Kokaran ... 13,120 

Kabul ... 11,690 

Garkiya ... 10,980 

Gokanpara ... 9,850 

Magatpur ... 124,006 

Mukabbatpur ... 46,612 

Musjid Husain Skaki 28,945 

,, Andarkkani 3,447 
Malair ... 24,800 

Nandakra ... 61,050 

Naupara ... 19,202 

Nakajaun Bator 49,010 
Wakar Hazir ... 30,646 

Wackki ... 16,832 

Wakrib ... 4,230 


Sarkdr of Pinjarah.* 

21 mahals. Rev. 5,803,275 dams. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 50. Infantry, 7,000. 



Dams. 

Ambel 

1,068,725 

Ambari A* 

36,525 

Amgochak 

101,882 

Barbakpur 


(Barangpur) . . . 

635,390 

Bijanagar A* ... 

719,107 

Bayazidpur A* 

255,445 

Baharnagar 

119,720 

Bari Gker 

84,277 

Badugkar 


(? Balurkat) ... 

55,206 

Tegasi (Takasi). 


A* . . . 

374,490 

Chaloon (Halon) 


A* 

82,142 



Ddms. 

Suburban district 


of Pinjarah ... 

93,967 

Digha 

146,837 

Deopara (Heora) 


A=>= ... ... 

107,727 

Sadharbari 


(?]harbari) ... 

273,046 

Sankata (Sukti- 


gacha) 

251,410 

Sultanpur A* ... 

203,292 

Sasber A* . . . .■ 

. 165,180 

Sulaimanabad ... 

42,532 

Kkatta ( ?Kketlal) 

777,266 

Kedabarif 

213,382 


® Far. Gatral, G. Gautnall. 

* Pinjarah, evidently a copyist’s error. No such name in any map. 
Tieffenthaler reads Bijara. 

t Cannot be Godavari. May be Kdmdevpur. 



150 


AIN-i-AKBAii 


Sarkdr of Barhakdbdd. 

SS mahals. Rev. 17,451,532 dams. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 50. Infantry, 7,000. 


Dams. 

Amrul ... 560,382 

City of above- 
mentioned (Bar- 
bakabad) ... 315,340 

Basuoul (Basdol) 

A* 190,885 

Polarhar ... 136,712 

Pustu (Bastol) A* 652,367 

Barbariya ... 64,335 

Bangaon ... 319,000 

Paltapur A* ... 179,840 

Chhandiya Bazu 755,522 

Chama A* ... 159,832 

Jeasindb (Jahasand) 
and Cbaugaon, 

2 mahals ... 407,007 

Cbandlai (Jandlai) 

A* ... 289,340 

J anasu ( ? Jbankur) 

A* _ ... 85,787 

Suburb, district of 
Sukb Sbahar 1,629,175 
Dhamin (Dharman) 

A* ... 350,895 

Daudpur A* ... 8,902 

Sankardal, com- 
monly Nizampur 389,975 



Dams. 

Shikarpur A* ... 

327,342 

Sherpur and Baham- 

pur, 2 mahals A* 391,625 

Tahirpur A* . . . 

505,825 

Qazihatti A* ... 

620,477 

Kardoho A* ... 

1,390,572 

Guzrhat 

1,296,240' 

Khas 

881,080 

Ganj known as 
Jagdal A* 

694,655 

Gobindpur 

410,535 

Kaligae Kotha . . . 

341,057 

Khurael (Kharal) 
A* 

210,132 

Kodanagar 

129,550 

Kaligaon (Kaligae 

) 

A* 

196,932 

Easkarpur 

255,090 

Majilpur (Malji- 
pur) 

925,680 

Mosida (Masdha) 
A* 

689,712 

Man Samali ... 

594,792 

Mahmudpur 

124,532 

Wazirpur 

169,190 


Sarkar of Bazuhd. 

32 mahals. Rev. 39,516,871 dams. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 1,700. Elephants, 10. 
Infantry, 5,300. 


Alap Shahi 
Badmar, Nasrat 
Shahi, Mehrau- 
nah, Kahar- 
wana, Sirali, 

5 mahals 


760,667 


:, 178,140 


Bhoriya Bazu ... 2,820,740 
Bhawal Bazu ... 1,935,160 
Partab-Bazu ... 1,881,265 
Bakhariya Bazu 1,715,170 
Husain Shahi ... 182,750 


Sarkdr of Bdzuhd—Contd. 


Dashkahaniya 

Bazu 

Dkaka Bazu ... 
Salim Partab 
Bazu, Chand . 
Partab Bazu, 
Sultan Bazu 

Sonaghati Bazu 
Sona Bazu ... 
Silbaras 

Dues on produce 
and piscary of 
rivebs, ' tanks, 
&c. 


Dams. 

1,946,602 

1,901,202 

4,625,475 

1,910,440 

1,705,290 

1,484,320 


261,280 


Dams. 

Shah Ajiyal Bazu 405,120 
Zafar Ajiyal Bazu 250,047 
Katarmal Bazu 2,804,390 
Khata Bazu ... 137,720 

Mihman Shahi, 
knovm as Sherp- 
pur Murcha ... 2,207,716 
Mumin Singh, 

Nasrat Shahi, 

Husain Singh, 1,867,640 
Nasrat Ajiyal 
4 mahals 

Mubarak Ajiyal 468,780 
Hariyal Bazu ... 344,440 

Yusuf Shahi ... 1,670,900 


Sarkdr of Sonar gdon. 

52 mahals. Rev. 10,331,333 ddms. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 1,500. Elephants, 200. 
Infantry, 46,000. 



Ddms. 

Uttar Shahpur 

388,442 

a 1 Jihat 

53,090 

Uttar Usmanpur 

24,880 

Bikrampur 

3,335,052 

Bhulwa-jowar . . . 

1,331,480 

Baldakhal 

694,090 

Bawaliya 

237,320 

Barchandi 

120,100 

Bath Kara 

4,080 

Palas-ghati, &c. 

43,265 

Baradiya 

19,000 

Phulari 

19,000 

Panhatta 

7,367 

Tora 

104,910 

Tajpur 

60,000 

Tarki 

18,270 

Jogidiya 

512,080 

Environs of Port 

82,632 


Ddms. 

Chhokhandi, from 
shop dues ... 17,827 

Chand Bazar ... 30,322 

Chandpur ... 120,000 

Suburban district 
of Sonargaon with 
city ... 459,532 

Khizrpur ... 40,308 

Dohar ... 468,524 

Dandera ... 421,380 

Dakhin Shahpur 239,910 

Dilawarpur : re- 
ceipts from zakdt 127,207 
Dakhin Usmanpur 8,840 
Raepur ... 4,535 

Sekhargaon ... 340,365 

Sakri ... 184,780 

Salimpur , , , 91,090 


I 


152 


Am-I-AKBARI 


Satkar of Sondrgaon—Contd. 



Dams. 

Ddms. 

Salisari with pro- 

Kothri (Eothari) 

35,160 

duce and piscary 

Gathi Nadhi (G. 


of rivers, tanks, 

Danai) 

20,000 

&c. , raiyati* and 

Mehrkol 

1,039,470 

the like ... 

40,724 Muazzampur ... 

236,830 

Sakhwa from raiyati 280,000 Meliar ... 

60,800 

,, ,, sdir dues 

28,000 Manoharpur 

53,301 

Sakhadia ... 

28,000 Mahijal 

25,000 

Sejoaif ... 

13,000 Naraenpur, from 


Shamspur 

22,000 sdir dues, zakdt 


Kerapur 

293,402 and raiyati 

940,760 

Gardi 

89,590 Nawakot 

16,080 

Eartikpur ... 

80,000 Hanita Bazu ... 

281,280 

Ehandi ... 

40,140 Hat Ghati ... 

10,285 


Sctrkar of Sylhet. 

8 mahals. Rev. 681, 308 dams. 

Castes , various , Cavalry , 1 , 1 00 . Elepiiants , 190 . 
Infantry, 42,920. 


Dams. 

Partabgarh, called 
also Panjkband 370,000 

Bania Chang ... 1,672,080 
Bajwa Biyaju ... 804,080 
Jesa (Jaintiya ?) 272,200 


Dams. 

Suburban district 
of Sylhet . . 2,290,717 

Sarkhandal . . 390,472 

Baur ... 246,202 

Harnagar, raiyati 
' and sdir ... 1,010,867 


Sarkdr of Chittagong. 

7 mahals. Rev. 11,424,310 dams. 


Castes, various. Cavalry, 100. Infantrr^, 1,600. 

Dams, 1 Dams. 


Talagaon [ ?Mal- . 
gaon] ... 606,000 

Chatgaon (Chitta- 
gong) ... 6,649,410 

Deogaon ... 775,540 


Sulaimanpur, com- 
monly Shaikhpur 1,572,400 
Sdir dues from 
salt-pits ... 737,520 

Sahwa ... 5,079,340 

N awapar a ... 703 , 300 


* Applied in Bengal to lands of which the revenue is paid in money in 
opposition to khamar lands of which revenue was paid in kind : also to a 
settlement direct with the cultivators, — Wilson’s Gloss, 
t G-. and var, Sabarchal, 



Sarkdf of Sharif dbad. 

26 mahals. Rev. 2,488,750 dams. '' 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 200. Infantry, 5,000. 
Dams. 

Burdwan ... 1,876,142 
Bahror ^1,736,796 
Barbaksail ... 540,395 

Bharkondah, and 
Akbharshahi, 
c o m m o n I y 
Sandal, 2 mahals 1,276,195 
Bagha ... 609,340 

Bhatsila ... 307,340 

Bazar Ibrahimpur 15,740 
Janki ... 937,705 

Khot Makand ... 2,315 

Dhaniyan ... 1,508,850 
Sulaiman Shahi 721,335 Nasak ... 782,517 

Soniya ... 90,370 ( Natran . . . 203,660 

Sarkdr of Sulaimandbdd. 

31 mahals. Rev. 17,629,964 dams. 


Castes, various. Cavalry, 100. Infantry, 5,000. 



Ddms. 


Ddms. 

Indarain 

... 592,120 

Husainpur 

* 355,090 

Ismailpur 

... 184,540 

Dharsah 

95,260 

Anliya 

... 124,577 

Raenah 

68,257 

Ula 

89,277 

Suburban district 


Basandhari 

... 2,266,280 

of Sulaimana- 


Bhursat 

... 1,968,990 

bad 

2,051,090 

Panduah 

... 1,823,292 

Satsikaf 

767,111 

Pachnor 

... 601,495 

Sahspur 

314,842 

Bali Bhanga 

2 

Sanghauli 

72,747 

mahals* 

... 417,185 

Sultanpur 

44,576 

Chhotipur 

... 554,956 

Umarpur 

223,320 

Chumha 

... 455,901 

Aalampur 

38,280 

Jaipur 

44,260 

Qabazpur 

747,200 


Ddms. 

Suburban district 
of Sherpur Atai 816,068 
Azmatpur ...1,660,046 

Path Singh ... 2,096,460 

Husain Ajiyal ... 393,345 

Kargaon ... 348,260 

Kiratpur ... 225,775 

Khand [Ghosh] 196,380 
Khanga . 174,360 

Kodra ... 63,125 

Mahland ... 1,831,890 

Manohar Shahi 1,709,920 
Muzaffar Shahi 1,552,175 


* There is a Bali Banga in Nadiya. 

t G. and 'var, Satsanga. Note—Now In district of l^ardwan, 

20 



154 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Sulaimanabad— cowfi. 


Dams, 

Gobinda (Kosada?) 357,942 
Receipts from in- 
dependent 

dars ... 213,067 

Muhammadpm: 48,516 


Molgbar 


Dams. 

792,107 

Nagin 

• • # 

910,990 

Naira 

• • * 

872,946 

Nasang 

« * • 

600,765 

Nabiya [?Nipa] 

77,017 


Sarkar of Sdtgdon. 
mahals. Rev. 16,724,724 dams. 


Castes, various. Cavalry, 50. Infantry, 6,000. 


Dams. 

Banwa, Kotwali, 
Farasatghar,(?) 

Smahals ... 1,540,770 

Ukra ... 726,360 

Anwarpur ... 236,950 

Arsa Tawalif Slt- 
g&on mahals 234,890 
Akbarpur ... 115,590 

Bodban ... 956,467 

Panwan and 

Salimpur ... 952,505 

Purah ... 652,470 

Barmhattar and 
Manikhatti ... 383,803 

Belgaon ... 233,602 

Balinda ... 125,250 

Bagwan and 
Bangabari . . . 100,000 

Baliya ... 94,725 

Pbalka ... 38,245 

Baridbati ... 25,027 

Tortariya ... 36,604 

Haveli Sbabr ... 502,330 

Husainpur ... 324,322 

Hajipur, Barbak- 
pur, 2 mahals 142,592 

Dhuliyapur ... 78,816 

Ranibat ... 1,358,610 


Sadgbati 

Dams. 

468,058 

Sakota ... 

204,072 

Srirajpur 

125,792 

Sdir dues from 

Bandarban and 

Mandawi, 2 

mahals ... 

1,200,000 

Sakhat, KMsal, 2 

mahals 

45,757 

Fathpur 

80,702 

Calcutta, Bakoyaff 

Barbakpur, 3 

mahals 

936,215 

Kharar 

365,275 

Kandaliya 

242,160 

Kalarua 

197,522 

Magra 

801,302 

Mativari 

307,845 

Medni Mai 

186,242 

Muzaffarpur 

108,332 

Mundagacbha . . . 

■ 98,565 

Nahihatti 

49,935 

Nadiya and San- 

tipur, 2 mahals 

1,508,820 

Helki 

90,042 

Hat hi Kandba ... 

56,702 

Hatiyagarb 

781,360 


t Can it be A'rsa haveli-e-Satgan} [J. Sarkar]. 

f t G. and var. Maknma. CalcuUci ijj unlikely. I prefer the variant in 
tot Kalna [J. S.] 



Sarkdr of MandaraH, 

16 mahals. Rev. 9,403,400 dams. 


Castes, various. Cavalry, 160. Infantry, 7,000. 



Ddms. 

Panibatti ... 

122,656 

Bagri (Balgarhi) 


R* 

937,077 

Birbhum ... 

641,246 

Dhawalbhum {mis. 


Bawal) ... 

496,220 

Chitwa A* _ : 

806,542 

Champanagari ... 

412,250 

' Suburban district 


of Mandaran ... 

1,727,077 

1 Sin[g]blium ... 

615,805 

1 Samar Sanhas 


: (Sarhat) ... 

274,461 


Dams. 

Shergarh, com- 
monly Sikhar- 
bhum ... 916,237 

Shahpur . . . 634,160 

Ket ... 46,447 

Mandalghat ... 906,776 

Nagorf ... 4,026,620 

Minakbag (T. 

Mansapat) ... 279,322 

Hesla (mist. 

Hesoli) ... 263,207 


Orissa. 


Sarkdr of Jalesar. 

28 mahals. Rev. 6,052,738 ddms. 

Castes, various,. Blephants, 2. Cavalry, 3,470. 
Infantry, 43,810. 

Dams. Ddms. 

Bansanda, commonly Plaft- "I Parbada. Cav. 400, Inf. 

chor has five strong 1,600; has a strong 1 540 OOO 

forts. Castes, Khandait, 1 . fort, partly on a hill, ( 

Brahman, and Bhef. f fenced by forest, j 

Cavalry, 100. Infantry, Bhograi, has a fortress of ; 

5,800. J gfeat strength ; Caste 

Bibli (PipH) Cavalry, 10, Khandait, Cav. 100, Inf. 497,140 

Infantry, 40 ... 2,001,430 2,200, archers . and 

Bali Shahi Cav. 200. Inf. matchlockmen. 

2;000 ... ... 963,430 Bagri, Rajput, Cav. 100, 

Balkoshi, has three forts : "x Inf. 200 ... 39*428 

1, Sokrah. 2, Banhas I 7 =^ ooa Bazar ... ... 125,720 

Tali ; 3, Daddhpnr. Cav. f Babbanbhum, Brahman, 

20, Inf. 300. ) Cav. 20, Inf. 400 ... 114,208 

UFor Nagor T. reads Magor. We know of a Nagar of Birbhum. For 
Mandalghat , Rennell gives MangalguUa,' a little south of the Ajay river, and 
Atlas Mangalkot. Hesla is eight miles west by south of Purulia town, but 
one ms. reads MahisdaL 



156 


AflSf-l-AKBAttl 


Sarkar of Jalesar— cowii. 
Dams. 


Taliya with town of 
Jalesar, has a brick 
fort. Caste, Khandait, 
Cav. 300, Inf. 6,250. 

Tainluk Cav. 50, Inf. 1,000, 
has a strong fort, 
Khandait ... ... 

Tarkua : a fort in the 
jungle, Cav. 30, Inf. 
170 

Dawar Shorbhutn, com- 
ly Barah, Cav. 100, Inf. 
100 . 

Ramuna, has hve^ forts, 
1 adjacent to city ; 2, 
Ramchandpur ; 3 Rabga ; 
4, Dnt ; 5, Saldah, Cav. 
700, Inf. 3,500, hold the 
five. 

Rayn, on the border of 
Orissa, has three forts, 
Cav. 150, Inf. 1,500. 

Raepur, a large city, with 
a strong fortress, Cav. 
200, Inf. 1,000. 

Sabang, strong fort in the 
jungle, Cav. 100, Inf. 
2 , 000 . ' 

Kesiari ' ... 


12,007,110 


2,571,430 

720,570 

1,342,360 


j- 5,062,306 

218,806 

986,970 

1,257,140 

108,570 


Kasijora, Cav. 200, Inf. 
2,600, matchlock and 
bowmen. 

Kharagpur, a strong fort 
in the wooded hills, 500 
footmen and machlock- 
men. 

Kedarkhand, three strong 
forts, Cav. 50, Inf. 600 

Karai, Infantry 100 , . 

Gagnapur, Rajput, Cav. 
50, Inf. 400 

Karohi* 

Maljhata, Cav. 500, Inf. 
5,000 

Hednipur, a large city 
with two forts, one an- 
cient and the other 
modern. Caste Khan- 
daU, Cav. 60, Inf. 500. 

Mahakanghat commonly 
Qutbpur, a fortress of 
great strength, Cav. 30, 
Inf. 1,000. 

Narainpur, commonly Kan- 
dhar, with a strong fort 
on a hhl, Cav. 100, Inf. 
4,000. 


Dams. 

893,160 

528,570 

468,670 

285,720 

85,720 

68,570 

9,312,610 

1,019,930 

240,000 

2,280,860 


Sarkar of Bhadrak. 

7 mahals. Rev. 18,687,170 dams. 


Castes, various. 

Cavalry 

Dams. 

Batwa, two strong fort- ' 


resses, Banak and 

Raskoi, castes, Khan- 
daii, and Kdyath, Cav. 
50, Inf. 400. 

. 3,240,000 

Jaukajri 

57,140 

Suburban district of Bha- ' 


drak, has a fort called 
Dhamnagar, with a re- 

■ 9,542,760 

sident governor, Khan- 
dait, Cav. 200, Inf. 
3,500. , 



Sahansu, 2 strong forts, 
Khandait, Cav. 300, Inf. 
1,700. 

Kaaiman, a strong fort of 
the greatest strength, 
Khandait, Cav. 100, Inf. 
400. 

Kadsu 

Independent Talukdars ; 
three forts, Pachchhim 
Dik, Khandait, and Ma- 
■jori, Cav. 100, Inf. 300; 
the three forts, held by 
Khandait s. 


Dams. 

3,514,280 

1,515,840 

730,430 

85,720 


* G. and var, Kerauli, 


Sarkar of Katak (Cuttack.) 

0,1 mahals. Rev. 91,432,730 daws. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 900. Infantry, 108,160. 


Hams. 

ill, Inf. 2,100 ... 6,429,130 

Isakah, Inf. 15,000 ... 3,160,380 

Athgarh, with a strong ] 

fort, Brahman, Cav. 200, \ 1,184,980 

Inf. 7,000. J 

Purab Dik, four forts, 

Cav. 200, Inf. 6^,000 ... 22,881,580 

Padichhim Dik, Cav. 100, 

Inf. 50,000 ... 662,490 

Bahar ... ••• 5,129,820 

Basai Diwarmar, Inf. 

1,000 ... ... 2,746,650 

Barang, 9 forts, among the ' 

hills and jungles, Caste, 2,132,940 
ahir, Cav. 20, Inf. 300. 

Bhijnagar with strong 

fort, Telingha, Cav. 50, 860,390 

Inf. 22,000. 

Banju, Rajput, Cav. 100, 

Inf. 20,000 ... 866,206 

Parsotam ... ... 691,530 

Chaubiskot, 4 forts of 

great strength, Cav. 500, }■ 2,398,970 

Inf. 20,000. 


Jash commonly Jajpur, a 
strong fort, Brafkifum, 
Cav. 200, Inf. 1,800. 

Dakhin Dik, 4 forts, Cav. 1 
180, Inf, 13,060. S 

Siran ... 

Shergarh, Brahman, Cav. \ 
20, Inf. 200. J 

Kotdesh with three forts, 
the original fort, Kasi- 
bagh, Caste, Khandait, 

. Cav. 5,008, Inf. 300. 
Katak Banares, suburban 
district with city, has a 
stone fort of great 
strength, and a masonry 
palace within, Brahman 
and Khandait, Cav. 200, 
Inf. 1,000. 

Khatrah, with strong ] 
fortress, Khandait $, 
Cav. 100, Inf. 400. 
Manakpatan, a large port, 
where salt dues are 
collected. 


Dams. 

2,073,780 

22,065,770 

207,830 

1,408,580 


4,720,980 

605,600 

1,120,230 

600,000 


Sarkar of Kaling Dandpdt. 

27 mahals. Rev. 5,560,000 dams. 

Cavalry, 500. Infantrj^, 30,000. 


Sarkar of Raj Mahendrih. 

16 mahals. Rev. 5,00,000 dams. 

Cavalry, 1,000. Infantry, 5,000. 

A general view of the country having now been 
cursorily given, I proceed to record the succession of its 
rulers and the duration of their reigns. Twenty-four 
princes of the Khatri caste, kept aflame the torch of 



158 Aiij-i-AkBAii 


sovereignty from father to son in suceession during 2418 
years. ■ 



Years. 



Years. 

Raja Bbagdat, Khatri 


Sadhrak reigned 

... 91 

reigned . 

.. 218 

Jaydhrak 

.'5 ? , 

...102 

Anangbhim ,, . 

..175 

IJdai Singh 


... 85 

Ranghim ,, 

.. 108 

Bisu Singh 

)) 

... 88 

Gajbhim ,, . 

.. 82 

Birmath 


... 88 

Deodat ,, . 

.. 95 

Rukhdeva 

) 9 

.... 81 

Jag Singh _ . 

.. 106 

Rakhbind 



Barmah Singh ,, . 

.. 97 

(Rukhnand) 

y y 

.. 79 

Mohandat >» ■ 

..102 

Jagjiwan 

• 9 9 

... 107 

Benod Singh ,, . 

.. 97 

Kaludand 

99 

... 85 

Silar Sen ,, . 

.. 96 

Kamdeva 

9 9 ■ 

... 90 

Sattarjit ,, . 

..101 

Bijai Kara 

9 9 

... 71 

Bhupat ,, . 

.. ' 90 1 

Sat Singh 

9 9 

... 89 


Nine princes of tlie Koyeffe caste, ruled in succesion 520 
years after which the sovereignty passed to another 

Kdyeth house. 



Years 

Raja Bhoj Gauriya 


reigned 

... 75 

Ealsen ,, 

... 70 

Raja Madhu . 

... 67 

Samantbhoj ,, 

... 48 


Raj a J aint reigned 
Pirthu Raja ,, 
Raja Grrar ,, 

,, Lachhman ,, 

,, Nandbhoj ,, 


Years. 

. 60 
. 52 
. 45 
. 50 
. 53 


Eleven princes reigned in succession 714 years, after which 
another Kdyeth family bore rule. 


Years. 

Raja Udsur, (Adisur) 

.-■■■■* . ■ -f... ■ ■■ rr . 


reigned ... 

75 

,, Jamani- 

bhan ,, 

73 

,, Unrud ,, 

78 

,, Partab 

Rudr „ ... 

65 

,,, Bhawdat ,, 

69 


Years. 

Raja Rukdeva ,, ... 62 

,, Giridhar 

reigned ... 80 

,, Pirthidhar ,, ... 68 

, , Shisht- 

dhar ,, ... 58 

,, Prabhakar ,, ... 63 

,, Jaidhar ,, ... 23 


159 


RULERS OF BENGAL 


'Ten princes reigned 698 years, after which the sway of 
another Koyath family was established. 


Raja Bhopal reigned 
„ Dhripal ,, 

,, Devapal ,, 

,, Bhupati- 

paR ,, 

„ Dhanpati- 

pal ,, 


Years. 

.. 55 
.. 95 
.. 83 

.. 70 

.. 45 


Raja Bigan (Bijan) 
pal, reigned 
Jaipal 


Bhogpal, his 
brother 
Jagpal, his 
son 


Years. 

.. 75 
.. 98 

.. 98 

.. 5 

...74 


Seven princes governed in succession during 160 years. 

Years.] 

3 


Sukh Sen reigned 
Balal Sen, who 
built the fort 
of Gaur ,, 

Lakhan (Lachhman) 
Sen ,, 


50 




Years. 

Madhu Sen 

reigned 

... 10 

Kesu Sen 


... 15 

Sada (Sura) 



Sen 

J ) 

... 18 


Raja Naujah 
( ?Buddha-sen) , , 


Sixty-one princes thus reigned for the space of 4,544 
years when Bengal became subject to the Kings of Delhi. 

From the time of Sultan Qutb u’ ddin Aibak to Sultan 
Muhammad Tughlaq Shah 17 governoi's ruled during a 
period of 156 years. 


These were followed by- 


Years. Months 


A.H. A.D. 

741 1340 Malik Fakhr’uddin Silahdar, 

reigned ... ... 2 

743 1342 Sultan Alau’ddin ... ... 1 

744 1343 Shamsu’ddin Bhangarah Ilyas ... 16 

760 1358 Sikandar (Shah) his son ' ... 9 

769 1367 Sultan Ghiyasu’ddin his son ... 7 

775 1373 Sultan ’us Salatin, his son ... 10 

785 1383 Shamsu’ddin, his son ... 3 

787 1386 Kansi native of Bengal ... 7 

794 1392 Sultan Jalalu’ddin, ... 17 

812 1409 Sultan Ahmad, his son ... 16 

Nasir his slave, a week or according to others, 

half a day. 


some 


0 

some 

0 

0 

0 



160 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


A.H. A.D. 


Years. Months. 


830 1426-7 Nasir Shah, descendant of Sham- 


su’ddin Bhangarah 
862 1457 Barbak Shah 

879 1474 Yusuf Shah' ... 

887 1482 Sikandar Shah ... 

887 1482 Path Shah 

896 1490 Barbak Shah 

897 1491 Firoz Shah ... 

899 1494 Mahmud Shah, his son' 

900 1496 Muzaffar Flabshi ... 

903 1498 Alau’ddin 

927 1521 Nasrat Shah, his son 
940 1534 Mahmud Shah, son of A Idu^d defeated by 

944 1537 Sher Khan. 

945 1538 Humayun (held his court at Gaur). 

946 1539 Sher Khan, a second time. 

952 1645 Muhammad Khan. 

962 1555 Bahadur Shah, his son. 

968 1560 Jalalu’ddin, his brother. 


32 0 

... 17 0 

... 7 . ; 0 

... half a day 

... 7 5 

two and a half days. 
... 3 0 

... 1 0 

... 3 5 

27 (?) 

11 (?) 


some 


Not in U. T. 


Ghiyasu’ddin. 

Taj Khan. 

971 1563-4 Sulaiman (Karani), his brother. 

981 1673 Bayazid, his son. 

981 1573 Daud, his brother {defeated by AkbaYs forces). 


Fifty princes ruled during about 357 years and one 
hundred and eleven kept alive the torch of sovereignty 
throughout the period, approximately, of 4,813 years and 
passed into the sleep'of dissolution. 

The first Raja, (Bhagadatta) came to Delhi by reason 
of his friendship for Raja Durjodhan, and fell manfully 
fighting in the war of the Mahabharat, 4,096 years previous 
to the present time. When the cup of life of Raja Naujah 
Incorrect into Rajah of Nodia] overflowed, the sovereignty 
fell to Lakhmaniya, son of Rae Lakhman. Nadiya was at 
that time the capital of Bengal and the seat of various 
learning. Nowadays its prosperity has somewhat abated 
but the traces of its erudition are still evident. The 
astrologers predicted the overthrow of his kingdom and 
the establishment of another faith and they discovered in 
Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji the individual by whom these 
two events would be accomplished. Although the Raja 
regarding these as idle tales refused to credit them, many 



161 


EAEI,y BENGAL SULTANS 

of his subjects sought refuge in distant provinces. At the 
time when Qutbu’ddin Aibak held India for Shahabu’ddin, 
the Khilji took possession of Bihar by force of arms, and 
when he marched upon Bengal, the Rhja, escaped in a boat. 
Muhammad Bakhtiyar, entered Bengal and having amassed 
enormous plunder, he destroyed the city of Nadiya and 
transferred the capital to Lakhnauti. From that time 
Bengal has been subject to the kings of Delhi. 

During the reign of Sultan Tughlaq, Qadar Khan was 
viceroy in Bengal. Malik Fakhru’ddin his sword-bearer 
through greed of power, disloyally determined upon the 
death of his master and plotting in secret, slew him and 
with pretentious allegations fraudiully possessed himself of 
the government and refused allegiance to the sovereigns of 
Delhi. Malik AH Mubarak, who had been one of the 
principal adherents of Qadar Khan, assumed the title of 
Alau’ddin and rose against Fakhru’ddin, and taking him 
alive in action, put him to death. Haji Iliyas ‘Alai, one of 
the nobles of Bengal, entering into a confederacy with some 
others, slew him and took the title of Shamsu’ddin. He 
is also called Bhangr ah. Sultan IHroz set out from Delhi 
to chastise him and a severe struggle ensued, but as the 
rainy season was approaching, he concluded a hasty treaty 
and returned. When Shamsu’ddin died, the chiefs of the 
army raised his eldest son to the throne under the title of 
Sikandar Shah. Sultan Firoz again marched into Bengal 
but retreated after arranging terms of peace. On Sikandar’s 
death his son was elected to succeed him and was proclaimed 
under the title of Ghiyasu’ddin, Khwajah Hafiz of Shiraz 
sent him an ode in which occurs the following verse ; 

And now shall India’s parroquets on sugar revel all, 

In this sweet Persian lyric that is borne to far Bengal. 

A native of Bengal named Kansi fraudfully dispossessed 
Shamsu’ddin who was his [Ghiyas-ud-din’s] grandson. 
When he died, his son embraced Islam and took the name 
of Sultan Jalalu’ddin. It was the custom in that country 
for seven thousand fbotmen called Pdyiks to patrol round 
the palace. One evening a eunuch conspiring with Jthese 
guards slew Fath Shah and assumed the title of Barbak 
Shah. 

Firoz Shah was also slain by these guards and 1^ 
son Mahmud was raised to the sovereignty. An Abyssinian 
slave Muzaffar with the assistance of the same guards put 
him to death and moujited thq throne, Alau’ddin, an 

21 


162 Am-l-AKBARI ^ ^ 

attendant of Mnzatfar, in tnm, in conspiracy with these 
guards despatched his master and established himself in 
power. Thus through the caprice of fortune, these low 
footsoldiers for a considerable time played an important 
part in the state. Alau’ddin placed the administration of 
justice on a better footing and disbanded the Pdyiks. Nasrat 
Shah is said to have followed the example of his father in 
his justice and liberality and treated his brothers with 
consideration. When Sultan Ibrahim (IvOdi) met his death 
in the engagement with Sultan Babar, [1526] his brother 
and the chiefs of the army took refuge with this monarch 
and lived in security. Humayun appointed Jahangir Quli 
Beg to the governorship of the province. When Sher Khan 
a second time rose to power, he beguiled Jahangir under 
pretext of an amicable settlement and put him to death. 
During the reign of Salim Khan (at Delhi) Muhammad 
Khan his kinsman, united loyalty to his lord with justice 
to his subjects. When he fell in action against Mamrez 
Khan, his son Khizr Khan succeeded him and assumed 
the title of Bahadur Shah. Mamrez Khan entered the field 
against him but perished" in battle. Taj Khan [Karrani] 
one of the nobles of. Salim Khan, slew Jalalu’ddin and 
assumed the government. His younger brother Sulaiman, 
although of a tyrannous disposition, leigned for some time, 
after which his sons Bayazid and Daud through miscon- 
duct dishonoured the royal privileges of the mint and the 
pulpit. Thus concludes my abstract. 

Praise be to God, that this prosperous country receives 
an additional splendour through the justice of imperial 
majesty. 

> : THE SUBAH OF BIHAR. - 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from 
Gadhi to Rhotds is 120 hos; its breadth from Tirhut to the 
northern mountains, 110 kos. On its eastern boundary is 
Bengal; to the west lie Allahabad and Oudh. On the north 
and south it is bounded by hills of considerable elevation. 
Its chief rivers are the Ganges and the Son. Whatever of 
wood or leather and the Ifke falls into the Son. becomes 
petrified. The head springs of these three rivers, the Son, 
% Narhada and the JpMld, bubble up from a single reed- 
bed^ iti the neighbourhood of Gadha [Mandla] . The Son 

^Tlie three great riyers^ J^armada, Son and Mahanadi, rise in a sacred 
pond at the Amar-Kantdk^ 'a Village in the Rewa State, only three miles front 



163 


toflAR DESCRIBE!) 

is pleasant to the taste, wholesome and cool; flowing in a 
northerly direction, it joins the Ganges near Maner. The 
Gandak flows from the north and unites with the Ganges 
near Hdjipur. Such as drink of it suffer from a swelling in 
the throat, (goitre) which gradually increases, especially in 
young children, to the size of a cocoanut. 

The Sdligrdm'f is a small black stone which the Hindus 
account among divine objects and pay it great veneration. 
If round and small and unctuous, they hold it in the 
highest regard and according to the variety of its form, 
different names and properties are ascribed to it. The 
generality have a single pei'foration, others more and some 
are without any. They contain gold ore. Some say that a 
worm is bred within which "eats its way through; others 
maintain that it works its way in from the outside. The 
Hindus have written a considerable work on the qualities 
of this stone. According to the Brahmanical creed, every 
idol that is broken loses its claim to veneration, but with 
these, it is not so. They are found in the Son for a distance 
of 40 kos between its northernmost extremity and the south 
of the hills. 

The i^aramwdsd flowing from the south unites with 
the Ganges near Chausd. Its waters are regarded with 
aversion. ‘ The Punpun flows also from the south and joins 

the eastern border of the Garb Mandla district of the C.P., where the Maikal 
range begins. The Johilla, a very sniall river, is really a feeder of the Son 
and, after flowing north and west from its source for a little more than a 
hundred miles as a thin stream, loses itself in the Son, in the north-west 
corner of the Rewa State, 13 miles east of Bandhu-garh. It should^ not, 
therefore, be counted as separate from the Son, which does not really’ rise 
from the same tank at Aniar-Kantak but some distance to the east of it. The 
third great river with its source at the same place is the Mahdnadi, which 
Abul Fazl has entirely left out. The Mahdnadi flowing eastward across half 
the breadth of the Indian peninsula, falls into the Bay of Bengal in Orissa, 
more than 1800 miles from the mouth of its twin-sister the Narmada, in the 
Arabian sea, though both rivers started from the same cradle. 

The sacred tank at .Amar-Kantak is 8 yards long and 6 yards wide, and 
surrounded by a brick-wali. It is situated 90 miles due east of Mandla city. 
(Tieffenthaler quotmg an English engineer’s report). “The Narmada in 
issuing from its source is only one yard in breadth. The Son is visible only 
for a distance of half a mile from the tank, and then it descends in a water- 
fall 25 yards high, and after a course of five miles, it loses itself in the 
sand, but newly acquiring greater volume it (finally) becomes a large river.” 
(Tieffenthaler, i, 416-417.) The Son used to fall into the Ganges near Maner, 
when Rennell made his survey (Bengal Atlas, 1772), but' the junction is now 
about ten miles higher up, at Koilwar (Rl. Stn.) Jadunath Sarkar. 

t A species of black quartzOvSe found . in the Gandhak containing the 
impression of one or more ammonites conceived by the Hindus to represent 
Vishnu. This river is also known as the Salgiram. 

^ Its name signifies 'the ruin of religious merit.’ No person of any caste 
will drink its waters. The reason of its impurity is said^ to be that a Brahman 
having been murdered by a Raja of the Solar line, a saint purified him of his 
sins by collecting water from all the streams 'ox the world and wavShing him 



164 


AlH-I-AKBARI 


the Ganges near Patna. The smaller rivers of this Subah 
cannot be recorded. The summer months are intensely hot, 
while the winter is temperate. Warm garments are not 
worn for more than two months. The rains continue during 
six months and throughout the year the country is green 
and fertile. No severe winds blow nor clouds of dust 
prevail. Agriculture flourishes in a high degree, especially 
the cultivation of rice which,’ for its quality and quantity is 
rarely to be equalled. Kisari^ is the name of a pulse, 
resembling peas, eaten by the poor, but is unwholesome. 
Sugarcane is abundant and of excellent quality. Betel-leaf, 
especially the kind called Mag-hi, is delicate and beautiful 
in colour, thin in texture, fragrant and pleasant to the taste. 
Fruits and flowers are in great plenty. At Maner, a flower 
grows named Muchakand,^ somewhat like the flower of the 
Dhdtura, very fragrant and found nowhere else. Milk is 
rich in quality and cheap. The custom of dividing the 
crops is not here prevalent. The husbandman pays his 
rents in person and on the first occasion presents himself in 
his best attire. The houses for the most part are roofed 
with tiles. Good elephants are procurable in plenty and 
boats likewise. Horses and camels are scarce. Parrots 
abound and a fine species of goat , of the Barbary breed 
which they castrate: from their extreme fatness they are 
unable to walk and are carried on litters. The fighting 
cocks are famous. Game is abundant. Gilded glass is 
manufactured here. 

In the Sarkdr of Bihar y near the village of Rdjgir is a 
quarry of stone resembling marble, of which ornaments are 
made. Good paper is here manufactured. Gaya the place 
of Hindu pilgrimage, is in this province : it is also called 
Brahma Gaya being dedicated to Brahma. Precious stones 
from foreign ports, are brought here and a constant traffic 
carried on. 

In the Sarkdr of Hdjipur the fruits KathaV and Barhal 
grow in abundance. The former attain such a size that a 
man can with difficulty carry one. 


in their waters which were collected in the spiring from which the EaramnSsa 
now issues. L G , , 

® Ivathyrus sativns* 

* Dr . King of the Rotyal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, suggests that this 
may be the Jasmtnum puhescemi The flower resembles a miniature Dliatura 
flower and is very fragrant. , ! ' 

-"Known as the Jack fimit (Aftocarpus integrifolia, Roxb.). The Barhal 
according to the dictioinary is a small round fruit, also an Artocarpus, doubt- 
fully distinguished as 



165 


BIHAR gUBAH, SBAl^ISTICg 

, In the S ark dr of Champdran the seed of vetch Mdsh^ 
is cast on unploughed soil where it grows without labour 
or tilling. Long pepper grows wild in its forests. 

Tirhut hsis from immemorial time, been a seat of 
Hindu learning. Its climate is excellent. Milk curds keep 
for a year without alteration. If those who sell milk 
adulterate it with water, some mysterious accident befalls 
them. The buffaloes are so savage that they will attack a 
tiger. There are many lakes and in one of them the water 
never decreases, and its depth is unfathomable. Groves of 
orange trees extend to a distance of thirty kos, delighting 
the eye. In the rainy season gazelle and deer and tiger 
frequent together the cultivated spots and are hunted by the 
inhabitants. Many of these with broken limbs are loosened 
in an enclosure, and they take them at their leisure. 

Rohtds is a stronghold on the summit of a lofty moun- 
tain, difficult of access. It has a circumference of 14 kos 
and the land is cultivated. It contains many springs, and 
wherever the soil is excavated to the depth of three or four 
yards, water is visible. ' In the rainy season many lakes 
are formed, and more than two hundred waterfalls gladden 
the eye and ear. The climate is remarkably healthy. 

This Subah contains seven Sarkdrs subdivided into 
199 Parganahs, The gross revenue is 22 krors, 19 lakhs, 
19,404^ ddms. (Rs. 55,47,985-1-3). Of these Parganahs, 
138, pay revenue in cash from crops charged at special 
rates.® The extent of measured land is 24 lakhs, 44,120 
highaSj yielding a revenue of 17 krors, 26 lakhs, 81,774 
ddms (Rs. 43,17,044) in cash. The remaining 61 Par- 
ganahs are rated at 4 krors., 22 lakhs, 37,630^ ddms, 
(Rs. 12,30,940-12-5), out of which 22 lakhs, 72,174 ddms 
are Suyurghdl (Rs. 56,803-8-10). The province furnishes 
11,415 Cavalry, 449,350 Infantry and 100 boats. 

Sarkdr of Bihdr. 

Containing 46 Mahals, 952,598 Bighas. Revenue, 
80,196,390 ddms in cash from special crops, and from land 


® Phaseolus radiatus, 

^ The term Zabti though originally applied to lands sequestrated by the 
State, was used of rent free lands subjected to assessment in Bengal, to lands 
which had been resumed from Jagir grants by Jafar Khan : in the north-west, 
to money rents on the more valuable crops, such as sugar, tobacco, and 
cotton where rent in kind was the fule. Abul Fazl employs it loosely else- 
where for the revenue collection or assessment of a village. 



166 


AlN-I-AKBA&t 


paying 

dams. 


tlie general bigha tatc. SuyuTghdl, 2,270,147 
Castes various. Cavalry 2,116. Infantry 67,360. 



Bighas 

and 

Revenue 

Dam 

Cav. 

Inf. 

Suyurghal 
. Dam 

Castes 


Biswas 





Arwal 

57,089-5 

426,780 


1000 



Aukliri [?Khokn] .. 
Iklial .. 

4940140 

40,4044 

3,747,940 

335,260 


200 


Afghan & 






Brahman 

Aniritu 

24,387-19 

1,821,333 

. . i' 


16035 

Do. 

Anbalu 

847,920 


250 


Brahman 

Ancliha 

10,290-57 

6,700,000 

20 

300 


Afghan 

Antri 

Behar with siibur- 

1,998-9^ 

147,980 

20 

200 


Kayath 

ban district, has a 
fort of stone and 
brick 

70,683-9 

5,534,151 

10 

400 

653,200 


Balilawar 

48,310-3 

3,651,640 


500 

9000 

Brahman 

Basok 

35,3184 8 

2,706,539 


300 

1,708,130 

Shaikhzadali 

Palach 

30,03048 

2,270,538 

... 

500 

59,185 

Brahman, 

Balia 

Patna, has two forts, 

26,000-18 

2,056,502 

20 

400 

85,747 

Rajput 

one of brick and 
the''9ther of mud 

21,846-8 

1,922,480 



131,807 

Rajput 

Phulwari 

20,225-19 

1,585,420 

20 

760 

118,120 

18,560 

Pahra 

12,285 6 

941,160 

20 

400 

Brahman 

Bhimpur 

10,8^-15 

824,584 

727,640 



24,424 


Pandarak 


300 

2000 


Shaikhzada 

Tiladah 

39,053-12 

2,920,366 

20 

300 

23^080 

Jarar 

12,930-10 

979,363 

50 

500 

880 

Do. 

Chargadn .. .■ ! 

904,440 

20 

300 

■ ... 

Brahman 

Jai Champa 


620,000 

20 

600 



Dadar 

... 

262,500 


...' 



Dhakner 


215,680 



■ ■ 1 

Brahman 

Ruh 


250,100 

20 

1500 

. ... ■ '1 

Rampur 

... 

363,820 


... 



Rajgir 

3,756-12 

288,228 

■ 


17,225 


Sanot 

36 780-7 

2,824,180 

20 

560 

... 

Kayath 

Samai 

32,514-3 

2,537,080 

10 

200 

62,380 

Salirah 

2,079,000 


500 


Rajput . 

Sandah 

24,562-2 

1,889,956 


500 

' ... ' 

Afghan 

Seor^ has a strong 




Brahman 

fort on a hill 

14,145-8 

1,250,591 

200 

5000 



Ghiaspur 

Gidliaur, has a 

84,205-7 

5,657,290 

... 


227,454 

Rajput 

strong ■ fort on a 
hill in the jungle 


1,452,500 

250 

10,000 



Katibalira .. 

■ 

737,540 



Kayath 

Kabar 

7,400-9 

560,875 

36 

700 


Guh 

374,880 

100 

1000 

... 

Rajput 

Ghatisar 

' ■ " ■■■ 

360,820 


... 

' " ' \ '■••• ' 


Karanpur .. 


363,820 

... ' 


*** 


Gaya 

9514- 

74,270 


... 

14,235 


Huner 

89,0394 5 

7,049,179 

... 


325,380 


Masodha 

68,19140 

4,633,080 


... 


Maldah .. , , i., 

28,128-9 

2,151,575 

106 

3000 

49,805 

Bralinian 

Manroa • 

7,706-9 

, 585,500 

20 

500 

Do. 

Maher 

23,937-19 

1,779,540 


200 

47,700 

Do. 

Narhat .. , 

30,555-7 

2,380,309 

-m'. ■ ■ ■■ 

*5 

200 

Kayath 


167 ■ 


VII^LAGES OP BIHAR SUBAH 


Sarkat of Monghyr, 

Containing SI Mahals, Revenue 109, 625, 981 dams. 
Castes various, 2,160 Cavalry, 50,000 Infantry. 



^ Revenue D 

Abliipur- ... 

... 2,000,000 

Osla;'' 

89,760 

Bliagalpur ... 

... 4,696,110 

Balia 

... 3,287,320 

Paliarkiah 

.... 3,000,000 

Patlirarali 

140,920 

Basai 

... 132,000 

Tanur 

88,420 

Chai 

... 9,280,000 

Cbandoi 

... 360,000 

Diiarmpur 

... 4,000,000 

Daiid Sakhwarali 

136,000 

Rolini 

95,360 

Sarobi ... 

... 1,773,000 

Suklidelira ..., 

690,240 

Sagliauli 

... 360,000 


Angu 

Revenue^). 

147,800 

Anbalu ... 

50,000 

Surajgarh 

299,445 

Saklirasani 

160,000 

Satyari ... 

58,730 

Kahalgaon 

... 2,800,600 

Rharhi ■ ... 

689,044 

Kozrah 

260,602 

Khatki 

160,000 

Laklianpur .... 

633,280 

Masjidpur 

... 1,259,750 

Mongliyr and suburban 

diS“ 

trict 

... 808,907^ 

Masdi ... 

29,725 

Hindui ... 

108,000 

Hazar taki 

9,182 


Sarkar of Champdran. 

Containing 3 Mahals, 85,711 Bighas, 5 Biswas. 
Revenue 5,513,420 Dams, Horsemerf, 700. 
Infantry 30,000. ' 

B. & B. Dams B. & B. Dams 

Samrun .... 1,2m „ 2 500,095 Majliora 22,415 „ 16 1,404,890 

Mehsi ... 56,095 „ 7 3,518,436 


Sarkar of Hdjipur. 

Containing 11 Mahals, 10 Villages, 436,952 Bighas, 
16 Biswas. Revenue 27,331,030 Jams. 


... 4^ B. & B. Revenue 

Akbarpnr ... 3,366 ,, 17 195,040 

Boswawi ... 10,851 „ 14 624,791 

Basara ...106,370 „ 7 6,380,000 

Balagachali ... 14,638 ,, 2 913,660 

Teghra .... 58,306 „ 13 3,518,354 

liajipur -with su- 
burban district 62,653 „ 17 3,833,460 


... B. 8z B. Revenue 

Rati ... 30,438 „ 13 1,824,980 

Saresa ... 102,461 „ 8 6,704,300 

Imadpur ... 12,987 ,, 7 795,870 

Garhsarali ... ,, ,, 876,200 

Naipur , ... 27,877 „ 9 1,663,980 


Sarkar of Sd,ran. 


Containing 17 Mahals. Measured land 229, 052 Bighas, 
15 Biswas. Revenue 60,172,004^ dams. 

Castes various. Cavalry 1,000. Infantry 50,000. 



B. 

& 

B. 

Dams 


B. 

& 

B. 

Dams 

Indar 

... 7,218 


4 

534,990 

Pal 

66,320 

,, 

5 

4,893,378 

Barari 

... 7,117 

Sf 

10 

533,820 

Bara 

15,059 

,, 

3 

383,797i 

Narlian 

... 8,611 


8 

654,508 

Godali 





Pachlakh 

... 9,266 


15 

437,997 

(Gawa?) 

28,049 

,, 

3 

2,012,950 

Chan end 

... 8,413 

Jl > 

13 

633,270 

1 Kaliyanpur ... 

17,437 



774,696 

Chaubara 




400,000 

Kashmir 

16,915 



1,314,539 

Juwainah 

e,m3 


8 

309,285 

Maiigjhi 

8,752 

,, 

19 

611,813 

Degsi 

... 5,825 



277,630 

Mandhal 

9,405 

, , 

7 

698,140 

3ipah 

... 3,062 



290,592 

• Maker 

10,936 

jf 

14 

$11,095 


168 


AIN-I-AKBAKI 


Sarkar of Tirhut. 


Containing 74 Mahals, Measured land 266,4:64: Bighas 
2 Biswas. Revenue 19,179,777^ dams. Castes various 
Cavalry 700. Infantry 80,000.' * 



B. 

& B.R 

Bams 


B. 

& 

B. 

Dams 

Ahaspur 

4,880 

>) 


302,550 

Taraiii ... 

7,171 

31 


443,242 

Utarkhand ... 

2,068 

Jf 

^ 128,412 

Tilokchawaiid 

2,411 

3> 

7 

149,896 

Alilwar 

l,p01 

}) 

1 

62,212 

Tajpur 

1,351 

it 

14 

85,434 

Aublii 




60,000 

Tandah 

1,038 

a 

4 

63,768, 

Aiighara 

836 

ti 

15 

53,980 

Tarson 

980 

it. 

4 

61,180 

Atliais 

559 

3> 

17 

34,356 

Tirhut with su- 





Basri 





burban district 21,398 

it 


1,307,706 

4 Mahals 

t) 



1,125,000 

Jakhar 

17,140 

a 


1,068,020 

Bahrwarah .... 

16,176 

») 


942,000 

Jarayal 

8,297 

ti 


515,732 

Banpur 

40,347 

ii 


894,792 

Chakmani 

5,173 

ti 


321,3'26 

Bare! 

6,185 

>> 


789,858 

Jakhal [-pur] 

3,092 

it 


196,020 

Pepra 

1,823 

i) 

18 

112,691 

Jabdi ...» 

’ 3,165 

it 


45,025 

Padri 

9,048 

1) 


554,258 

Dahror ... 

it 


202,818 

Easotra 

8,864 

)i 


546,627 

Darbhanga ... 

2,038 

'it 


159,052 

Panchlii 





Ramjaund ... 

7,409 

ti 


470,005^ 

C ?Bachlii)] 

5,816 

>> 


361,920 

Sareshta 

15,474 

it 


941,010 

Baliiior 

5,033 

}) 


289,773i 

Salimpur 

458 

ti 

14 

29,094 

Bachhnor 

4,956 

jj 


275,185 

Salimabad . . . 

•44 

i> 

15 

4,184 

Pachliam 





Saiijoli Tadra 

2,450 

ii 


150,S43i 

Bhagu 

4.095 

)> 


271,826 

.Alapur 

8,796 

a 


442,466 

Bagda 

SJW 

ti 


267,862i 

Fakhrabad ... 

1,170 

it 

6 

72,355 

Purab Bhagu 

3,022 


17 

222,280 

Khanauli 

4,644 

> j 


408,804 

Pandrajah ... 

3,135 

i) 

4 

195,837i 

Ghar Cliliwand 

5,510 

it 


349,4804 

Badi Bhosadi 

2,823 

i) 


175,585 

Kodakhaud ... 

3,888 

ii 


243,677 

Bhala 

2,840 

fi 


145,437 

Koradi 


it 


90,000 

Bhadwar ... 

2,087 

a 


130,471 i 

Khanda 

330 

ti 

6 

21,443 

Parharpur ... 

1,968 



121,0671 

Badwari 

2,609 

ti 


142,495 

Bahadurpur ... 

1,936 

’if 

16 

119,305 

Mahla 

15,295 

ti 


946,048 

Barai 

1,455 


12 

90,369^ 

Morwah 

8,289 

ti 


515,485 

Parhar Raghu 

1,305" 


17 

81,605 

Mandah, (Ma- 





Bhaura 

1,170 

it 

9 

69,608 

hend?) 

1,077 

ii 

12 

66,693 

Palwaah 

1,060 

it 

9 

65,628 

Marga 





Bora 

875 

a 

15 

. 55,757 

[ PNaranga] 

632 

,, 

18 

39,022 

Banwa 

i> 

a 


40,539 

Malahmi 

151 

i t 

f 

9,728 

Parharpur, 





Nauram 

)> 

it 


288,140 

Jabdi 

604 

a 

14 

37,736 

Nautan 

3,381 

it 

7 

209,153 

Bagi 

505 

it 

5 

31,550 

Hathi 

2,563 


18 

159,7904 

Bochhawar ... 

188 

it 

10 

12,875 

Hariii 

796 

ii 

17 

50,342 

Barsani 

200 


18 

12,695 

Habi [?Hali) 

3,665 

it 

8 

230,700 


Sarkar of Rohtds. 

Containing 18 Mahals, 47,334 Bighas, 15 Biswas. 

Revenue, 40,819,493 Dams. 

Castes various. Cavalry 4,550. Infantry 162,000. 



B. 

& 

B. 

Danis 


B. 

& B.R Dams 

Alrali 

53,512 

>t 

16 

4,028,100 i 

Ratanpur, has a 





Bhojpur 

66,078 

it 

17 

4,903,310 

strong fort 

■■ -AJU- " 

i i 


783,425 

Pirn 

22,733 

it 


3,407,840 1 

Siris. (Sarsi) 

44,710 

a 

3 

2,769,446 

Panwar 

it 

3 

1,677,000 1 

SahvSaram 

31,220 

i i 

18 

2,370,790 

Baragaon 

10,540 

if 

17 

842,400 1 

Fathpur bhaiya 

50,474 

1 1 

15 

3,736,000 

Chakund 





Kotra 

29,167 

i i 

15 

1,829,300 

(Jaund) 

45,251 

it 

3 

4,440,360 

Rot, has a 





Jaidar 

26,538 

it 

16 

1,634,110 

strong fort 

ti 

i t 


847,920 

Danwar ...* 

29,154 

it 

4 

2,076,520 

Mangror 





Dinar 

it 

It 


350,000 

(Munora ?) 

29,621 

it 


924,000 

Rohtas with su- 





Nannor 

it 


2,000,000 

burban dist. 

34,330 

it 

10 

2,258,620 








DESCRIPl^ION OP ALLAHABAD SUBAH 


169 


The Siibah of Illahdbdd. {Allahabad.} 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from 
Sinjhauli in the Jaunpur disirki to the southern hills is 
160 hos; its breadth from Chausa ferry to Ghdtampur 122 
kos. On the East is BeMr, To the North, Owdh. Bdndhti^ 
lies to the South and Agra to the West. 

Its principal rivers are the Ganges and the Jamna, and 
there are other small streams such as the Rind, Ken, Saru 
(Sarju), Barna, Sic. 

Its climate is healthy. It produces a variety of fruits, 
flowers and garden herbs, and it has always an abundant 
supply of melons and grapes. Agriculture is in a flourish- 
ing state, fowdri and Lahdarah, however, do not grow 
and Moth is scarce. Cloths, such as Jholi, and Mihrkal 
and the like are beautifully woven, especially at Benares, 
Jalalabad and Mau. At Jaunpur, Zafarwdl and other places 
woollen carpets are manufactured. A variety of game is 
also to be found. 

JBuhu&dd anciently called Pruydg was distinguished by 
His Imperial Majesty by the former name. A stone fort 
was completed and many handsome edifices erected. The 
Hindus regard it as the King of shrines. Near it, the 
Ganges, the Jamna and the Saraswati meet, though the 
latter is not visible. Near the village of Kantat consider- 
able captures of elephants are made. What is most strange 
is that when Jupiter enters the constellation Leo, a small 
hill appears from out of the Ganges and remains there 
during the space of one month upon which the people offer 
divine worship. 

Bdrdnasi, universally known as Benares, is a large city 
situated between the two rivers, the Barna and the Asi.f 
In ancient books, it is styled Kdsi. It is built in the shape 
of a bow of which the Ganges forms the string. In former 
days there was here an idol temple, round which procession 
was made after the manner of the kaabah and similar 
ceremonials of the pilgrims conducted. From time imme- 
morial, it has been the chief seat of learning in Hindustan. 

* Bandhii is Rewa State, and 7 tot Banda as Jarrett noted in the 1st edition. 
fTlie A si is a mere brook and the city is situated on the^ left bank of 
the Ganges, between the Barna Nadi on the N. E. and the Asi NaJa on the 
S. W. The former rises to the N. of Allahabad and has a_ course of 100 miles. 
From the joint names of the two which bound the city, N. and S. the 
Brahmans derive Varanasi, the Sanskrit form of Benares. Cunningham, 
Ancient Geog. of India, p. 437, 

22 



170 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Ciowds of people flock to it from tlie most distant parts 
for tke purpose of instruction to whicli they apply them- 
selves witk the most devoted assiduity. Some particulars 
of its history shall be related in what follows. 

In A.H. 410 Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni marched 
hither, and some disruption of the old faith was effected. 
In A.H. 416, he again invaded the country. He first 
invested Gwalior but raised the siege under a treaty of 
peace. He then resolved to take the fort of Kalinjar. 
The governor sent him 300 elephants with his respectful 
submission and proffered some eulogistic verses. Mahmud 
was so much pleased that he bestowed on him the governor- 
ship of the fort' together with the charge of fourteen other 
places. 

Jaunpur is a large city. Sultan Firoz (Tughlaq) king 
of Delhi laid its foundations and named it after his cousin 
Fakhruddin Jaunah. Its longitude is 190° 6"; its latitude 
16° 15". 

Chanddah (Chanar) is a stone fort on the summit of a 
hill, scarce equalled for its loftiiress and strength. The 
Ganges flows at its foot. 

In its vicinity, there is a tribe of men who go naked, 
living in the wilds, and subsist by their bows and arrows 
and the game they kill. Flephants are also found in the 
forests. 

Kalinjar is a stone fortress situated upon a heaven- 
reaching* hill. No one can trace its origin. It contains 
many idol temples and an idol is there, called Kdl Bhairob, 
18 cubits high, of which marvellous tales are related. 
Springs rise within the fort and there are many tanks. 
Adjoining it is a dense forest in which wild elephants, and 
kestrels and hawks and other animals are trapped. Fbony 
is here found and many kinds of fruits grow spontaneously. 
There is also an iron mine. In the neighbourhood, within 
eight kos, the peasants find small diamonds. 

It is said that Raja Kirat Singh the governor of the 
fort possessed six precious treasures, a learned Brahman 
of saintly life, a youth of great beauty and amiable disposi- 


* Its elevation is 1230, feet above sea level. Ferishta ascribes the fort 
to Kedar Raja, a contemporary of Muhammad, but local legend connects it 
with Chandra Varma, ancestor of the great Chandel family of Rajputs, who 
removed hither after their defeat by Prithi Raj, the Chauhan ruler of Delhi. 
I. G. ' 



STAl'ISl'ICS OF SUBAH ALIvAHA^^ 171 

tioli, a parrot that answered any questions put to it and 
some say, remembered everything that it heard, a musician 
named Bakshu unequalled in the knowledge and practice 
of his art, and two handmaidens lovely to behold and skilled 
in song. Sultan Bahadur Gujrati having formed a friend- 
ship with the Raja asked him for one of these. The Rajah 
generously and with a provident wisdom sent him Bakshu. 
Next Sher Khan of the House of Sur requested the gift of 
the two wonderful songstresses, and when his messenger 
returned without them, he invested the fort. Works were 
erected and the besieged were reduced to great straits. In 
despair, the Raja, after the manner of the Hindus who hold 
their honour dear, burnt his women, for in the slumbering 
of his reason, he had set his affections upon the things of 
this fleeting life, and so giving his body to ashes, according 
to the desire of his enemies, he became soiled with the dust 
of dissolution. As to Sher Khan, who had conceived this 
wicked design,' he fell at the powder magazine when the 
fire opened on the fort and the harvest of his life was 
consumed.* 

The Subah contains ten Sarkdrs, and 177 Parganahs. 
Revenue 21 %rors, 14 lakhs and 17,819 dams (Rs. 
53,10,695-7-9)), and 12 lakhs of betel leaves. Of these 
Parganahs 131 pay revenue from crops charged at special 
rates. Measured land 39, 68,018 highas, 3 hiswas, yield- 
ing a revenue of 20 krors, 29 lakhs, 71,224 dams (Rs. 
50,74,280-9). The remaining 46 Parganahs pay the gene- 
ral bigah rate. They are rated at 94 lakhs, 56,595 dams 
(Rs. 2,86,424-14). Of this, 1 kror, 11 lakhs, 65,417 dams 
(Rs. 279,135-6-6) are Suyurghdl. The province furnishes 
11,375 Cavalry, 237,870 Infantry and 323 elephants. 

Note. — ^In the names of the parganahs under the fol- 
lowing Sarkdrs, I have altered the spelling where the 
vai-iants allow, in accordance with Elliot’s list, as his per- 
sonal acquaintance with their true pronunciation is probably 
more correct than those of my previous lists which were 
adapted as far as possible to reconcile the readings of 
Gladwin and Tieffenthaler. The discrepancies are slight 
and will not interfere with their recognition. 


^ This took place in 1545. During the siege a live shell rebounded from 
the walls into the battery where Sher Shah stood and set fire to the gun- 
powder. He was brought out severely burnt and died next day, having pre- 
viously ordered an assault which was at once made with success. K, R. 
Qanungo’s Sher Shah, 339. 



172 

AIN-I-AKBARI 

Subah of JUdhabdd. 

Subah of Agra, 

Subah of Oudh. Subah of Delhi, 

Sarkdrsf 

Sarkdrs, 

Sarkdrs. Sarkdrs. 

Illahabas. 

Agra. 

Garaklipur. Delhi. 

Karrali. 

Kanauj. 

Rewari. 

Rorarah (Rora) . 

Kalpi. 

Saliaranpur. 

Kfilinjar. 

Kol. 

Hisar Firozah. 

Jaunpur. 

Tijarah. 

Sambhal, 

Ghazipur. 

Benares. 

Chanar. 

Irij. 

Saliar. 

Badaon. 


Sarkar of Illdhah as {Allahabad) . 


Containing 11 Mahals, 573,311 Bighas, 14 Biswas. 
Of these 9 Mahals yield 20,833,374j4 Dams, in money. 
Suyurghdl, 747,001jE4 Dams. Castes various. 
Cavalry 580. Infantry 7,100. 



Bighas 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

>. 

rt 

MH 
« 
h- 1 

Castes 

Ilirdiabas, with su- 
burban district: 
has a stone fort .. 

284,057 

9,267,359 

253,261 


1,000 

Brahman 

Bhadoi, with a brick 
fort on the bank 
of the Ganges .. 

73,252-2 

3,660,918 

37,534 

200 

5,000 

Rajput, a few 

i ' ' ' ■ ' ■ ' ' 

Jalalabad,^ 5 Mahals 

737,220 

10 

_400 

BharsV 

Brahman 

^ Soraon . . 

63,932-4 

3,247,127 

161,527 

40 

1,000 

Rajput, Chan- 

1 4 ■' -,■,■■■ ■■ , 

: ' Singraur, has a 

brick fort on the 
bank of the Ganges 

38,536-6 

1,885,066 

74,883 


del, Brah- 
man 

Brahman, Ka- 

Sikandarpur 

34,756-8 

1,867,704 

92,138 

25 

500 

yath, Rah- 
matnllahi 
Brahman 

! Kantit, has a stone 

fort on the Ganges 


856,555 


50 

2,000 

Khandal 

Kusi. (Elliot Kewai) 

14,’38S-3 

721,115 

19,005 

15 

400 

Rajput, Brah- 

Khairagarh, has a 
stone fort on a 
• hill 

( • • • 

400,000 

200 

5,000 

man 

Rajput, Bi- 

' Mah, has a stone 

\ fort on the hill 

. Alwand* 

21,982 

1,139,980 

22,495J 

20 

400 

rasi (Bhar?) 

Rajput, Ga- 

■’ Pladiabas, (now call- 

■j ed Jhusi. Elliot) .. 

42,422-5 

2,018,014 

79,078 

20 

400 

harwal 

Rajput, Brah- 

li 






man 


^ The Bhars were a powerful tribe during the period of Buddhist ascen- 
dancy. In Southern and EJasterii Oudh there are many relics of their wealth 
and power in the shape of tanks, wells, embankments and deserted sites of 
brick built forts and towns. Beames, Memoitf i. p. 33. Oudh Gazetteer, i. 
p. xxxvi. 

^ Three names follow without diacritical points, intelligible in the MSS. 
Tieff. gives “Sobehe, Aiiela, Bando, Barbar. 

® A note to the text suggests, Gaharwdl, one of the 36 ro3"al tribes of 
Rajputs. 

*A note states that In' the maps there is no hill. Alwand is the name of 
a well-known mountain in Hamadan, 80 leagues from Ispahan, often employed 
in Persian imagery as a synonym for loftiness. 





MAHALS OF GHAZIPUR AND BENARES ^ 

Sdrkdr of Ghasipur, {East.) 

Containing 19 Mahals, 2^,170 Bighas, 1 Biswas. 
Revenue 13,431,308 Ilotns, in money. 
Stiyurghdl, 1^1,825 Dams. Castes various- 
Cavalry 310. Infantry 16,650. 



Biglias 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Balia 

28,344-15 

1,250,000 


200 

2000 

Rajput 

Pachotar .. 

13,679-9 

6,982,040 

2,250 

50 

2000 

Do. 

Bilhabas*®* 

12,306 

652,360 

... 

10 

200 

Do. 

Bahriabad 

6,983-10 

355,340 

1,720 


200 

Do. 

Bhalaecli, {B. Baraicli) 

2,255-19 

112,461 




Chansa, (B. ChauiivSa) .. 

15,602-11 

791,653 


io 

500 

Brahman 

Dihba, (B. Dihinah) .. 

2,808-15 

128,815 

2,077 


50 

Rajput 

Sayyidpur Naiiidi 

25,721-3 

1,250,280 

18,172 

20 

1000 

Brahman 

Zahurabad 

Ohazipur with« subur- 

13,802-12 

657,808 : 

29,528 

500 

20 

Do. 

Kayath, 

ban district .. 

12,325-9 

570,350 

39,680 

10 

20 

Rajput 

Kariyat Pali .. 

1,394-5 

75,467 




Kopachhit 

19,266-11 

942,190 

*893 

20 

2000 

Rajput 

Gandha, (B. Garha) .. 

10,049-10 

500,000 



200 

Do. 

Karenda 

Bakliner, (B. Laklitie- 

6,260-15 

293,551 

... 

... 

i 300 

Do. 

sar) 

2,883-3 

126,636 

834 




Madaii Benares 
Miihammadabad, and 

66,548-7 

2,760 000 

1,356 

50 

5000 

Brahman 

Parharbari- .. 

48,774-16 

2,260,707 

4,777 

1 

2000 

100 

Do. 


Sarkdr of Benares {East.) 

Containing 8. Mahals, 36,869 Bighas, 12 Biswas. 
Revenue 8,869,315 Ddms in money. 
Suyurghdl 3,38,184. Castes various. 
Cavalry 830. Infantry 8,400. 



Bighas 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suvur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Afrad 

10,655-6 

. 

853,226 

20,080 


400 

Brahman, 

Benares, with suburban 
(hstricfc 

31,657-1 

1,734,721 

22,190 

50 

1000 

Rajput 

Brahman 

Byllisi .. .. 1 

60,961-3 ' 

; 547,634 


20 

300 

Do. 

Pandarha, (var. and B. i 
Pandrah) .. .. { 

4,610-15 

844,221 

15,836 

10 

400 

■ 

Do. 

Kaswar .. .. j 

41,184-14 

2-290,160 

80,120 

50 

2000 

Do. 

Katehar, has -a brick 1 
fort ..f .. 1 

30,495-14 

1,874,230 

48,070 

500 

4000 

Raghuvansi 

Harhua .. :. 1 

i 

13,098-3 

■ ' 1 

713,426 

8,145 


300 

Brahman 


* G. and T. Baliabass. 


174 


AlH-I-AKBARI 


^ Sarkdf of Jaunpuf (North). 

Containing 41 Mahals, 810y%6 Bighas, 4 Biswas. 
Revenue 56,394,107 dams in money. 
Suytirghdl, 4,ll'7 Castes various. 
Cavairy 915. Infantry 36,000. 



Bighas 

and 

Bisw^as 

Revenue 
D. .. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

K'l 

vh 

’ey 

> 

OJ 

o 

u 

a 

■os 

(pastes 

Aldniiau 

46,888-12 

3,099,990 

88,976 

50 

3.000 

Rajput 
Sayyid, Raj- 

Augii 

42,992-14 

2,713,551 

464,516 

50 

2,000 

put, and 

Rahmatul- 

lahi 

Bachgoti 

Bihlari 

17,703 

844,357 

12,520 

10 

100 

Ansari*^' 

Bhadaon 

4,300 

229,315 


10 

100 

Saddiki 

Tilhani 

Jauiipnr with suburbs, 

10,983-8 

654,363 

27,457 

10 

100 

Rajput 

has a fort, the low^er 
part stone, and the 







upper constructed of 






Rajput Ko- 
sak, Brah- 
man, Kur- 
mi 

brick 

65,739-4 

4,247,043 

807,821 

120 

2,500 

Cliandipur Badhar, (B. 






Rahmatulla- 
hi, Brah- 
man 

Birhar) .. .. 

22,826-7 

1,467,205 

15.7,641 

20 

400 

Chandah 

17,590 

989,286 


20 ! 

300 

Bachgoti 

Cliiriyakot 

14,153 

807,848 

13,689 

20 

200 

Raj put ^ 

Jakesar (B. Chakesar) 

5,415-10 

286,586 


10 

100 

Saddiki 

Kharid, has a brick 
fort on the banks of 







the Sarah 

30,914-13 

1 1,445,743 

3,140 

50 

5,000 

Rajput Kau- 
sik 

Khaspur Tandah 

17,365 

986,953 

40,189 

10 

300 

Kayath 

Khanpur 

6-628-10 

3, 06,020 

5,387 


150 

Rajput 

Deogaon 

44,524-18 

2,583,205 

196,238 

25 

1,000 

Do. 

Gautanht 

Rari 

24,360 

1,326,299 

84,502 

10 

300 

Rajput 

Sanjhauli 

Sikaiidarpur, has a 

46,815-3 

2,938,209 

334,932 

50 

100 

Sayyid, Raj- 
put, Bra- 
nian 

brick fort 

32,574-10 

1,706,417 

5,325 

10 

3,000 

Brrdiman 

Sagdi, (B. Sagri) 

19,792 

1,274,721 

! 102,224 

10 

200 

Rajput 

Surharpur .. ..I 

1 18,851 

1,164,095 

; 7,094 

j. 

10 

20 

Do. 

# 


These according to, the LG. (Bahraich) were the descendants of the 
early Kussalman settlers and invaders. For their descent and history, see 
Beanies Memoir, I, 7. For BachgoH, see Blliot (Races of the N. W. P.) who 
says that all Chauhans are Bachgotis,, being of the goira of Bach, bnt Sherring 
proves this to be an error^ instancing the gotras of Vatsa and'^Ivasyap. Hindu 
Tribes, I, p. 164. 

t A clan of Rajputs of the Chandarbans, once a powerful clan in the 
Lower Doab. See Blliot. p, 118, I, and Sherring, I, 202. 



MAHAI.S OF JAUNPUR 176 


Sarkdr of (Nortli).— (Cowid.) 



, . ' 

Bighas 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal B. 

Cavalrv 

Infantry 

Castes 

Shadiabad 


30,848-8 

1,700.742 

10,020 

20 

■ 

400 

Rajput 

Zafarabad 


2,822-9 

156,926 

1 3, 806 J 


50 

Do. 

Qariyat Mittu 


8,991-11 

551,410 

... 

io 

300 

Do. 

„ Dostpur 


8,857 

481 524 

42,227 


100 

.Do.''-' 

,, Mendhah 


7,416 

394,870 

21,260 

... 

100 

Do. 

„ Seothah 

Kolah 


2,988-10 

206,733 

14,224 


100 

Do. 


24,231 

1,363,332 

14,971 

io 

300 

Do. 

Ghiswah .. 


30,775 

1,241,291 

42,366 

10 

200 

D6. 

Ghosi 


18,913 

1,037,934 

69,650 

10 

200 

Do. 

Gadwarah 

*' 

2,191 

513,942 

2,682 

50 

5,000 

Rajput Bach- 
goti 

Kaudiyah , (B . Kauria j 

5,764-12 

341,890 

4,948 


200 

Rajput 

Gopalpur 


3 266-8 

18,043 

... 

100 

bo. 

Karakat 

Mandiahu, has 

brick fort (B. 

a 

Ma- 

48,332-14 

23,002,748 

77,339 

20 

500 

Do. 

riahn) .. 


88,899-5 

5,259,465 

273,788 

50 

2,000 

Rajput Kau- 
sik 

Muhamniadabad 

*• 

56,350-14 

3,229,063 

220,442 

30 

1,000 

Rajput, Brail 
man 

Mungra 


9,626-5 

529,730 

... 


200 

Rajput 

Majhaura 


6,417-6 

420,164 

14,427 


200 

Ralimatul- 

lahi 

Mau 

•• 

2,645-3 

209,067 

... 


50 

Shaikh zfi- 
dah 

Nizamabad 

** 

6,074-13 

602,592 

478,026 

200 

4,000 

Rajput Gau- 
tami, Brah- 
man, Rah- 
matulirihi 

Negun 


10,145 

758,796 

145,350 


200 

Brahman 

Nathupur 

.. 

4,948-14 

273,472 

21,239 

io 

200 

Saddiki 


Sarkdr of Mdnikpur. 

Containing 14 Mahals, 666,222 Bighas, 5 Bisivas. 
Revenue 33,916,627 Dams in money. 
Suyurghdl, 8,446,173. Castes various. 
Cavalry 2,040. Infantry 2,900. 



Bighas 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D, 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Arwal, has a bricl?"fort 

62.131-10 

2,957,077 

37,220 

114 

7-000 

Rajput 

Bhalol 

32,343-3 

1,832,283 

i 

1 

175,753 

20 

500 

Rajput Ka- 
yath, Bao- 
riya^= 

Xilhandi 

Jalalpur Balkhar, has a 

11,721-6 

383,251 

54,821 

10 

300 

bo. 

brick fort 

76,517-8 

3,913,017 

HO, 325 

400 

5,000 

Brahman 

Bachgoti, 


Var. Gauriya, Puriya : perhaps Baana a tribe of professional thieves 
widely spread, and in a loose way, a divStinct cavSte. L G. under, Rajpntana 
and Sherring, II, 82, 


176 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Manikpur. — (Contd.) 



Bighas 

and 

Biswat 

Revenue 

D. 

ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

■ ' GuvStes 

Jaes, has a brick fort, 







(L G. Jais) .. 

Dalmau, has a brick 

25,625 

1,424,787 

1 277,863 1 

250 

7,000 

Various 

fort on the Ganges .. 

67,508-9 

3.626,067 

344,130 

50 

200 

Turkoman 

Rae Bareli, has a brick 




■ 



fort on the Sai 

65,75M7 

3,650,984 

180,080 

40 i 

2,000 

Rajput, 

Khand, 

Baoria 

vSalon, has a brick fort 

56,102 

2,717,391 

. 

394,774 

180 

8.900 

Rajput 

Khand wal,f 
Bisen. 

Qaryat Kararah 

51,505-19 

2,461,077 

115,774 

20 

700 

Rajput, ® 

BivSeii 

,, Paegah 

22,130 

1,117,926 

6,794 

20 

400 

Do. do. 

Kathot, has a brick fort 

9,456-8 

514,909 

3,187 

100 

2,000 

Bachgoti 

Manikpur with suburbs, 
has a brick fort on the 







Ganges 

129,830-1 

6,737,729 

542,312 

500 

6,000 

Biseii 

Nasirabad 

; 55,599-4 

1 

2,582,079 

108,148 

40 

1,000 

Rajput, Ka- 
yath, Gao- 
ria, Bais 


Sarhdr of Chanddah (Chandr), South. ^ 

Containing 13 Mahals, 106,270 Bighas, 8 Biswas. 
Revenue 5,810,654 Dams in money. 
Suyurghdl, 109,065. Cavalry 500. 
Infantry 18,000. 



Bighas 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suynr- 
ghal D. 

' 

5 

■ 

i 

ti 

Castes 





CJ 

)-< 


Ahirwarah 

1,858-8 

109,073 





Bholi, {B. Bhuili) 
Badhaul, (B. Barliaul) .. 

18,975-10 

1,112,656 

33,605 


*«* 


6,412-11 

361,864 

605 




Taiidah 

... 

488,010 





Chanadah, with subur- 

12.939-14 

833,908 

8,467 

500 

18,000 

Saddiki, 

Faruki, 

Ansari 

ban district, has a 
stone fort 

Dims 

Raglmpur, now pro- 

1 4,274-10 

1 235,644 

1 14,548 


>•* 


nounced Rahupur B.) 
Villages, this side of 

I 7,267-12 

451,962 

17,869 

... 



the river .. ' .. 

! 18,098 

845,371 

i 14,492 




Majhwarah 

9,312-3 

549,817 

14,597 




Mahaich 

7,950-2 

390,609 

2,069 

... 

... 


Mahwari 

4,878-3 

227,067 




Mahoi, {B. Mawai) 

4,301-2 

206.283 

3,353 

... 




t Slierring' gives llie name of KhondckwaJ to a trading ‘ caste in Bhurtpur. 
iii. 52. 


SUBAH ALLAHABAD MAHALS 


177 


Sarkar of Bhathkhem, (South.) 

Containing 39 Mahals. Revenue 7,262,780 Dams in money. 
Cavalry 4,304. Elepliants 200. Infantry 67,000. 

Sarkar of Kalinjar, (South.) 

Containing 11 Mahals. Measured land, 608,273 Bighas, 
12 Biswas. Revenue 23,839,470 Daws, in money. 

Suyurghdl 614,580 Dams. Castes various. 


Cavalry 1,210. Elepliants 112. Infantry 18,100. 



Bighas 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal I). 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

1 

1 

S 

Castes 

Uguasi, has a brick fort, 
(K. Ugasi) 

Ajaigarh, has a stone ! 

fort on a hill 

Seiidha, (B. Sihonda) 

53,963^ 

2,502,898 

60,776 

400 

5,000 

10 

Saj^yid, 


200,000 


20 

2,000 

10 

Gadhwal, 

Parihar 

Gond 

has a stone fort on 
the Ken 

138,467-12 

6,262, 833i 

129,412 

20 

3.000 

'25 

Gond, Chan- 

Simauni, has a brick 
fort 

48,866-3 

2,247,346 

15,300 

300 

3,000 


del, &c, 
Khandwal 

Shadipur, has a stone ' 
fort 

62,755-15 

2,798,3294 

96,312 

40 

700 


Rajput, &c. 

Rasan 

11,988-10 

512,026 


50 

100 

io 

Bhar, Bais 

Kalinjar with suburban 
district .. 

22,494 

970,259 

130,490 

20 

500 

7 


Kharelah, has a brick 
fort 

25,940-1 

1,275,325 


50 

1,500 


Raput, Bais 

Mahoba, has a stone 
fort, and each side 
of the village is 
flanked by two high 
bills 

81,567-13 

4,042.014 

860,528 

100 

3,000 

40 

Bagri^ 

jMaudha, has a stone 

62,530-7 

&120,000 

pSnl&a.'ves 

2,998.062 

154;062 

30 

400 


Rahmatud- 
lahi, Pari- 
har 

fort 


■ 



1 




* The Bagri are a tribe inhabiting && Bagar country, a tract between the 
S.-W. border of Hariana and the Ghara. Bagar is also the name of a tract 
in the Malwah, but in the N.-W. P. applied to the Bagri Jats of Hissar and 
Bhattiana. Elliot, Memoir (Beale), I. 9-10. 

23 



178 


AIN-I-AEBARI 


Sarkar of Kur rah,* (West.) 

Containing 9 Mahals, 341,170 Bighas, 10 Biswas. 
Revenue 17,397,567 Dams. Suyurghal 469,350 Dams. 


Castes various. Cavalry 500. Elephants 10. 
Infantry 15,000. 



Bighas 

and 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

ghal D. 
Suyur- 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

<s 

43 

Dh 

<u 

Castes 

Jajmao, has a fort on 
the Ganges 

62,195-10 

3,106,346 

139,936 

200 

4,000 

7 

Afghan 

Lodi, Raj- 
i put, Bais. 

Kurrah, with suburban 
district, has a brick 
fort on the Rind river 

124 , 748 - 12 ! 

6,771,891 

1 257,873 

50 

300 

!... 

Brahman 

Ghatampur 

73,876-3 

3,667,564 

48,654 

100 

2.000 

10 

Rajput Bi- 
khit (Di- 
kshit) Ka- 
yath 

Majhawan .. 

26,980-8 

1,323,339 

2,574 

20 

1,000 

... 

Brahman 

Kutia \ 

12,178-11 

584,274 

20,815 

30 

1,000 

... 

Rajput Gau- 
tami 

Guner 

10,041-16 

5ia457 

... 

20 

1,000 

... 

Do. 

Kiranpur Kinar, (BHiot 
Kiratpur Kananda) .. 

17,965 

830,070 


30 

1,000 

... 

Do. 

1 . • 

Muhsanpur 

13,181 

600,586 

... 

50 

2,000 

2 

Rajput 

Chandel 


* Kurraxi is a decayed town in Fatehpur district ; formerly the capital of 
this Sarkar under the Mughals : it still retains traces of its former importance. 
A few words follow this name which are either omitted or illegible in the 
other MSS. Literally they run thus : '*And there is a village called Numi 
which produces flowers and colour/* 

Karah is now a ruined town on the right bank of the Ganges. 40 miles 
N.-W. of Allahabad. It was the scene of the famous meeting between 
Muizu*ddin and his father in 1286 which forms the subject of Mir Khusru’s 
well-known Persian epic, the Kirdnu's Saadain, Two sarkdrs of the Allahabad 
piovince bearing names liable to be confounded with each other in careless 
Persian writing, are Kora and Kara, They were later distinguished as Kora- 
Jahanabad (situated in the Fathput dist. of the U. P.) and Kara-Manikpur, 
(Kara being in the Allahabad dist., and Manikpur on the north bank of the 
Ganges opposite to Kara and therefore in the Oudh province). The two 
places are 70 miles apart east to west. The best device for avoiding con- 
fusion is to spell Kora as Kurrdh, which form of the word we find in the 
Marathi and sonie Persian records. [J. Sarkar.] 



JAUNPUR SUtTAN DYNASTY 

Sarhdf of Karah, (West.) 

Containing 12 Mahals, 447,-556 Bighas, 19 Biswas.... 
Revenue 22,682,048 Dams. Suyurghdl, 1,498,862 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry 390. Infantry 8,700. 



Bighas 

and 

Bisw'as 

D. 

Revenue 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry | 

Infantry 

Elephants! 

Castes 

Hichhi, (Elliot Enclihi) 

35,825-n 

l,624,034i 

34,974 

10 

500 


Do. 

Atharban .. 

18,517-14 

894,036J 

4,770 

10 

, 200 


Do. 

Ayasa 

Haveli, (suburban dis- 

15,783-11 

845.766 

. ■ 

i 

i 

] 

i 500 

1 

] 

i“’ 

Rajput 

trkt) of Kara 

9,638-17 

, 1 

5,192,170 

442,080 

100 

1,000 

... 

Ivayalh, Raj- 
put, Brah- 
man, Khari 

Rari 

Baldah’*’ of Kara, has a 
fort on the Ganges, 
lower part stone, up- 

56,727-18 

2,707,034 

26,350 

10 

4.000 


Rajput 

Brahman 

per, brick ' 

Karari, has a brick foot 

70,001-12 

236,868 



.... 

... 

Various 

on the Jumna 

39,686-19 

141,953 

**. 

... 

... 



Kotla 

Kunra, commonly Ko- 
son, (Elliot, Karson), 
has a brick fort 
Eatehpur Hansw'ah, 

18,043-1 

909,234 

122,191 

10 

300 


Brahman 

Rajput 

11,782-9 

693,4871 


lOO 

2,000 


Various 

(Elliot Haswa) 

55,915-8 

2,892,705 

370,420 

50 

1,000 

... 

Rajput, 

Brahman 

Hatgaon 

55,322-12 

2,723, 508i 

24,829 

40 

1,000 

... 

Do. 

Hanswah 

42,521-3 

2,123,66l| 

15,506 

80 

1,000 

... 

Afghan, 

Rajput 


Its rulers. 


Sultanu’s Sharq reigned, 16 years. 

Mubarak Sbah ,, 1 year and a fraction. 


Sultan Ibrabim ,, 

Sultan Mahmud „ 

Mahmud [= Muham- 
mad] Shah ,, 

Husain ,, 


40 years ,, 

21 years and a few months. 

5 months. 

19 years. 


* Mr. Beanies m a note to Elliot’s Gloss, 
Haveli and Baldah, the former alluding to 
and the latter to that at a distance. 

Malik Sarwar Khwaja Jahan ... 

Malik Qaraiiful, Mubarak Sh. 
Shams-nd-din Ibrahim Sh, 

Mahmud Sh. -i- 

Muhammad Sh. ... ... 

Husain Sh, 


, p. .83, II, distinguishes between 
the district close to the Capital 

... A.H. 796/1394 A.D. 

... 802/1399 

... * 804/1402 

840/1436 
... 862/1458 

862-884/1458-79 

— (Cambridge Hist. India, Hi). 


180 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


These six princes held sway for 97 years and i few 
months.* 

This province was formerly administered by the 
sovereigns of Delhi. When the imperial authority devolved 
on Sultan Muhammad-b-Firuz Shah, he bestowed the title 
of Sultan us Sharq upon Malik Sarwar a eunuch who had 
received from his predecessor the dignity of Khdn-i-Jahan, 
and sent him to this province. He gave lustre to his reign 
by his judgment, clemency, justice and valour and thus 
garnered a provision for his life’s last journey. W^hen the 
cup of his days was full, the son whom he had adopted, 
named Mubarak Qaranful, by the assistance of the chief 
men of the State, raised himself to pow-er and had the 
khutbah read and the coin struck in his own name. When 
the news of this event reached Mallu (Khan), he collected 
troops and marched from Delhi to oppose him and encamped 
in readiness for battle on the bank of the Ganges, but 
nothing decisive having been effected, both armies returned 
home. . 

When this prince died, his younger brother Ibrahim 
was raised to the throne. By his knowledge of men and 
capacity for affairs he administered the kingdom with 
justice and made the chastisement of the unruly a source 
of prosperity to his government. Wisdom was eagerly 
sought and the prospects of the intelligent in every profes- 
sion wms advanced. Qazi Shahabu’ddin, a sage of Hindustan 
flourished about this time. He was born at Delhi and in 
that city acquired a comprehensive, knowledge of the 
inductive sciences and traditional lore, and at the time of 
the arrival of Timur, he set out for Jaunpur in the company 
of his master Maulana Khwajagi who was the successor of 
Nasiru’ddin Chiragh of Delhi and there continued his 
progress and became the envy of his time. Shah Madar, 
however, who is esteemed one of the saints of Hindustan 
and the chief of his contemporary series of divines, through 
the disagreement that ever exists between philosophers 
who regard the material world, and masters of the spiritual 
life, entertained no esteem for the Qazi. 

When the days of Ibrahim came to a close, his eldest 
son Bikhan Khan, under the name of Sultan Mahmud, 
assumed the sovereignty. As his deeds were not approved, 
the sentence of deposition was issued against him and his 


* Six Jaunpur ruler s,-r-07 . years. 



SUBAH OUDH DESCRIBED 181 

brotlier Husain^ raised to power. He made rectitude his 
rule of conduct ‘and his chief object the conciliation of all 
hearts. Fortune favoured his desires and the world praised 
him but intoxicated by the maddening fumes of worldly 
success, he became arrogant. He was involved in war with 
Sultan Bahlol and was defeated. Sultan Bahlol left his 
son Barbak at Jaunpur and entrusted him with the govern- 
ment. [1478.] On the death of Sultan Bahlol the throne 
of Delhi devolved on Sultan Sikaridar. Sultan Husain wdth 
the connivance of Barbak collected troops, made several 
attempts against Delhi, but with him the Sharqi dynast 3 ' 
closed.® 


The Subah of Oudh. 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from 
the Sarkar of Gorakhpur to Kanauj is 135 kos. Its 
breadth from the northern mountains to Sidhpur on the 
frontier of the Subah of Allahabad is 115 kos. To the east 
is. Bihar; to the north, the mountains; to the south, 
Manikpur, and to the west Kanauj. Its climate is good. 
Summer and winter are nearly temperate. Its principal 
streams are the Saru {Sarju), the Ghaghar (Gogra) the Sai 
and the Godi (Gumti). In the first mentioned, divers aquatic 
animals and forms of strange appearance show themselves. 
Agiiculture is in a flourishing state, especially rice of the 
kinds called Sukhdds, Madhkar, and Jhmvwdn, which for 
whiteness, delicacy, fragrance and wholesomeness are 
scarcely to be matched. They sow their rice three months 
earlier than in other parts of Hindustan. When the drought 
begins, the Sai and the Gogra rise high in flood and before 
the beginning of the rains, the land is inundated, and as the 
waters rise, the stalks of rice shoot up and proportionately 
lengthen ; the crop, however, is destroyed if the floods are in 
full force before the rice is in ear. Flowers, fruits and game 
are abundant. Wild buffaloes are numerous. When the 


* Jaunpur continued to be governed by the Lodi synasty till the defeat 
and death of Ibrahim grandson of Bahlol and last of the line^ at Panipat by 
Babar in 1526.. A local kingdom was for a short time established under 
Bahadur Khan governor of Jaunpur who asserted his independence. It was 
recovered by Humayun, passed again into the hands of Sher Kh^ and his 
son of Salim. Humayun on his reconqu^st of Hindustan died before he could 
master his eastern possessions, Jaunpur continued under the Afghans until 
Akbar in the 4th year of his reign, took possession of it through Ali Quli 
Klaan and incorporated it with his dominions. In 1575 the Viceregal Court 
was removed to Allahabad and Jaunpur was governed thenceforth by a Nizam. 



182 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

plains are inundated the animals take to the high ground 
where the people find sport in hunting them. Some of the 
animals remain all day in the water and only at night 
approach the dry ground and breathe in freedom. 

(Ajodhyd) is one of the largest cities of India. In is situated 
in longitude 118°, 6', and latitude 27°, 22'. It ancient times 
its populous site covered an extent of 148 kos in length and 
36 in breadth, and it is esteemed one of the holiest places 
of antiquity. Around the environs of the city, they sift the 
earth and gold is obtained. It was the residence of Rama- 
chandra'^ who in the Treta age combined in his own person 
both the spiritual supremacy and the kingly office. 

At the distance of one kos from the city, the Gogra, 
after its junction with the Sai, [^Sarajic] flows below the foil. 
Near the city stand two considerable tombs of six and seven 
yards in length respectively. The vulgar believe them to 
be the resting-places of Seth and the prophet Job, and extra- 
ordinary tales are related of them. Some say that at Ratan- 
pur is the tomb of Kabir,t the assertor of the unity of God. 
The portals of spiritual discernment were partly opened to 
him and he discarded the effete doctrines of his own time. 
Numerous verses in the Hindi language are still extant of 
him containing important theological truths. Bahraich is 
a large town on the banks of the river Sarju. Its environs are 
delightful with numerous gardens. Solar Masudd and Rajab 
Salar are both buried here. The common people of the 
Muhammadan faith greatly reverence this spot and pilgrims 
visit it from distant parts, forming themselves in bands and 
bearing gilded banners. The first mentioned was connected 
by blood with Mahmud Ghaznavi, and sold his life bravely 
in battle and left an imperishable name. The second was the 


* Tlie 7tli avatar, who in this- capital of the solar dynasty founded on the 
chariot wheel of Brahma, consummated the glories of sixty generations of 
solar princes and as the incarnate Rama, is the hero of the famous epic that 
bears his name. 

f His doctrines were preached between A.D. 1380 and 1420 and attempted 
the union of Hindu and Muhammadan in the worship of one God whether 
invoked as Ali or Rama. On his decease both these sects claimed the body 
and while they contested it, Kahir suddenly stood in their midst and com- 
manding them .to look under the shoud, vanished. A heap of beautiful 
flowers was there discovered, which, divided among the rival worshijDpers, 
were buried or burnt according to their respective rites. Pilgrims from upper 
India to this day beg a spoonful of rice water from the Kabir Monastery 
at Puri in Orissa. 

^ Under the orders of Mahmud of Ghazni, he penetrated the country in 
A.D. 1033, but was eventually defeated at Bahraich and fell fighting, sanguine 
purpuratum, as Tieflenthaler writes j crowned with the double glories of the 
hero and the martyr. 



FAMOUS PI,ACES IN OUDH 183 

fatlier of Sultan Firoz king of Delhi and won renown by the 
recitude of his life. 

In the vicinity of the town, there is a village called 
Dogon which for a long time possessed a mint for copper 
coinage. 

From the northern mountains quantities of goods are 
carried on the backs of men, of stout ponies and of goats, 
such as gold, copper, lead, musk, tails^ of the kutds cow, 
honey, chuk (an acid composed of orange juice and lemon 
boiled together), pomegranate seeds, ginger, long pepper, 
majith? root, borax, zedoary, wax, woollen stuffs, wcx^en 
ware, hawks, falcons, black falcons, merlins, and other 
articles. In exchange they carry back white and coloured 
cloths, amber, salt, assafoetida, ornaments, glass and 
earthen ware. 

Nimkhdr is a fort of considerable note and a shrine of 
great resort. The river Godi (Gumti) flows near it, and 
around are numerous temples. There is a tank called Bmh- 
mdwartkund in which the water boils and with such a swirl, 
that a man cannot sink therein, '* and it ejects whatever is 
thrown into it. In the neighbourhood is also a deep hollow, 
the springhead of a stream, one yard in breadth and four 
digits deep that flows into the Gumti. The Brahmans tell 
strange tales of it and pay it worship. Its sand shapes itself 
into the form of Mahddeo which quickly disappears again 
and of whatever is thrown in, as rice and the like, no trace 
remains. 

There is likewise a place called Chardmiti, whence, dur- 
ing the HoU festival, flames spontaneously issue forth with 
astonishing effect. 


® It would seem from a passage of Ferislita mentioning an inroad of 
Tibetans into Kashmir in the reign of Ibrahim, son of Nazuk Shah (p* 359, II) 
that the yak is meant. The Kashmiris retaliated by pursuing the marauders, 
and exacting as compensation 500 horses, 1000 pieces of pattu, 200 sheep 
and 50 kutas cows. Tater on, it is mentioned by Abul Fazl among the fauna 
of India and described as little differing from the common cow except in the 
tail which is a distinguishing peculiarity, and the origin of its name, kutas, 

^ Rubia Munjista, Roxb. a native of Nepal and other mountainous countries 
N.-B. of Bengal. Its root yields a red dye. 

^ Tiehenthaler asserts that it derives its name from Brahma who is 
supposed to have sacrificed here, but according to the L G. there is a legend 
that in one of these tanks, Rama washed away his sin of having slain a 
Brahman in the person of Ravana, who had carried off his wife Sita. 


184 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

Lucknow is. a large city on the banks of the Gumti, 
delightful in its surroundings. Shaikh Mina whom the 
people consider a saint, lies buried here. 

Surajkand* is a place of worship frequented by various 
classes of people from the most distant places. 

Kheri is a town on the banks of the river Sai upon which 
the people go in boats to spear fish. 

Bilgram is a small town the air of which is healthy and 
its inhabitants are generally distinguished for their quick 
wit and their love of singing. There is a well here which 
adds to the intelligence and comeliness of whomsoever drinks 
of it for forty days. 

This Suhah is divided into five Sarkdrs and thirty-eight 
parganas. The ineasured lands are 1 kror, 1 lakh, 71,180 
bighas. Its revenue, 20ferors, 17 iafehs, 68,172 dams, 
(Rs. 5,043,954-4), of which 86 lakhs, 21,658 daws 
(Rs. 213,041-7). are Stiyurghal. 'The -provincial force con- 
sists of 7.640 Cavalry, 168,250, Infantry and 69 Elephants, 


Sarkdr of Oudh. 

Containing 21 Mahals, 2,796,206 Bighas, 19 Biswahs, 
Revenue, 40,956,347 Dams in money. Suyurghdl, 
1,680,248 Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 1,340, Elephants 
23, Infantry 31,700. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Infantry 

Cavalry 


Castes 

Oudh, with suburban 







h'" ^ V' 

district, 2 niahals .. 

38,649-17 

2,008,366 

158,741 

5 

500 

.r. 

Brahman 

Kumbi 

Ambodha, has a brick 








fort 

282,037 

1,298,724 

7,318 

30 

700 


Bais 

Ibrahimabad 

19,338-8 

445,417 

103,806 


1 

... 

Ansari 


* Identified with Asokpur, between Ajodhya and Gonda [Elliot, ii, 549], 


OUDH MAHAtS 185 

Sarkdr of Oudh—{contd.). 


. ■ ■ ' ■'! 

Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 
B. . 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Infantry 

Cavalry 

f/j 

§ 

5 

Castes 

Anhoiiah, has a brick 

74,090 

1,268,470 


100 

2,000 


Chauhan, 

fort 

■ 

289,085 

4,247,104 

38,885 

20 

500 


newly con- 
verted to 
Islam 

Rajput, Bach- 

Panchhamrath 

15,859 

815,831 


50 

2,000 


hal, Ghelot 
Bachgoti 

Bilehri, has a brick fort 

31,188 

505,473 

1,500 

20 

500 


Do. 

Basodhi ’ 

8,703-2 

427,509 

36,172 

... 

1,000 

-• * 

Do. 

Thanah Bhadaon 

44,401 

385,W)S 

3,960 

... 

500 

««• 

Do. 

Baktha 

Daryabad, has a brick 

487,014 

5,369,521 

226,871 

lOO 

2,000 


Rajput Chau- 

fort 

Rudauli, has a brick fort 

351,533 

3,248,680 

269,083 

50 

2,000 


han, Raik- 
war* 

Rajput, Chau- 

vSilak, do. 

1571,071 

4,723,209 

200,945 

100 

2,000 


han, Bais 
Rajput, Raik- 

Sultaiipur do. 

75,903 

3,832,530 

98,967 

200 

7,000 

8 

war 

Bachgoti 

vSa4:anpur do. 

80,154 

1,600,741 

109,788 

300 

4,000 

... 

Bais, newly 

Subehaf 

104,780 

1,609,293 

87,200 

30 

1,000 


converted 
to Islam, 
Bachgoti, 
Joshi 

Rajput 

Sarwapali 

! 58,170 

1,210,335 

47,107 

... 

1,000 

... 

Bachgoti 

Satrikah (Satrikh) 

■ 37,041 

1,126,295 

92,695 

20 

1,000 

... 

Ansari 

Gawarchak 

79,158 

3,773,417 

3,782 

50 

1,070 

... 

Raikwar 

Kishni, has a brick fort 

25,674 

1,339,286 

123,847 

... 

1,500 

3 

R.ajput 

Mangalsi 

116,401 

1,360,753 

86,504 

20 

1,000 

... 

Sombansi 

Naipur 

j 5,997 

I 

308,788 

2,940 


500 


Various 


* The origin of this tribe Raikwar i& given in the I. G. (Bahraich) and 
their vSettlenients in Sherring I, 219. 

t Subeha is a well-known parganah in Bara Banki District. In the f. G. 
its area is recorded as 88 square miles, or 56,467 acres of which 30,783 are 
cultivated. Govt, land revenue ;{i66U. In Akbar\s time according to the 
above figures Rs. 40,232-7, and the average taking the bigha f4 of an acre, ^ 
65,487 acres nearly. 


24 


186 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

Sa^kar of Gorakhpur. 

Containing 24 Mahals, 244,283 Bighas, 13 Biswas. 
Revenue 11, 926,790. Dams in money. Stiyurghal 61,235 
Dams. Castes various; Cavalry 1,010. Infantry 22,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry j 

Infantry 

§ 

-a 

<u 

s 

Castes : , , 

Utraula, has a brick 
fort .. ' 

32,052 

1,397,387 

6,935 

50 

1,500 


Afghan-i- 

Unhaula .. .. 

4,114-17 

201,120 

2170 


400 


Miyanah 

Eiseii 

Binaikpur, has a brick 
fort .. .. 

13,857-7 

600,000 


400 

3,000 

1 

Rajput Su- 

Banbhanparah (E- Bam- 
hni, p. ) .. 

6,688 

414,194 



2,000 


rajbansi 

Rajput 

Bhawaparah 

3,105-15 

155,900 



200 


Bisen 

Telpur, has a brick fort 

9,005-17 

400,000 


100 

2,000 


Rajput Su- 

Chiluparli, do. 

6,536-14 

289,302 



2,000 


rajbansi 

Rfijput 

Daryaparh (B. Dhuria, 
(p. ) 

31,357-19 

1,517,078 

5,067 

60 

400 


Biseii 

Dewaparah and Kotlah*^ 
2 mahals ‘ .. 

16,194-17 

717,840 

20 

2,000 


Do. 

Rihli, (or Riidauli) i 

33,183-19 

1,618,074 

20,873 


1,000 

... 

Rajput Bisen 

Rasulpur and Ghosi, 2 ; 
mahals (B. Ghaus) ... ‘ 

4,200 

1 622,030 


500 


Sombanst 

Ramgarh and Gauri, ' 2 ^ 
mahals 

' 10,762 

485 943 





Do., troops 

Gorakhpur with subur- 
ban district, has a 
brick fort on the 
Rapti, 2 mahals 

12,656-8 

1 . - 

567,385 

, , ■■ 

3,919 

1 . i 

40 

200 

1 

entered 
under Bi- 
iiaikpur 

vSurajbansi 

Katihla, has a brick , 
fort 

900-12 

40,000 


300 

2,000 


Bansi 

Rahlaparh, Do. (B* 

Rihla, p.) 

16,012 

425,845 


20 

800 


Bisen 

Mahauli. Do. .. 

2,523 

618,256 

... 


2,000 


Bisen 

Mandwah 

1,909-19 

452,321 


20 

500 


SomT)ansi 

Mandlah 

'Maghar and Ratanpur, 

2 mahals, has a brick 
fort 

1,252-6 

26,062 ! 

51,100 

1,352,585 

16,771 

' . 

2,000 j 


Bisen, Bais 


* ElUot, Dhewapara KuH^a. 


187 


OUDH SUBAH, SUBDIVISIONS 

Sarkar of Bahraich. 

Containing 11 ^Mahals, 1,823,435 Bighas, 8 Biswas. 
Revenue 24,120,525 Dams in money. Suyurghal, 466,482 
Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 1,170. Infantry 14,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 



! 

Revenue 

. - . D. 

. 1 

Snyur- 
ghal B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

B^lephants | 

Castes 

Baliraicli with suburban 
district has a fort on 
the river Sarju 

697,231 

9,139,141 

402,111 

— — 

600 

4,500 


Rajput 

Bahrah 

926 

37,135 


500 


Kahnah 

Husanipur, lias a brick 
fort 

157,415 

4,707,035 

1,601 

70 

900 


(Kher?) 

Itaikwar, 

Dangdun .. .. 

84,436 

1 440,562 



2,000 


Bisen 

Janw'ar*^ 

Rajhat 

4,064-11 

166,780 



1,000 


Ditto 

Sujhauli .. .. i 

124,810 

877,007 





; Rajput, Jan- 

Sul tan pur 

58,146 

166,001 



700 


1 war ■ 

S Jaiiwar 

Faklirpur, has a brick 
fort 

191,720 

3,157,876 

56,035 

150 

2,000 


Raikwar 

Pirozabad, ‘ditto .. i 

108,601 

1,933,079 

4,107 

200 

7,000 


Rajput or 

Fort of Kawagarh 

417,601 

2,140,858 

50 

1,000 


Tanwar 

Various 

Kharoiisa, has a brick 
fort 

28,489-17 

1,315.051 

2,628 

j 100 

1,000 

1 


Bais • ’ ■ ' . 


A. tribe of Rajputs in Sihonda and Simanni of Bundelkhand : Rasulabad 
and Bitliur of Cawnpore, and in Kntiya Gunir of Fatelipur. 


Sarkar of Khairdbad. 

Containing 22 Mahals, 1,987,700 Bighas, Q Biswas. 
Revemie, 43,6^,381 Darns in money. Suyurghal, 171,342 
Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 1,160. Infantrj'^ 27,800. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

g 

■§. 

3 

Castes 

Baror 2Lnjnah .. 

Baswah, has a brick 

79,670-9 

4, ^,437 

107,079 

. 

50 

2,000 


Rajput;* ' 
Bfahm'ah , 

fort 

135,119 

3,545,643 

107,916 

30 

1,000 


Rajput,' ■' 
BacHhal ' 

Pali 

144,627 

1,849,270 

37,945 

30 

1,000 


Asnin? 


188 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

Sarkar of Khairabad—(contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D, 

■ 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

1 Infantry 

[ Elephani 

Castes 

'■ ' ■ ■ ■ . : ‘ 








Bawan 

56,156 

1,161,235 

26,488 

20 

1,000 


Ditto. 

Basrali 

60,063 




300 


Various 

Bhurwarah, has a brick 



■ 

50 



Aliiiin 

fort 

8,971-13 

43,543 


2,500 


Basara 

21,740 

276.066 

. 

... 

200 

... 

Bachlial 

Pila 

981-14 

48,202 



200 


Ahniii 

Chhatyapur 

64,706 

1,765,641 

41,094 

50 

700 


Rajput Gaur 

Khairabad with subur- 
ban District, 2 Mahals, 




. 



Brahuian 

has a brick fort 

159,072 

2 161^4 

174,191 

5.0 

2,000 


Sandi, has a brick fort 

211,804 

3,C^5,339 

195,106 

20 

2,000 


Sombansi 

vSarah 

68,832 

2,091,983 

8,666 

60 

500 

... 

Chauhan 

vSadrpur 

Gopamau, has a brick 

120,698 

831,175 

15,581 

20 

500 

... 

Janwar 

Bachhal 

fort 

107,368,5 

5,620,466 

562,037 

lOO 

3,000 


Rajput Kuar 

Kheri, do. do. 
Khairigarh, one of the 
most important fort- 
resses in Hindustiui. 

260,168 

1 

3,260 522 

50,522 

j. ■ 

60 

1,500 


Bisen, Raj- 
put, Jan- 
war 

There are 6 forts of 
brick and mortar, at 
a short distance from 

1 • 





' '1 


it 

j 43,<^2-7 

1,629,328 

... 

300 1 

1,500 

... 

Bais, Bisen, 
Bachhal, 
Kahnah 

Kharkhela 

15,815-16 

473,727 

•*« 

20 

500 


Asin? 

Khankhat Man . 

3.058-11 

m,656 



400 

... 

, Various 

Laharpur 

208,288 

3.029,479 

209,079 

50 

1,000 

... 

i Brahman 

Machharhatta 

Nimkhar, has a brick 

71-069 

2,112,176 

2,430 

30 

2,000 


! RSjput, - 
1 Bachhal 

fort 

58,775-18 

3,566,055 

66,055 

100 

1,500 



Hargariion 

66,952 

200,000 

26,385 

20 

500 


j Ahir 


Sarkar of Lucknow. 

Containing 55 Mahals, 3,307,426 Bighas, 2 Biswas. 
Revenue 80,716,160 Dams in money. Suyurghdl, 4,572,626 
Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 2,680. Elephants 36. 
Infantry 83,450, 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghil D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Elephants I 

Castes 

Amethi, has a brick 








. fort 


3^6,480 

300,217 

300 

2.000 

20 

Ansari 

Unani, has a brick fort ' 
Isauli, has a brick fort 
on the Oumti 

, V 

61,045 

2,012,372 

253 747 

50 

4,000 


Sayyid 

1,670,093 

4,208,046 

240,846 

50 

2,000 

... 

i 

Rajput, 

Bachgoti 


LUCKNOW DISmiCL,,': 'MAHALS 
Sarkar of Lucknow— {contd.) 


189 


^ 1 

. -.i 

Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 
H. ,|j 

5uyur- 
jhal D. 

u 

75 

> 

rf 

U 

■■ ,| 

1 J 

57,726 

880,625 

63,421 

10 

500 ... B 

25, (^7 

509,901 



400 ... ^ 

33,122 

417,957 


1000 

2,000 ... I 

192,800 

5,124,113 

356,892 

20 

1,000 ... f 

242,291 

3,802,122 

151,481 

... 

2,000 ... I 

80,581 

2,505,047 

193,961 

30 

1,000 ... t 

80,590 

1,284,799 

51,560 

30 

1,000 ... 1 

19,409-3 

591,406 


20 

.500 ... ] 

34,727 

420,732 

12,730 

... 

500 ... ] 

8,736 

340,191 

8,194 


200 ... ] 

8,945 

267,809 


... 

.300 ... 1 

9,111 

237,587 


' 

200 ... ] 

5,621 

214,256 

' — ■ 


400 ... J 

9,357 

168,584 

■ 

... 

300 ... - 

61,774 

1,123,176 

21,441 

20 

2,000 ... ' 

88,637 

1,933,837 

174,207 

30 

2,000 ... 

13,840-9 

689,586 

■ .t. 

100 

1,500 ... 

10,796 

73,737 


50 

... ... 

75,490 

2,425,885 

79,225 

100 

* 2,000 ... 

9,790 

268,099 



200 ... 

393,700 

10,623,901 

837,245 

ioo 

1 5,000 ... 

39,083-15 

2,625,388 

; 28,836 

40 

1 1,000 ... 

2,571 

1,239,767 

1,567 

20 

1,000 ... 

60,600 

1,028,800 

> 10,192 

5C 

t 2,000 ... 

. 13,065 

694,707 

' 130,216 

K 

» 500 ... 

. 35,794 

1,692,281 

313,022 

j lOOj 1,000 j... 

. 9,371-4 

505,018 

, ... 

ISC 

) 1,500 ... 

7,856-9 

392,318 

\ 13,792 

... 

1,000 ... 

5,576 

210, 31( 

) 2,858 

... 

lOo ... 

, 198,300 

3,161,44( 

) 261,440 

20< 

2,000 5 

. 105,952 

9(B,m 

5 6,594 

1< 

) 500 ... 

. 47,356 

1,800,00( 

) ... 

25 

3 5,500 8 

t 80,817 

1,693,84^ 

i 62,919 

2 

a 2,000 3 

. 31,584 

1,134,431 

2 14,430 

3 

0 500 ... 

22,300 

818,471 

2 ... 

lOOj 2,000 ... 


,Asmtn .. 

Asoiia .. .. 

Unclialigaoii 
Bilgraoii, has a brick 

fort 

Baiigarmaii Ditto 

Bijlaur iv. Bijnor] 

Bari 

Bharimau 

Pangwan 

Betholi .. .■ 

Panlian .. 

Parsandaii 

Patau 

Barashakor 

Jahalotar 

bewi, has a brick fort 
Deorakh 
Dadrah 
Raixbarpur, has a brick 
fort 


Ditto 

Ditto 


Ramkot, 

Sandilah, 

Saipur 

Barosi 

Sataupur .. ^ 

Sahali 

Sidhor**’ 

Sidhpiir 

Saudi 

Saron 

Fat-ehpitr, has a b 
fort 

Fatehpur Chaurasi 
Garh Anbhatti. (Am< 
has a brick fort 


Kakori, 
Khan j rah 


Ditto 


Castes 


del 


Ghelot 


Kiimbhi 

;irahmaii^ 

Kunbi 


Bais, Brah- 
man 
la j put 
Ghelot, 
Bachhal 
tajput, 
Chandel 
Chandcl, 
Rajput 
Bais, Brah- 
man 
Rajput 
Afghan, Raj- 
put 
Bais 
Rajput 
Rajput, 
Shaikhzadah, 
Kunbi 
Rajput 
Rajput, 
Chandel 
Rajput, Ball- 
man Goti 
l^ajput 
Rajput, 
Bisen 
Bais 


Var. Sayyidpur, Seopur, S1ieop»r. G. Seedhore. 


190 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkdr of Lucknow — (contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 



Suyur- 
giial D. 

Cavalry j 

Infantry 

00 

fl 

c3 

a 

S 

■ Castes : 

Ghatampur 

27,390 

552,561 



500 


Brahman 

Kachhaiidan 

22,066 

430,596 

4,460 

... 

500 


Chandel ' 

Goranda 

4,803 

334,769 



200 


Brahman 

Ronbhi 

5,940 

267,089 


... 

400 


Rajput 

I^uckiiow with subur- 
ban district .. 

91,722 

1,746,771 

241,195 

200 

3,000 


Shaikhzadah, 

Bashkar .. .. 

16,894 

168,529 


4,000 


BrMiman, 

Kayath 

Bais 

Malihabad, has a brick ' 
fort 

169,269 

4^479,250 

108,545 

30 

1,000 


Bais 

Malawah 

83,022 

3,598,713 1 

222,038 

30 

2,000 


Bais 

Mohan has a brick fort 

60,990 

1,996,673 

198,484 

SO 

2,000 

... 

Rajput, Bais 

Moraon has a brick fort 

68,847 

1,698,444 

4,806 

150 

2,000 

... 

Rajput, Bais 

Madiaon 

49,422 

1,136,213 

32,900 

30 

500 

... 

Barkhala’-' 

Mahonali .. .. i 

50,895 

977,860 

8,805 

50 

2,000 


Rajput 

Manawi, has a brick 
fort. 

29,455 

771,372 

13,767 


2,000 


Mussahuaii, 

Makraed 

17,959 

576,200 

5,247 


1,000 


Rajput 
Rajput, Bais 

Harha, lias a brick fort 

163,226 

2,450,522 

6,509 

100 

1,500 


Bais 

Hardoi 

11,734 

359,748 

6,026 

... 

300 

... 

Brahman 

Haniiar 

13,109 

329,735 

80 

500 

... 

Bais 


■ * Here a word illegible, Barkala is ail inferior class of Rajputs found in 
Western and Central parganahs of Bulandshalir. ’ 


The Subah of Agra, the Royal Residence. 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from 
Ghatampur on the Allahabad side to Pahval on that of Delhi 
is 175 kos. In breadth it extends from Katufuj to Chanderi 
in Mdl'wah. On the east lies Ghatampur; to the north, the 
Ganges; to the south Chanderi, and to the west, Palwal. 
It possesses many rivers, of which the principal are the 
Jumna and the Chambal. The former flows down from the 
northern mountains, the latter rises at Hasilpur in Mdlu/ah 
and. unites with iho Jumna at Kdlpi. Ranges of hills lie 
scattered to the south. The excellence of its climate is 
almost unrivalled. Agriculture is in perfection. Truits 
and flowers of all kinds abound. Sweet-scented oil, and 
betel-leaf of. the first quality kre here obtained, and its 
melons and grapes rival those of Persia and Transoxiana. 
Agra is a large city and possesses a healthy climate. The 
river Jumna flows through it for five kos, and on either bank 
are delightful villas and pleasant .stretches of meadow. It 



191 


AGRA SUBAH, DESCRIPTION 

is filled with people from all countries and is the emporium 
of the traffic of the world. His Majesty has built a fort of 
red stone, the like of which travellers have never recorded. 
It contains more than five hundred buildings of masonry 
after the beautiful designs of Bengal and Gujerat which 
masterly sculptors and cunning artists of form have 
fashioned as architectural models. At the eastern gate are 
two elephants of stone with their riders graven with exqui- 
site skill. In former times Agra was a village dependent 
on Bid'iiah. Sultan Sikandar Lodi made it his capital, but 
his present Majesty embellished it and thus a matchless 
city has arisen. On the opposite side of the river is the 
Char Bdgh, a memorial of Babar.* It was the birth-place 
of the writer of this work, and the last resting-place of his 
grandfather and his elder brother. Shaikh Alau’ddin 
Majzub, Rafiiu’ddin Safawe^ and many other saintty per- 
sonages also repose there. 

Near the city on the banks of the river Jumna is a vil- 
lage called Rangtah, ti much frequented place of Hindu 
worship. 

Fatehpur was a village formerly one of the depen- 
dencies of Bidnah, and then called Aiferi, situated twelve 
kos distaut from Agra. After the accession of his Majestjq 
it rose to be a city of the first importance. A masonry fort 
was erected and two elephants carved in stone at its gate 
inspire astonishment. Several noble buildings also rose to 
completion and although the royal palace and the residences 
of many of the nobility are upon the summit of the hill, 
the plains likewise are studded with numerous mansions 
and gardens. By the command of his Majesty a mosque, 
a college- and a religious house were also built upon the hill, 
the like of which few travellers can name. In the neigh- 
bourhood is a tank, twelve kos in circumference and on its 
embankment his Majesty constructed a spacious courtyard, 
a mindr, and a place for the -game of Chaugdn; elephant 
fights were also exhibited. In the vicinity is a quarry of 
red stone whence columns and slabs of any dimensions can 
be excavated. In these two cities under his Majesty’s 
patronage carpets and fine stuffs are woven and numerous 
handicraftsmen have full occupation. Bidnah in former 

The old Agra of the Lodi dynasty lay on the left bank of the river, 
where traces of its foundations stili exist. The modern city is on the right 
bank and is the work of Akbar. The fort was built in A.D. 1566. Babar’s 
garden later called Hasht BihisM, of NurafsMn Gardens, now called the 
Ram Bagh. 


192 AIN-I-AKBARI 

times was a large It possesses a fort containing many 

bnildings and cellars, and people at the present day still 
find therein weapons of war and copper utensils. There is 
also a lofty tower. Fine mangoes grow here, some of them 
more than two pounds in weight. Sugar of extreme white- 
ness is also manufactured. Here too is a well, with the 
water of which mixed with white sugar, they make cakes 
weighing two pounds more or less which they call kan- 
daurah (with no other water will they solidify) and these 
are taken to the most distant parts as a rarity. Indigo of 
finest quality is here to be obtained, selling at ten to twelve 
rupees per man ■weight. Excellent hinna {Lawsonia iner- 
mis) is also to be found, and here are the tombs of many 
eminent personages. 

Todah Bhim is a place at a distance of three kos, from 
which is a pit full of water, the depth of which none has 
sounded. Mines of copper and turquoise are said to exist, 
but the expense of working them exceeds their income. 

Mathura (Muttra) is a city on the banks of the Jumna ; 
it contains some fine temples, and is one of the most famous 
of Hindu shrines. Kdlpi is a town on the banks of the 
Jumna. It is the resting-place of many saintly personages. 
Excellent sugarcandy is here manufactured. In the time 
of the Sharqi princes, it was tributary to Delhi. When 
Qadir Khan affecting the airs of sovereignty proclaimed his 
independence, Sultan Hoshang marched from Malwah and 
having chastised him, reinstated him in the government. 
Sultan Muhmud of the Sharqi dynasty, however, seized it 
in turn from'Nasir Khan, the son of Qadir Khan. 

Kanauj was in ancient times the capital of Hindustan. 

Gwalior is a famous fortress and an elephant carved in 
stone at its gate fills the beholder with astonishment. It 
contains some stately edifices of its former rulers. Its 
climate is good. It has always been noted for its exquisite 
singers* and lovely -women : here is an iron mine. 

Alwar (Ulwar) produces glass and woollen carpets. 

Bairdt possesses a copper mine, so profitable that from 
a man weight of ore, they obtain 35 sers of metal. A silver 
mine is also said to exist but it does not pay to work it. [A 
dependency of Namol, but now in Jaipur.] 

Near the hill of Namol is a well at which the Hindus 
/'worship and when the iitki of Awawas falls on a Friday, 

* Accordiug to the S. ul M. the famous Tanseti was one of these* See 
Vol. I, pp. 611 of the Ain. 



AGRA SUBDIVISION, MAHAI^S 193 

it overflows at sunrise and water can be drawn without the 
aid of a rope. 

At Singhanah, Udaipur and Kotputli are mines of 
copper. In the town of Kanori are many cold and hot 
springs. 

The Stibah contains thirteen Aarfears, two hundi'ed and' 
three Parganahs (fiscal subdivisions) . The measured lands 
are 2 hrors, 78 lakhs, 62,189 bighas, 18 biswas. ‘The 
revenue is 54 krors, 62 lakhs, 50,304 dams: (Rs. 
13,656,257-9-6). Of this, 1 kror, 21 lakhs, 5,703j4 dams 
(Rs. 302,642-9)are The provincial force con- 

sists of 50,681 cavalry, 577,570 Infantry and 221 
elephants. 

Sarkar of Agra. 

Containing S3 Mahals, 91,007,324 Bighas. Revenue 
191,819,265, Dams in money . Suyurghdl 14,566,818 
Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 15,560. Infantry 100,800. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Suyur- 
ghfil D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

C/5 

.4-» 

rCJ 

04 

OJ 

w 

Castes 

Agra with suburban 
district 

891,990-5 

44,956,458 

8,824,454 

! 

3000 

1,5000 


Gaur,* Jat, 

Ftiiwan, has brick 
fort on the Jamna 

284,106 

10,739,325 

151,362 

2000 

1,5000 


Lodh, &c. 
Chauhan, 

O’l r =Ao, near 
Dig.] 

153,377-9 

5,509,477 

81,542 

1000 

1000 


Bhadauriya, 

Brahman 

Rajput, 

Oudehi, (Blliot Odhi) 

274,067 

2,884,365 

78,165 

20 

500 


Brahman 

Rajput, 

Ud [Udai] 

203,505 

■ ■ 1 

1,003,848 i 

36,870 

100 

500 


1 Brahman, 

1 &c. 

' Shaikhzadah 

Bijwarah has a ; 

-stone fort 

663,236 

■ '1 

10,966,560 

....... 

1500 

5000 



Bianali with subur- 
ban dist. has a 
stone fort 

235,442 

7,110,104 

562,205 

50 

100 


Ahir, Jat 

Bari 

276,964 

5,064,158 

57,414 

300 

7000 


Rajput, Pan- 

Bhosawar 

303,509 

5,505,460 

255,460 

50 

1500 


war 

Rajput of 

Banawar [?Bhandor] 

12,880 

155,360 

... 

30 

400 

1 

... 

various 

castes 

Bargujar 


A Surajbansi tribe of Rajputs, Lodh, a widely spread tribe, chiefly 
fishermen. Bhadauriya is a branch of the Chauhan Rajputs- For Oudehi I 
suggest Vchen and for Bhaskar either Pah^sar or Bisawar, [J. S.] 

25 • 



194 




Sarkar of Agra— {contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

. 

Suyur- 
ghal B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

S 

rt 

rC! 

Pm 

0) 

S 

■■"■■/Castes; ;"■': 

Todah Bilim .. 

264,103-11 

ZJS7fi75 

13,361 

100 

1000 

... 

Rajput, 

Thatthar^ 

Biiaskar •!. 

Talesar, has a brick 

43,009 

2,891,100 

15,825 

20 

700 

... 

Raj put ^ 
Brahman, 
Ahir 

fort 

Cliaiidwar, has a 
brick fort on the 

904,733 

6,835,400 

412,080 

400 

5000 

... 

Qhelot, Suraj 
Bankrah 

Jumna 

Chausatli [Chau- 

407.652 

11, 442,250 

60,342 

200 

7000 


Chauhaii 

muha] 

974,34 

4,182.048 

674.315 

50 

o 

o 

o 

... 

Rajput, 
Brahman, 
Jat, Ahir 

K han wall 

piiolpur, has a brick 
fort on the Cham- 

5,334 

2.912,495 

222,628 

30 

4000 

... 

Rajput, Jat 

bal 

Rapri, has a brick 

284,037 

9,729,311 

255,747 

200 

4000 

••• 

Sikarwar^ 

' 

fort 

Rajhohar [ ?Raja- 

477,201-11 

i 

13,508,035 

173,407 

200 

4000 


Chauhan, 
descen- 
dants of 
Rawat- 
Bahan 

khera] .. 

318 285 

1,694,203 

48,023 

20 

300 

... 

Rajput 

Songar Songri 

Fatehpur, has a 

90,599 

985,700 

7,822 

70 

500 


Rajput, 

Chauhan 

stone fort 

202,723-17 

8,494,005 

597,346 

500 

i. ■ 1 

1 

4000 


Shaikhzadah, 

Chishti, 

Rajput, 

Sankarwal 

Kotumbar .. 
Mahawaii, has a 

96,760 ; 

745,951 


50 

300 

... 

Rajput, Jat 

brick fort 

290,703 

■ 1 

6,784,780 

284,787 

200 

2000 


Sayyid, 

Brahman 

Mathura, do. .. 

37,347 

1,155,807 

69,770 

... 

... 



Maholi 

Mangotlah [Mang- 

66,690 

1,501,246 

30 

500 

] 

Rajput, &c. 

tai] ■ 

74 974 

1,148,075 

79,355 

20 

400 


Bo. 

Mandawar .. 

10190 

132 500 

150 

800 


Chauhan 

Wazirpur 

71,328 

2,009 255 

’9’255 

20| 

800 

. . . 

Rajput 

Hindaun 

Hatkant, has a brick 

432,930 ! 

9.049,831 

301,980 

100 

lOoO 


Rajput, 
Brahman , 
Jat 

fort 

606.991-12 

S;693,807 

43.231 

g 

lO - ■ 

o 

o 

o 

o 

... 

Chauhan, 

Bhadauriya 

Hilak 

137,421 

2,789.494 

80,531 

,:;:;:20 

500 

1 

; 

Rajput of 
various 
castes. 


^ Gujars converted to Islain. Blliot, 101. 
*Sikarwar, a branch of the Bargtijar Rajpnts, 


195 


MAHALS OH KALEI ANB KANAUJ 

Sarkdr of Kalpi. 

Containing 16 Mahals, 300,023 Bighas, 9 Biswas, 
Revenue, 49,356,732 Dams in monej?-. Suyurghdl ^78,290^ 
Dams. Castes various, Cavalry 1,540. Elephants 30" 
Infantry 34,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyut^ 
ghal E>. 

t>". 
tM . 

1 

<3 

Infantry 

Blephants | 

Castes 

U’lai [? Urai] 

95,677-18 

1,297,379 

72 213 

20 

500 


Rajput 

Bilaspkr 

126888-14 

3,714,547 

13J10 

100 50.000 


Kachhwah 

Bhudekh 

72 930-14 

1,260,199 

3414 

50 

2000 

... 


Derapur 

103,085 

1,760,750 

4.221 

50 

2000 

... 

Shaikhzadali 

Iieokali [ ?Churki] 

109,652 

1,466,9851 1,700 

200 

2000 

10 

Brahman 

Rath, has a brick fort 

510,970-16 

9,270,894 270,894 

70 

3000 

9 

Afghan, Tur- 

Raepur .. 

43,166-8 

■ 

120,000 



500 

10 

koman 

1 Rajput, 

Suganpiir [ ?Jagmanp] 


1,507,877 

58,664 

60 

1000 


Rajput, Bais 

Shahpur 

... ■ 1 

8,848,420 

245,747 

300 

3000 

6 

Chauliaii, 

Kalpi, ■with suburban 
district .. .. 

i 

•i 

1 

4,871,053 

203,909 

4000 

5000 

10 

' Malikzadah 

Various 

Kanar [ ? Karmar] 


4,943,096 

6,085 

100 

2000 

1 

Sengar’^’- 

Chandaut .. i 


3,027,917 

27,121 

so 

4000 


j Parihar 

Khandelah, (Hlliot 

Khurela) 

i i 

■ moss-ii 

871,733 

15,008 

20 

1000 


Rajput 

Muhammadabad 

184,080 

1,617,257 

4,2601 

60 

1000 


Rajput 

Hamirpur 

404,797-6 

4,803,828 

182,245 

200 

2000 

... 

Kumbi 

Kunibi 


Sarkdr of Kmiauj . 


Containing 30 Mahals, 2, 776, Q7B Bighas, 16 Biswas. 
Revenue 52,5M,624 Dams. Suyurghdl, 1,184,655 Dams. 
Castes vaiious. Cavalry 3,765. Infantry 78,350. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D, 

Cavalry 

. ca 

S ' 

Blephants 

Castes 

Bhongaon, has a fort 





! 


1 " 

1 

and near it a tank 








called Somnat full of 





i 


1 

water extremely sweet 

337,105 ' 

14,577 010 

53 316 

1000 10,000 


Chauhaii 

Bhojpur 

!150 974-13 3,446 737 

104 705 : 

150 

3000 

... 

Kharwar 

Talgraon 

i 74,100-10 3,387,076 

128,558 

20 

lOGO 


Rajput, 


! 

1 





1 

Mussalnian 


*■" Sengar, a branch of the Agnibansi Rajputs. 



im 


AlN-I-AlOBARi 


Sarkdr of Kanauj-~{Contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry j 

Infantry 

maai 

i) 

S 

Castes 

Bitliur .. 

175,042-11 

2.921 389 


300 

500o! 


Cliandel 

Bilhaur .* 

63,773-14 2 828 347 

2167*41 

20 

1030! 


Rajput 

Rajput, 

Cliaulian 

Patiali 

158.63414 

1,877,600 

45,656 

100 

2000 


Pati Alipur .. 

38.418-11 

1,153 682 

8,060 

20 

500 

... 

Rajput 

Pati Nakhat [ ?Agath] 

49 261-18 

566 997 

2,497 

50 

500 


Seiigar 

Barnah 

34,736-14 

450,000 

... 

10 

200 


Rajput of 
various 
castes 

Bara 

8,739-14 

400,000 


10 

300 


Chauhan 

Phapund 

111,546 

5 482 391 

19,313 

300 

2‘iOO 


Sengar 

Rajput, 

Chauhan 

Chhabramau .. 

76,318-7 

1.522,028 

22J28 

20 

500 


Deoha 

11,950-12 

483,171 

79,045 

20 

300 


Chauhan 

Bais, Dlia- 
kar^ 

Saket 

132,955-9 

3 230.752 

158,310 

100 

3000 

... 

Chauhan 

Sonj [=Sonkli3 .» 

64,070-6 

1,200.000 


200 

3000 


Dhakar 

Sahawar 

78,5749 

252 245 

21,969 

20 

500 


Gauruah® 

Sheoli 

.12 523 

623 473 


10 

300 


Rajput 

Sakatpur 

22 561 

623 441 


300 

400(» 


Rajput, Bais 

Sakraon 

19817-1{5 

549 050 

2253 

10 

500 


Rajput 

Sahar 

25,195-8 

846,553 

1,640 

30 

500 


Chauhan, 

Saurikh 

10,089-5 

465,328 

7,138 

20 

400 


Chauliaii, 

Dhakar 

Sikandrapur Udhu 

4,964.14 

276.9181 

22,624 

10 

200 


Gauruah, 

Brahman 

Saror [Barour] 

20,121-16 

447,563 

2.044J 

10 

800: 

... 

Chauhan, 

Sengar 

Sikandarpur Atreji 
Shamsabad, Has a fort 

36,084-17 

269,622 

6,511 

5 

150 

... 

Rajput 

on the Ganges 

Kanauj, with suburb, 
dist. has a brick fort : 
one of the great capi- 

718,577-7 

7,138,452 

19,603 

! 

400 

2000 

• •f 

Rathor 

tals of Hindustan .. 

126,255-12 

2,470,743 

222.036 

200 

o 

o 

o 

o 


Shaiklizadah, 

Farmuli, 

Afghan, 

Chauhan 

Kainpil 

139,803-6 

1,651,586 

30,370 

100 

200 


Rajput, 

Chauhan, 

Panwar 

Kuraoli 

40.445-6 

1,409.988 


20 

1000 

• 4 *. 

Rajput 

Malkusali 

30,229-14 

1,500,000 

... 

300 

15,000 

... 

Rajput, Ghe- 
lot 

Nanamau® .. 

3,329-5 

136,921 


200 

200 

• 4 #, 

Rajput, 

Brahman 


^ DMkar, a Rajput tribe scattered over Agra, Mathura, Btawa and 
Rohilkhand,. Blliot,*’!. 78. . 

“ Gaumdh, an inferior clan of Rajputs often confounded with Oaurahars 
but quite distinct. Blliot, I. 115. 




197 


AtlGARH, MAHAI.S 

Sar'kar of Kol, {Koil). 

Containing 21 MafoaZs, 2,461,730 Bighas. Revenue 
54,992,940 Dams in mouty, Siiyiirghdl 2,094,840 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry 4,035. Infantry 78,950. 




Bighas 

Revenue 

Suyur- 


4-> 

«Z5 

4-> 

c 

a 

Castes 



Biswas 

B. 

glial B. 


cs . 

’E 






8 


s 


Atrauli 


320.569 

5,454,459 

5400,459 

500 

9500 


Raiput, 





.. 

23,060 




Chauhan, 

Afghan 

Akbarabad 

.. ■ 

1 18.389 

3,003.409 

500 

5000 


Raiput, Pun 









dir' 

Aliar, h9.s a brick 
on the Ganges 

fort 

45,764 

2,106,554 

87,140 

20 

400 


Musalmaii, 








Brahman 

Pahasu 


SB 060 

2 502 562 

567561 

100 

2000 


Bargujar 

Bilraou 


111,878 

2,131.765 

50 

1000 


Abrhan 








Chauhan 

Pachlana 

.V' 

39J28 

624,825 


200 

5000 

... 

Rajput, 






1 

Gaurahar 

Tappah has a brick fort 

163.046 

1,802,571 

2,571 

100 

8000 A. 

Chauhan 

Thanah Farida 





20 



[=Phariha] .. 


63S47 

112,750 


500 ... 

Rajput, 







Bachhal 

Jalali 


145.801 

2,957,910 

86,352 

500 

6000 ... 

Rajput, Piui- 
dir 

Chandaus 


42 469 

1 749 238 

36,662 

100 

2000 ... 

Chauhan 

Kliurjah 

Dibhai, has a 


89,726 

3,703,020 

583,056 

200 

5000 

... 

Bargujar 

brick 


2,169,939 

72,869 


i 



fort 

.. 

48 539 

50 

1000 


Bo. 

Sikandrah Rao. has a 


4,412,331 

290,458 





brick fort 


83,480 

400 

4000 


Afghan, 








Pundir 

Soron. has a brick fort 

40.656 ^ 

875.016 

16,900 

20 

400 


Sayyid, Raj- 



1 






put 

Sidhupur 


70,567 : 

989,458 


200 

2500 


Rajput 

Surki 

Shikarpur 

•* 

44,830 

1,974,827 

50,291 

250 

2000 


Savyid, 

Shaikh 





445 




zadah, 

; Bargujar 

Kol. has a brick fort .. 

548,655 

10,412305 

450 

29,050 

...i Chauhan, 






Jangharalr' 

Ganger! 


53,545 

372,050 

31,849 

25 

200 

...1 Afghan, 

I Rajput 

Marahrah 


205 537 

3,679 582 

156095 

200 

2000 

...j Chauhan 

Malakpur 


30,845 

1,446,132 

2,288 

50 

400 

...I Pundir, 

! Chauhan 

Null, has a brick 

fort, 



1 




Rajput, Jat, 

(Elliot, Noll) 

139,299 

1,311,955 

! 29,160 

100 

3000 

... 


) 

! 

1 



1 Afghan 


^ Pundir is one of the numerous branches of the Gujar clan. Elliot, 1. 19. 
^ A. turbulent tribe of Rajputs of the Tuar clan in the S. E- Rohilkhand. 
Elliot, I, 141. 



19§. aih-i-akmrJ 

SarkarofG'walior. 


Containing 13 Mahals, 1,146,465 Bighas, Q Biswas. 
Revenue 29,683,649 Dams in money. Suyurghal 240,350 
Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 2,490. Infantry 43,000. 


V' ' ■ / .' ■ ... 

V ■ 'V'.' 

■ 

' 

Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyui'- 
glial D. 

Cavalry 

p 

, ^ 
a 

' 03 

a 

c3 

d) 

s 

.Castes , , , 

Anhon, lias a fort 

106 899-14 

2,277,947 


200 

4000 


Ton war 

Badrhattah, Do. 

63,914-18 

696,800 

... 

300 

5000 

... 

Do., RIj- 

Chinaur Do. 

140,140-16 

1,051,341 

35.930 

100 

4000 


put 

Brahman 

Jhaloda [Jakhoda] fort 

32.677-15 

219,306 

... 

100 

2000 

... 

Gujar 

Dandroli 

197,316-11 

1,807,207 


50 

1000 

... 

Rajput Ton- 

Raepur 

87,797-17 

1,017,721 


40 

700 


war 

Tonwar 

Sirseni i'Sirsi] 

94 243 

832 128 


200 

5000 


Sikarw’al 

SamaTili [Silauli] . ' 

46,284-8 : 

2,001,344 


50 

700 

... 

Bagri 

SarbartcMi, has a brick 
fort 

22,124-17 

267,497 


200 

6000 


Sikarwal 

Alapur, has a fort; 
during Sultan Ala- 
uddin^s time it was 
called Akhar^ 

211,229 

5,128,766 


50 

500 

J 

Brahman 

Gwalior with suburban 
district .. 

845,657 

■ 1 

12,488.072 

188,740 

1000 

2000 


Rajput, Ton- 

Khatolii has a fort 

198,270 

3,105,315 

6,450 

o 

o 

4000 

... 

war 

Jat 


Sarkar of Irij. 

Containing 16 Mahals, 2,202,124 Bighas, 18 Biswas. 
Revenue 37,780,421 Dams in money. Suyurghal 456,493 
Dams. Castes various. CavaRj^- 6,160. Elephants 190. 
Infantry 68^500. 



; Bighas 
Biswas 

1 

Revenue 

D. 

, 

Suyur- ' 
ghal D, 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

0 

03 

P. 

a> 

S 

Castes 

1 

Irij 

625,597 

2,922,436 

101,661 

i 400 

5000 

10 

Kayath 

Parliar,^ has a brick 
fort 

752,791 

in money, 

5,237,096 

172,380 

I' 1 

" , i 

^ 940 

20500 

59 

Rajput 

Bhander 

257 042-18 

2,533,449 

100,638 

50 

2000 

■,;5 

Afehan, 

Bijpur [Bijawar] 

30,635 

1,391,097 


3000 

5000 


Kayath 

Tanwar 

Pander [Pandwaha) .. 

8,951 

464 111 1 


|,.:100| 

2000 j 

*5 

Parihar 


^ V>r. Akhar, Kaliar, Sahar. 
Probably Panwari. 



AGRA PROVlSc^, S^^BD1V1SI0NS 


Sarkar of Irif—{contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

■ 

Revenue 

I>. 

Suyur- , 
ghal D. 

s 

'a 

> 

ctS 

U 

Infantry 

Elephants | 

Castes 

Jhatra, 4 mahals, has 
a brick fort 


11,787,904 


4000 

isooo 

70 

Rajput 

R.iabanah\ has a fort .. 

12,072 

500,000 

... 

50 

2000 


Kachhwa- 

Shahzadapur 

21,257 

450,781 




hah . . A 

Khatolah &c. 3 mahals, 
has a fort .. 

3,000,000 


100 

5000 

20 

Gond 

Kajhodah [ ?Gahrauli] 


750,200 






Kidar 


120,000 




... 

# • . 

Kunch, has a fort 

155,320 

1,851,802 

27,712 

50 

2000 


Kumbi 

Ivhakes,® has a fort .. 

89,233 

1,343,073 

7,673 

50 

1000 


Kachhwa- 

Kanti 

240,000 


20 

5000 

10 

hah 

Gond 

Khaerah, [Kharela] has 
a brick fort 

222,557 

4,776,357 

46,729 

200 

5000 

10 

Ivachhw'a- 

Maholi 

26,581 

502,102 

lOO: 

10000 

10 

i 

hah 

Parihar 


Sarkar of Bayanwan. 


Containing 27 Mahals, 762,014 Bighas. Revenue 
8,459,296 Dams. Siiyurghdl 82,662 Dams. Castes various. 
Cavalry 1,105. Infantry. 18,000. 


Antri, yields excellent 
quality of betel leaf 
from which the reve- 
nue is chiefly derived 

Amwari [Amola] 

Atiwan [Araon] 

Autelah 

Bayanwan 

Ban war 


Paranchah [Paraich] .. 


1 

j. 

Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 
[ D. 1 

Suyur- 
ghal B. 

906,140 

223,000 

. ' ■ ■ ! 

!' ■■ ■ ' ' 

! 


35,958 

165,165 

1 54,114 

29,444 

86,241 

32,455 

801,275 

1,257 

20,169 

17,329 

457,439 

6,558 

89,784 

396,193 

21,541 


Cavalry 

'c 

1 

M 

Elephants 

Castes 

■ 

10 

100 


Various 

Entered under 

Marwar 

Ratang:arh. 

Gauruah 

15 

200 


Gond, 

Gauruah 

... 

100 

... 

“Brahman 

320 

3000 

... 

Pnndir, Pan- 
war 

20 

300 

... 

Brahman, 

Rhidma- 




tiyah 

” 20 

500 

... 

j Bundela 


^ Riahanah- ? Rehai of map. 

^ Kedpur. 

Khankes.^hakesh. Ganges. Khaksen, 



200 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Bayanwdn — {contd.) 


■ ■■ 

Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

1 

1 Ai:jnBjni 

ft 

<V 

s. 

Castes 

Badmin [Bardun] 


275,000 


10 

200 


Bundela 

Bhasanda 

... 

169,040 


10 

300 


Panwar 

Chinaur, has a fort 

. 50,973- 

548,631 

3,800 

10 

200 

... 

Ahir, Brah- 

Jarhali. 

19,865 

144,055 


10 

300 


man 

Panwar 

Jagtan t?=Jigna] 

>•* 

123,680 

... 


150 

... 

Various 

Dahailah,’®* here a large 
lake, full of water- 
lilies 

13,127 

17,306 


20 

350 


Brahman, 

Ruchadah [Ruchera] .. 

94,223 

472,839 

15,702 

10 

200 


On jar 
Kavath, 

Ratangarh, has a fort 

70,523 

855,995 

200 

4000 


Brahman 

Jat 

Roherah 

2 309 

1,017,682 


50 

500 


Gujar 

Sohandi, has a brick 
fort [? Suchendi] 

81,655 

896,959 


300 

5000 


Pan war 

Kanaulah [Karaia] .. 

11,764 1 

364,968 

«« * 

10 

200 


Gujar, Jat 

Karharah .. .. 

277,000 





Mentioned 

Kaheodjt has a fort in 
the mountains 

27,290 

17,403 

196,So4 



200 


under 

'Ratan- 

garh 

Brahman 

Khandha 

162,661 

3,036 

■'A-. 

200 

... 

Ahir, Jat 

Khand Bajrah the 
greater 

33,782 

138,934 

25 

300 

... 

Bundela, 

Jat 

Mina, Gujar 

Do. the lesser 

1,602 

68,470 


10 

200 


Kherihat 

24,313 

112,079 


• •• 

800 


Do. 

Kajharah, has a stone 
fort on a hill 

17,269 

82,291 


5 

300 


Gujar 

Kadwahah 

7,169 

4:i,296 


50 

300 

... 

Ahir 

Man, has a fort 

59,070 

i 1 

850,429 

5,T89 

50 

lOiO 

... 

Ahir 


Dahailah [Ind. Atlas, 51 5.E.], I6m. due east of Narwar, on the way 
to Antri, has a very large lake. It was 2 miles to the west of this place, 
according to T. that Abul Fazl lost his life in the ambuscade set for him by 
the Bundela Chief Bir Sing. Dabra in the maps 13 miles south of Antri 
and 42 m. n. of Jhansi, has no lake, and cannot be this mahal. 
f Prob. Kdmod of map. 



•202 


AIN-I-AKBAM 

Sct/rkdr of Ahaar. 

Containiiig 43 16,62,012 Bighas. 

39,832,204 Dams.. Suyurghdl 699,212 Dams 
6,604. Infantry 42,020. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- I 
ghal D. 1 

Cavalry" 

Infantry 

1 

Castes 

Alwar, lias a stone fort 
on a hill 

85,084 

2,679,820 

350 056 

10 i 

1,500 


Ivhanzadah of 

Antlilah Bliabni 

24,956 

850,731 

: 

( 

! 

■ j 

20 

500 


Mewat, des- 
cendants of 
Bahadur 
Khan 

Kachhwahali 

Umran 

39,762 

642,153 

1,043 

20 

1,000 


Baqqal 

Ismailpiir 

23,988 

503,840 

2,266 

40 

500 


Khanzadah of 

Bairat, has a stone fort 
(Parat, i>. 103) 
Bihro743ur 

, 

23,522 

7,201,791 

1,796 

50 

1,000 


Mewat 

Baqqal 

119,015 

2,621,958 

9,317 

350 

2,000 


Khanzadah of 

Bahadurpur 

60,451 

1,950,000 

95,000 

500 

2,000 


Mewat 

Bharkol 

74,281 

678,733 

50 

1,000 


Do. Do. 

Balhar (PBairohar) .. 

58,654 

443,612 


40 

. 500 


Do. Do. 
Bargujar, 
Rajput 
' Mewat 

Barodah Fateh Khan .. 

16,074 

201,059 

1,059 

.30 

300 


Panain .. ^ 

28,726 

195,680 


50 


Khanzadah o 
Khanzadah • 

Baroda [Bagar] Areo .. 

13,062 

153,045 

{ . :619; 

50 

300 


and Aleo. 
Boa 

Bhudah Thai .. 

30,606 

146,000 


5. 

50 



Bliiwai 

14,913 

122,088 


' 5 

50 


Various 

Basanah (=Baswa) 

20,789 

100,356 


. 5: 

' 50 


Do. - 

Bajherah 

2,663 

104,890 


10 

C , 50 


Klianzadah 

Balheri (Balhattah) 

6,565 

133,507 


■;"'30:' 

500 


1 and Meo. 
Bargujar 

Jalfdpur 

46,340 

393,599 

1 10,665 




Khanzadah 

Hasanpur Badoliar 

20,353 

947,871 

. 3,020 

100 

300 


and Meo. 

.",;':::,:Do., 

Hasanpur Ivori, (Gori) 

47,740 

1,259,659 

f'. 

120 

300 


Do. 

Hajipur, has a stone 
fort 

26,439 

456,779 

i 3,120 

500 

1,000 


Chauhan 

Deoli Sajari .. 

83,188 

1,600,000 


-:150''. 

1,000 


Bargujar 

Dadekar 

27,051 

695,262 

1 7,312 

150 

1,000 


Meo. 


^ Mentioned in 33)lli6t as in ancient times a well-known lawless plunderin,c>- 
race, driven out of the Btawah tract the vSengliers and Chaiihans. Accord- 
ing to Slierriiig (III, 90) they are an indigenous tribe converted to Islam, 
but retaining a good many Hindu customs now an agricultural people 
divided into. 12 elans, 


Revenue 

Cavah'y 




ALWAR MAHALS 


203 


Sarkar of Alwar — (contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

c3 

a* 

m 

Castes 

Dhara 

12,338 

512,613 

5,015 

100 

508 


Khanzadali 

Rath 

6,030 

229,741 

3,744 

10 

100 


and Meo. 
Meo. 

Sakhaii 

18,790 

804,262 

100 

700 


Chauhan 

Khohari Rana 

2,208 

4 , 359,272 

96,919 

900 

5,000 


.Khan zad ail 

Khelohar 

58,276 

1,459,048 

14,088 

125 

1,000 


of Mewat, 
Ahna and 
Buar 
(obscure 
text) 

Meo 

I'^ol [ = Gol] Dhoar .. 

33,956 

627,100 

30 

500 


Rajput 

Kiyarah 

307 

600,000 


100 

1,000 


Mina 

Kliirali 

26,746 

465,640 

23,150 

100 

500 

... 

Sayyid, Gu- 

Ghat Sudan (or vSeoii) 
has a fort 

16,494 

357,110 




I... 

■ , jar .. ■ 

Kohrana [ --Gliosrana] ; 

3,565 

166,666 1 

... 

300 ‘ 

i 1,000 ! 


Mtihat (?) 

Mandawar, has a brick 
fort .. ] 

100,322 

1 , 889,097 1 

5,608 

500 

: 1,000 1 

1 

Chaiihun 

Alaujpiir .. ' 

44,140 

639,858 ; 

12,022 

300 

500 

... 

! Abbasi 

Mubarakpur [Marakpur] 

18,636 

514,193 

50 

300 


Khanzadali 

Mongolia [Mangwar] . . 

38,112 

475,260 


100 

700 

... 

Bo. 

Mandauar 

17,800 

27,051 


4 

20 

... 

Chauhan 

Naugaoii (Novvgong) .. 

23,771 

2 , 056,512 

34,296 

70 

500 


Khanzadali 

Nahargarh 

35,452 

604,194 


20 

200 

;** 

Bo. 

Harsoli 

11,800 

227,096 


10 

! 100 


i IMeo 

Harpur 

16,944 : 

686,605 

3,255 

20 

4,000 


Jat 

Harsaiia .. .. | 

■ 4,025 

208,281 

*** 

40 

500 


Meo 


Sarkdr of Tijarah. 

Containing 18 Mahals. 740,001 Bighahs. 5^ Bistvas. 
Revenue 17,700,460 Dams. Suyurghdl 701,761-|. Cavalry 
1,227. Infantry 9,660. 


Biglias ^ 
Biswas 


Revenue 

D. 


Suyur- t' 
ghal D. 

a 



Castes 


Indri, lias fort on a 
hill 

TTjinah [TTchaira] 


134,150 

33,926 


1,995,216 

428,347 


26,096 

22,796 


400 

45 


3,000 

150 


Khiinzadali 
of Mewat 
IChanzadah , 
Tliathar 


204 


AIN-I-AKBAKi 


Sarkdr of Tijdrah~{contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

' 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 1 

i 

Infantry 

■ill' 

cd 

■% 

t) 

g, 

,, ...Castes 

Uiiira Umti 

8,107 

307,087 


10 

100 

... 

Thathar, 

Meo , , 

Bistii 

35,703 

215,800 

5,354 

10 

200 

... 

Khaiizadah, 

Meo 

Pur 

2,476 

540,645 

’ 1,559 

10 

200 


Tliathar 

Pinaugwaii, lias a stone 






tort 

Bhasohra, lias stone 

75,148 

1,329,850 

34,312 

20 

300 

... 

Meo 

fort 

57,778 

1,416715 

25,471 

30 

400 


Do. 

fijarali, has a fort .. 
jhimrawat, has a stone 

131,960 

3,603,596 

204,419 

500 

2,000 

... 

Do. 

fort on a MU 

22,632-11 

496,202i 

31,283i 

50 

300 

... 

Do. 

Mianpur .. 

9,893 

195,620 

20 

150 


Do. 

Sakras .. 

12,106 

460,088 

50,411 

14 

150 


Do. 

Santhadan .. 

7,712-11 

! 406,811 

267,470 

200 



Do. 

Pirozpur, situated ou 








the skirt of a hill in , 
which there is an I 
ever-flowing fountain j 

’ 


, 

' ' 




with an image of 
Mahadeo set* up; a 



i 





Hindu Shrine 

64,150 

3,042,642 

69,044 

50 

1,000 


Do. 

Fatehpur Mungarta .. 

43,700 

1,135,140 

12,955 

10 

200 , 


Do. 

Ivotlah, has a brick fort 
on a hill on which 






there is a reservoir 4 



, 





Izos in circumference 

71,265 

i 

1,552,196 

7,017 

30 

700 1 

... 

Khaiizadah, 

Oujar 

Karherah, (Ghaserah, 








Klliot) 

Khora ka Thanali. So 

9,785 1 

1 330,076 

... 'I 

10 

200 1 

i 


Meo 

in MSS., but Blliot 

1 ■ 







Hhawa) 

I 7,945 

168,719 


10 

250 

... 

Do. 

Naginan [Noganwa] . . 

7,215-19 

1 ■ 

377 257 

1 

3,572 

100 

150 1 

i 


Do. 


Sarkdr of Ndrnol. 

Containing 16 Mahals. 2,080,046 Bighas. Revenue 
50,046,703 Dams. Suyurghal 775,103 Dams. Castes 
various. Cavalr 3 ^ 7,520. Infantrj?- 37,220. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 



mnaa 

.<A' 

(U 

Castes 

Barh 

146,754 

2,060,662 I 


100 

1,000 

i 

.! 

Chauhan, 
Rajput, 
Musalman, 
Khandar. 
(Var, Ke- 
dar). 


AGiu SUBAH— SARNOt DISTRICT 205 


Sarkar of Nar-mh~{contd.) 



Bighas 

Biswas 

■ 

■ 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

u' 

■ :'S 

: . a 

(jn 

2 

<D 

Castes 

Babai, has a stone fort 
and a Coppermine; 
hills adjacent .. 

78,426 

920,170 


400^ 

3,000 


Parihar. 

Barodali [Bahora] Rana 

47,266 

592,995 

... 

300 2,000 

*#. 

Chauhaii. 

Ghalkalianali .. .. 

517,540 

7,744,027 

56,164 

200 

5,000 

... 

Jat of the 

JhoJenn [Jliajlai], has a. 
stone fort on the 
skirt of a hill .. 

95,331 

2,329,069 


2000 

3,000 


Sangwaii 

clan. 

Kiyam- 

vSinghanali Udaipur, has 
a Coppermine and 
mint for copper coin- 
age ■ .. 


11,881,629 

3,351 

' h..' 

400* 1,000 

' 

... 

Khani.'’* 

Tonwar, 

Kanodah, in the village 
of Zerpur in this Par- 
ganah, a large Hindu 
temple 

10,723 

in money. 

4,356,189 

91,577 

: t 

'■ '■ i ' 

1 . V ■■■ 

■■ '-r „ . 

looo' 4,000 

... 

Parihar, 

Rajput, Mu- 

Kotputii, has- a stone 
fort and in the village 
of Bhandharah is a 
copper mine in work- 
ing 

170,674 

1 4,266,837 

29,425 

■ 

700 

. 

4,000 


salman, 
Halu. [Jat] 

1 

Tonwar Raj- 

Kanori [?Kanti), has 3 
forts in three villages 

150,297 

1 

2,721,126 


.1000 

5,000 

f 

I ■ ■■ 

L. 

put, Gond. 

Tonwar. 

Rhandela 

. 

i 1,300,000 


200 

2,000 


Rajput, 

Ediodana [or Konodana] 

18 493 

In money. 
1 808,109 


20 

700 

j***, 

Kachliwa- 

hah. 

Jat. 

Uapoti [ = Pataudi] 

88,281 

i 1,512,470 

16,000 

100 

500 

L..' 

Chaiihaii. 

Villages at the foot of 
the mountain where 
is a copper mine. In 
that of Raepore is a 
copper mine and a 
mint and the stream 
there is polluted by 
it 

176,650 

274,350 

!■■■■■ 

100 

2,000 

i , 

Narban. 

Narnol, has a stone fort 

214,218 

5,913,228 

549,161 

500 

2 000 


[Chauhaii] 

Narhar [?ISfarera] do. .. 

356,293 

4,262,837 

29,405 

500 

2,000 


Ahir, 

i 

1 



1 

i 


Kiam Khani, 
Afghan, 
Makar, ( ?} 


* Called Kaiin Kliaiii by Blliot and Sherring. They are Chauhaiift con- 

verted to Islam, Their ancesstors^ fought, against Baber in 1528. 


•206 


AIN-i-AKiARI 
Sarkar of Sahdr. 

Containing 7 Mahals. 763,474 Bighas. Revenue 
6,917,569 Dams. Suyurghdl 109,447 Dams. Castes various. 
Cavalry 265. Infantry 1,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyurghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

CO 

'S 

05 

44 

A 

cU 

w 

Castes 

Pahari 

106,422 

1,228,999 

26,045 

20 

700 


Meo, Thathar 

Baiidhanli 

25,980 

441,840 

6,840 

10 

300 

... 

Jat &c. ■ 

Sahar, has a fort 

885,895 

2,489,816 

21,678 

200 

7,000 


Bachhal, 
Gujar, Jat, 
Kachhwa- 
hah. 

Kamali 

90,500 

505,724 

1,229 

10 

300 

... 

Meo, Jat 
Ahir 

Koh Mujahid [Q. Klio] 

23,769 

170,365 


4 

200 


Meo, Jat, 

Nunherah 

50,816 

618,115 

17,515 



... 

Ahir, Jat, 
Meo 

Hodal .. .. 

78,500 

462,710 

33,140 

10 

200 

... 

Jat &c. 


THE SUBAH OF MaLWA. 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from 
the extreme point of Garha {Mdndla) to Bdnswdrah is 246 
kos. Its breadth from Chanderi to Nandarbdr is 230 kos. 
To the east lies Bdndhun [Rewa] ; to the north Narwar; 
to the south Bagldnah; to the west Gujardt and Ajmer. 
There are mountains to the south. Its principal rivers are 
the Narbadah, the Siprd, the Kdli Sind., the Betwa, and 
the Godi.* At every two or three hos clear and limpid 
streams are met on whose banks the willow grows wild, and 
the hyacinth and fragrant flowers of many hues, amid the 
abundant shade of trees. Lakes and green meads are fre- 
quent and stately palaces and fair country homes breathe 
tales of fairyland. The climate is so temperate that in 
winter there is little need of warm clothing, nor in summer 
of the cooling properties of saltpetre. The elevation of this 
province is somewhat above that of other areas of the 
country and every part of it is cultivable. Both harvests 


The Godi is a tributary of the Nairmiadja. 


MALWA-t-JJAMOUS PIvACES 


207 


are excellent, and especially wheat, poppy, sugarcane, 
mangoes, melons and grapes. In Hdsilpur the vine bears 
twice in the year, and betel leaves are of fine quality. Cloth 
of the best textui'e is here woven. High and low give opium 
to their children up to the age of three years. The peasants 
and even grain dealers are never without arms. Ujjain is a 
large city on the banks of the Sipra. It is regarded as a 
place of great sanctity and wonderful to relate, at times the 
river flows in waves of milk. The people prepare vessels 
and make use of it, and such an occurrence brings good 
fortune to the reigning monarch. 

In the 43rd year of the Divine Era when the writer of 
this work was proceeding to the Deccan by command of his 
Majesty, a week before his arrival at Ujjain, on the 16th of 
the Divine month of Farwardin (March) four gharis of the 
night having elapsed, this flow occurred, and all condi- 
tions of people, Musalman and Hindu alike talked of it.* 

In the neighbourhood are 360 places of religious wor- 
ship for Brahmans and other Hindus. Close to this city is 
a place called Kdliyddah, an extremely agreeable residence 
where there is a reservoir continually overflowing yet ever 
full. Around it are some graceful summer dwellings, the 
monuments of a past age. • 

Garhaf is a separate State, abounding with forests in 
which are numerous wild .elephants. The cultivators pay 
the revenue in mohurs and elephants. Its produce is suffi- 
cient to supply fully both Gujarat and the Deccan. 

Chanderi was one of the largest of ancient cities and 
possesses a stone fort. It contains 14,000 stone houses, 
384 markets, 360 spacious caravanserais and 12,000 
mosques. 

Tumun is a village on the river Betha (Betwa) in which 
mermen are seen. There is also a large temple in which 
if a drum is beaten, no sound is heard without. 

In the Sarkar of Bijdgarh there are herds of wild 


« Another reading adopted by Gladwin is “partook of it.” Gladwin while 
rejecting this fable, suggests a sudden. impregnation of the river with chalk. 

t It was the ancient capital of the Gond Dynasty of Garha Mandla and 
its ruined keep known as the IVfadan Mahal still crowns the granite range 
along the foot of which the town stretches for about 2 miles. /. G. 



208 AIN-I-AKBARI 

elepiiants. Mandu is a large city ; the circumfei'eiice of its 
fort is 12 kos^ and in it there is an octagonal tower, por 
some period it was the seat of government and statelj^ 
edifices still recall their ancient lords. Here are the tombs 
of the Khilji Sultans. A remarkable fact is that in summer 
time water trickles from the domed roof of the mausoleum 
of Sultan Hoshang and the simpleminded have long re- 
garded it as a prodigy, but the more acute of understanding 
can satisfactorily account for it. Here the tamarind grows 
as large as a cocoanut and its kernel is extremely white. 

Leaimed Hindus assert that a stone is met with in this 
country which when touched by any malleable metal turns 
it into gold, and they call it Paras. They relate that before 
the time of Bikramajit, there reigned a just prince named 
Raja Jai Sing Deva who passed his life in deeds of bene- 
ficence. Such a stone was discovered in that age, and be- 
came the source of vast wealth. The sickle of a straw cutter 
by its action was changed into gold. The man, not under- 
•standing the cause, thought that some damage had occurred 
to it. He took it to ’a blacksmith by name Mandan to have 
it remedied, who divining its properties, took possession of 
it, and amassing immense wealth, garnered a store of 
delights. But his natural beneficence suggested to him that 
such a priceless treasure was more fitted for the reigning 
prince, and going to court he presented it. The Raja made 
it the occasion of many good deeds, and by means of the 
riches he acquired, completed this fort in twelve years, and 
at the request of the blacksmith, the greater number of the 
stones with which it was built, were shaped like an anvil. 
One day he had a festival on the banks of the Narbadah, 
and promised to bestow a considerable fortune on his Brah- 
man priest. As he had somewhat withdrawn his heart from 
worldly goods, he presented him with this stone. The 
Brahman from ignorance and meanness of soul, became 
indignant and threw the precious treasure into the river to 
his subsequent and eternal regret. Its depith there pre- 
vented his recovering it, and to this day that part of the 
river has never been fathomed. 

Dhar -is a town which was the capital of Raja Bhoja 
and many ancient princes. The vine here bears twice in 
the year when the sun first enters Pisces (February) and 
Leo (July), but the former .of these two yintages i.s 
the sweeter. 



209 


UJJAIN MAHALS 

In tlie Sarkar of Han4fafe aife numerous wild elephants. 

In Nandurbdr good grapes and melons are obtainable. 

This Suhah contains 12 Sarkars, subdivided into 301 
Parganaks. The measured land is 42 lakhs, 66,221 Bighas, 
Q Biswas. The gross revenue is 24 krors, 6 lakhs, 95,052 
(Rs. 6,017,376,-4-15). Of this 11 lakhs, 60,433 
Dams (Ks. 28,760-13) are Suyurghdl. The Provincial 
force consists of 29,668 Cavalry, 470,361 Infantry and 90 
Elephants, 


Sarkar of Ujjain. 

Containing 10 Mahals. 90,5,622 Bighas. Revenue 
43,827,960 Dams in money. Suyurghdl, 281,816 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry 3,260. Infantry 11,170. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

' 1 

m 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Elephants 1 

Castes 

Ujjain ^ with, suburban 
district, has fort of 
stone below and of i 
brick above I 

1 . 

289,560 

1,088,035 

55,323 

760 ! 

2,000 


Ujjainia, 

Unhel 

56,841 

2,801,972 

20,935 

130 

500 


Rathor 

Rajput, 

Badhnawar has a stone 
fort .. .. 1 

60,096 

8,056 195 

1,095 

500 

3,000 

1 

Ujjainia, 

Dhakarah 

Rathor, 8zc. 

Panbihar 

36 567 

1,937 596 

29,400 

100 

500 

... 

Ujjainia 

DipMpur 

95,706 

6,000,000 

... 

500 

1,000 


Rajput, 

Ratlam 

94,466 

4,421,540 

21,548 

500 

1,000 


Ujjainia 
Rajput Meh- 

Sanwer 

46,694 

2,418,375 

133,156 

150 

300 


tar, Soriali 
Rajput, 

Kampil has a fort part- 
ly stone, partly brick 
Khachrod 

59 802 

2,907,817 

2,344 

150 

400 


Magwar 

Rajput 

66,626 

2,651,044 

... 

60 

1,200 

... 

Rajput, 

Nolai has a brick fort 
on the banks of the 
Chambal . [ ? Naulana] 

126,264 

3,851,886 

18,015 

400 

1,200 


Deora 
[Chauhan], 
Dharar or 
Dhur (?) 

Bais, Jadon, 







(Yadu) 



210 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkdy of Raisin. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyurghal 

B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Blephants 

Castes ' 

Asapuri &c, 6 Mahals 

3.238 


173,064 

170 

945' 


Rajput 

•BMlsah 

40,816 

6,094,970 


480 

1,000 

... 

Bhori (?Baiiiari) 

5,970 

4,097 

316,017 



100 

... 


Bliojpur .. .. 

220,592 


n*5 

1,000 



Balabahat .. .. 


215J22 


265 

500 



Thanah Mir Khan 


735,315 

... 

200 

500 


Rajput 

Jajoi (Khajuri ?) 


215,122 


15 

100 

. .. 


Jliatanawi .. .. 

3,404 

184,750 


10 

150 

... 


Jaloda .. 

250 

13.290 


2 

5 

• «* 


Khiljipur .. .. 

775 

41,060 


2 

150 



Dhamoni ( = Dhar oli) . . 

13,007 

788,389 


5 

400 

... 

Rajput 

Digwar 

4,932 

292,313 


75 

520 

. .. 

Dilod .. 

1,974 

144,000 

... 

35 

100 



Diwatia [?or Bhania] 

21,502 

■ 

20 

170 

... 


Raisin, with suburb, 
district has a stone 
fort on a hill, one of 
the famous fortresses 
of Hindustan 

17,497 

934,739 


80 

425 


Rajput, 

Siwani .. 

10,975 

580,828 

i.. 

80 

945 


SolankhI 

Sarsiah ( ?Bersia) 

5,557 

279,346 


70 

500 

. • . 


Shahpur 

1,673 

89 067 

■ ... 

5, 

40 

... 


Khimlasah .. .. 

11,720 

645,665 


40 

100 

... 

Rajput 

Khera .. 

10,534 

560,037 

... 

30 

320 


Kesorah 

8,375 

473 267 

... 

40 

100 

... 


Kham-Khera • . . 

7,102 

378 460 


60 

100 



Kargarh 

6,907 

365,707 

... 

70 

500 



Korai .. 

145,566 


50 

ICO 

••• 


Baharpur 


32,267 


30 

100 

... 


Mahsamand (Dhamand) 

814 

48,024 


50 

140 

... 




GARHA IkEANDLA MAHAI^S 211 

Sarkar of Garha — Contd. 



Biglias 

Bi'swas 

Revenue 

B. 

Bliutgaon 


400,025 

Barh, Sana and Jhaina- 
har, 3 mahals .. 


395,000 

Biawar and NejH, 2 
mahals .. 


300,000 

Baklirali .. 

... 

238,000 

Banakar, Amrel, 2 ma- 
hals, has a stone fort 


140 000 

Babai .. 

.4. 

82,000 

Bairagarh has a strong 
fort .. 


45,000 

Chandpur, Cliaiideri, 2 
mahals 


39,000 

Jetgarh, Bhaldewi and 
suburb, district, 3 
mahals 

— 

12,000 

Jetha (v. Chetia) 

... 

12,000 

Damodah 

... 

1,355,000 

Dhameri ( =Dhamari) 
and Dhamera, 2 

mahals 


49 000 

Deogaon 

i ' ■ f.. ■' ■ ■ 

25,000 

Deohar, Hurbhat, 2 
mahals 


18,000 

Darkarah 

... 

18,000 

Ratanpur and Parhar, 2 
mahals • 


613,000 

Rangarh 

... 

400,000 

Rangarh and Sarangpur 
( ? Singarpur) 

2 mahals 


1,055 000 

Rasuliya 

... 

12,000 

Sitalpiir 


75,000 

' Shahpur, Chauragarh, 2 
mahals, has a strong 
fort .. 


350,000 1 

Garha with suburb, dis- 
trict has a strong fort 


1,857,000 1; 

Kedarpur 8zc, 12. mahals 

... 

121,000 

Khatolah 


1,626,000 ; 

Banji, Karolah, Dunga- 
rolah, 3 mahals 


! 

1,000,000 1 

Mandla 

... 

352,000 I 

Harariya( Deogarh, 2 
mahals, has a wooden 
fort on a hill 

... 

900,000 


a 
£? . 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Elephants 

Castes ' , 

... 

50 

1,000 


Gond , 


200 

4,000 


Do. 

. i 




Do. 


100 

10,000 


Do. 

i 

150 

10,000 


Do. 


100 

10,000 


Do. 

.... . 

15 

200 

... 

Do. 

... 

5 



Do. 


400 

'so 000 


Do. 

. 1 

100 

I 1,000 

... 

Gond Brah- 
man 


i 10 

j 500 


Gond 



10 

200 


Do. 

. 

20 

1,000 

... 

Do. 


20 

1,000 


Do. 


10 

200 


Do. 


10 



Do. 

... 

200 

10*000 


Do. 


10 

200 


Do. 


200 

5,000 

... 

Do. 

... . . 

■■ 

: ' 1 

1 

Gond men^' 
tioned un- 
der Garha 


100 

1,000 

... 

Gond 


500 

8,000 


Do. 


500 

50 000 

... 

Do. 


500 

10,000 

... 

Do. 


200 

20,000 


Do. 

... 

100 

1,000 

... 

Do. 


1500 

1 50,000 

... 

. Do. 



Am-I-AEBARI 


•212 


Sarkdf of Chandori. 


Containing 61 Mahals. 664,277 Bighas. 17 Biswas. 
Revenue 31,037,783 Bams. Suyurghdl 26,931 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalr}^ 6,970. Infantry 66,086. 
Elephants 90. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 
« D. 

Suyurghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Blephants | 

^ .Castes; : 

Udaipur has a stone 
fort .. 

35,995 

832,086 


2000 

10,400 


Bagri, Bak- 

Aron 

216,000 


10 

40 


kal 

! Khati 

Bran 

1,‘759 

1,759 

: ,,, 

10 

1001 

... 

Dangi 

Itawa . .. 

2,315 

80,000 


15 

1 

50 


(Bundelas) 
Ahir &c. 

Bhorasa has a stone 
fort on the Betwa .. 

6,733 

755,000 


40 

150 


Brahman 

Bandar jhala 

2,750 

720,000 

... 

25 

600 

• • 

Brahman, 

Bara &c. 5 mahals. 

Bach of the 5 Par- 
ganahs has a fort of 
which 4 are stone and 
that of Mai ( ?) brick 

1^074 

635,500 


■' I 

500 

5,000 


Jat, Bagri 

Bundela, 

Badarwas and Ahak, 2 
mahals 

4,951 

o 

o 

00 


10 

170 


Kayath 

Ahir 

Bajhar { ? Pachar) has a 
brick fort and a large 
tank and small hill 
are adjacent .. 

2,600 

174,000 


20 

300 


Brahman 

Beli [=Bijli] 

1,253 

70 000 

... 

10 

170 

... 

Ahir 

Tal Baroda [Barwa Su- 
gar] 

18,619 

1,090,000 


60 

3,000 


Musalman 

Tumun, on the Betwa : 
the residents there 
say that mermen in- 
habit the river. There 
is also a temple 

6,704 

312,504 


15 

120 


Brahman 

Thatabariyar ( ? Mano- 
har Thana) .. 

403-17 

22,500 

... 

5 

10 



Thanwara^ Ualatpur 

&c. 3 mahals, has a 
stone fort .. 

10,977 

619,997 


80 

2,000 


Rajput 






Sahti 


CHANDERI MAHALS 213 

Sarkar of Chmderi — Contd. 



Bighas 

Bisjvas 

Revenue 

D. 

103 

to 

U 0 

to 

Cavalry j 

Infantry 

« 

cs3 

X! 

Q* 

Castes ^ ,, 

Chanderi’®' with subur- 


I 



- — ^ — i 



ban district, 2 ma- 


j 






hals, has a stone fort 
Jhajhon, Deohari the 

23,021 

1,186,388 

... 

95 

1,350 

.... 

Ahir ■ 

smaller, 2 mahals .. 

6,463 

387,480 


80 

900 

... 

Chauhan &. 

Jorsingar &c. 5 mahals 

9,668 

438,000 

... 

30 

100 

... 

Hakhati 

Chirgaon has a fort .. 

1 5,096 

200^000 


15 

150 

... 

i Khati 

Joasah 

1 2,550 

1 

144,000 

... 

15 

■"■40 

... 

i Rajput, 

1 Klidti 

Deohari, the greater, 







, . ■ ^ , . ■ 

on the river Sindh .. 
Dub Jakar has a stone 

16,466 

V- i 

857,998 


65 

200 

... 

; Do. 

fort .. .. I 

8,875 ! 

580 500 


500 

5.000 

... 

1 Khichi 

Daurahal &c. 4 mahals 
Ranod has a stone fort 

2,600 1 

147,282 

... 

310 

5,000 

... 

I Various 

and near it a large 
reservoir which is a 








Hindu shrine 

5,833 

364,000 


15 

60 


Baqcial 

Rodahi &c. 5 mahals, 





has a stone for above 

Hi 







the bandar where 


J 






there is also a large 








temple 

3.652 

206,000 


20 

700’ 

... 

Rajput, 

Gond 

Ragah ( ? Raghogarh) 


.■ ■ ■ ! 





has a stone fort .. 

1,487 

84,000| 

'■ , 

50 

150 

... 

Rajput, Us 
Karor 

Saronj, white muslin of 
the kind called Mah- 
mudi is here manu- 







Rawathansi 
karer (?) 

factured 

186,427 

11,065,765 

26,931 

100 

2,500 

... 

Sahjan 8zc. 3 mahals .. 

70,221 

3,976,700 

... 

150 

20,000 

... 

Dandar (?) 

Bhadora near this town 





Makhati 

is a small hill 

5,840 

334,290 

... 

50 

1.000 


Guna has a brick fort 
Garanjiyab has a stone 

18,615 

1,092,062 


15 

250 

... 

Khichi &c. 

fort on the Betwa .. 

8,837 

468,000 


30 

200 

... 

Dingi 

Koroi ( = ICorwai) on 
the Betwa 

4,196 

252,000 

•• 

25 

150 

... 

Brahman 

Rangrah has a stone 
fort on the Sind .. 

4,670 

239,990 


35 

100 

... 

Musalman 

Kadrola has a stone fort 

2,970 

168,000 

... 

20 

400 

... 

Dingi 


* Bmendations suggested by J. S.~Beohari (=Dehri), Kangra (— Kanjit), 
Kadrala (=Kadwana), Kojan (=Kanjia), Bandar jhala (=Bandraila), Barah 
(=Baragaon), Tbanwara (=Tahrauli), Jhajhon (=Jaklon), Jaasa (=Churara), 
Kalakot (=Kalapahar), Baroala (=:I/adhaura), Ragah (may also be Raksa) — 
all found in the Survey of India maps. 


AiN-I-AKBARi " 

Sarkar of Chanderi—Contd. 



Bighas 1 
Biswas i 

Revenue 

B. 

Sayur- 
glial D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

m \ 

4-) 

1 

■a 

s 

.Castes,':",'^; 

Kolakot, lias a stone 
fort on a kill 

2771 ! 

156 459 


150 

1,500 


Gujar, 

Kojan, on the Betwa .. 

1,224 

69,152 

««• 

10 

20 


haroalah, on the Betwa 

3,140 I 

168,000 


10 

20 


Bakkal, 

Mnngaoli, has a brick 





fort 

29,756 

1,440,000 


70 

700 


Kayath. 

Mianah, 3 kos from it 





is a high hill 

12,196 

668,^0 


60 

3,000 


Rajput 

Mahadpur .. i 

i 

561 

144,000 



j ^40 :i 

... 

Rhatri. 

1 Khatri. 


I 

Sarkdf of Sdrangpur. 

Containing 24 Mahals. 706,202 Bighas. Revenue 
32,994,880 Dams. Suyurghal 324,461 Dams. Castes, 
various. Cavalry- 3,125. Infantry 21,710. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Sayur- 
ghal B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Elephants 

Castes 

Ashtah 

48,502 

800,790 

790 

230 

1,500 

... 

Chaulian, 

Bodhi, 

... (Bodhia)'.' ■'■• 

Akbarpur .. .. 

30,094 

170.610 


45 

150 

... 

Various. 

Agra 

Bajilpur produces the 
finest quality of betel 

7,852 

472,362 

... 

100 

2,000 


Chaulian. 

leaf .. 

11,590 

647,544 


140 

560 


Khichi. 

Paplun 

11,180 

610,544 


160 

700 


Rathor. 

Bhorasah 

4,147 

259,777 


30 

100 


Various. 

Bajor (PPachor) 

1,100 

65,820 

■■ 

10 

200 


Bo, 

Banian 

■■'■■.721:''' 

40 841 


■25' 

100 


Bo. 

Beawar 

; 2,505 

156,740 


60 

700 


1 Kayath. 

Talain 

48,056 ! 

1,800,700 

27,826 

150 

500 


i Chauhan. 

Khiljipur 

113 

6,0271 


100 

■1^::200.' 


Various. 

Zirapur • 

Sarangpur, with vSuburb. 
district 2 mahals, has 

6,047 

,1;;377,352^ 

' . '■ 

.:':40': 



Various. 

nil. 

Khichi. 

a brick fort 

21,800 

1,294,321 

47,559 

120 

2,000 


Chanhan. 

Sahar Baba Hajx 

20,263 

1,093,049 i 


150 i 

1,000 


1 Bhandel. 




BIJAGARH MAHALS 216 


Sarkar of Sdrangpur—Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Sayur- 

ghal D. 

• 

Cavalry | 

Infantry 

S 

P4 

s 

Castes; 

Sandarsi 

9,443 

434,889 


105 

2,000 


Chauhan. 

Sosner 

121 

54,876 


25 

300 


Various. 

Shujaapur .. 

133,433 

8 , 017,124 

238,212 

500 

3 000 


Chauhan, 

K.arhali (Karapli) 

17,179 

7 , 447,906 

80,506 

500 

2,000 


.Bo. 

Kayatli {=Kaoti) 

38,938 

1,193 396 

10,368 

no 

700 


1, ,Do. , 

Kaixliar (Khatar) 

26,045 

1 , 097,047 

15,318 





Karhari 

288 

17,252 

««« 

25 

200 


' Various. 

Muhammadpur 

47,704 : 

1 , 981,132 


170 

1,000 

1 

' Aljiyali, 
Dharar, 
Rathor, 
Dudma. (?) 

Naugam 

69,472 

2 , 755,438 

4,882 

200 

1,500 


Chauhan. 


Sarkar of Bifdgarh.-f 


Containing 29 Mahals. 283,278 Bighas, 13 Biswas. 
Revenue 12,249,121 Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 1,773. 
Infantry 19480. 



Bighas 

Bighas 

Revenue 

D. 

Sayur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 


Castes 

Anjari (=Amjad), situ- 
ated near the Nar- 








bada 

Un, Sanawads, here a 

13,713 

j 

1 

1 , 707,093 

1 




Bhil, includ- 
ed in seo- 
ranah. 

temple to Mahadeo 

5,321 

290,348 


300 

1,000 

i 

I Sohar, Raj- 
l put. 

Amlata, here a lake 
called by the Hindus 








vSaman (?Bimaii) .. 

4,919 

1 . , 

226,677 





, Rajput, So 
har, includ- 
ed in Balak- 
warah. 

Baniaiigaott 

Balakw^ara, famous for 
fine sweet musk me- 

15,679 

781,014 


5 

100 


Bersiya 

Brahman. 

lons .. 

9,268 

407,014 


500 

1,000 

... 

Sohar, 

Rajput. 

Barodara 

5,452 

369,898 


5 

50 

... 

Brahman. 


t South of the Narmada and south of Mandaleshwar, 


216 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkdr of Bijagarh—Contd. 



Bighas 

Revenue 

Sayur- 


u 

tn 

« 

Castes 


Biswas 

D. 

ghal D. 

g 

1 






3 

jH 

M 



Bikliangaon, has a 





■ , 1 



stone fort ; here good 
horses are procur- 
able 

12,580 

223,816 


50 

215 


Rajput, So* 






har. 

Balkhar, near the Nar- 








bada; adjacent are 








small hills 

5,584 

223,615 


included 
in Balak- 

... 

Rajput. 





warah 



Basniyah 

Badriya (?Beria) .. 

9,870-13 

85,000 

... 

... 

50 

... 

As above 
mentioned. 

8,839 

84,293 



50 

... 

Rajput, So- 
har, 


Bangelah, forest adja- 







cent where elephants 
are hunted .. 

2,185 

52,939 


5 

800 


’ 

Bhil. 

Biror {=Barur) 

Tikri, on the Kodi; 

7;477 

391,333 

... 

5 

500 

... 

I>o. 

here a large temple 
to Mahadeo, and a 








small hill 

14,771 

645,245 


inclnded 

• •* 

Rajput, Bhil, 



in Seo- 
ranah 


Sic. 



Jalalabad, with suburb, 
district has a stone 
fort 

Chamari, has a stone 

9.285 

414,268 


34 

1,470 

... 

Bhil, Bdhal. 

fort 

17,916 

543,994 

... 

100 

500 

' ^ 

Rajput, So- 
har. 

Deola Khatia (Dival) 

6,430 

392,080 


... 



Rajput, So- 






har, includ- 
ed in Balak- 
warah. 



Deola Narhar ( ?I)haoda) 
Seoranah, near the Nar- 

3,286 

98,569 

' ••• . 

5 

500 

... 

Bhil. 

badah, and a large 
temple there 

13,074 

627,207 


300 

2,025 


Bhil, &c. 

Sindhawa, good hunt- 





ing ground for ele- 
phants 

9,974 

353,819 


24 

550 


Koli. 

Silwarah, has a brick 






fort 

9,628 

325,544 


350 

9,000 


Bhil. 

Sangori (=Sangvi) 

4,607 

170,210 


5 

250 

• • • 

Nahal, Kar- 






hah. 

KasrSod, on the Nar- 








badah, has a large 








tank and a small hill 

20,490 

1,150,569 

.... . 

under 
Balak- 
1 warah. 


Sohar. 





217 


MAHAlvS OF BIJAGARH AND MANDU 


Sarkar of Bijagarh — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Saynr- 
ghal i) . 

Cavalry | 

Infantry 

s 

s 

Castes 

Khargoii, lias a fort, 








stone below, brick 








above 

14,526 

753,194 


50 

500 


Rajput, So- 
har, Kana- 
rah 

(Khatri?) 

Kanaptir 

5,358 

126,846 

... 

under Balak- 
warah. 

Do. do. 

Kliudgaon .. 

2,738 

85,082 


5 

20 

... 

Rajput,^ 
Kanari . 

I^ahrpur, commonly 








Muhammadpur 

6,792 

205,743 

... 

5 

400 

... 

Rajput, 

Kahiri. 

jbowarikoli 

2,476 1 

50,000 , 


5 

300 


BhiL 

Mandawara, here ai 






large temple 

15,948 

777,881 

4,187 

under 

Seoranah 

Do. 

Mahoi (Mohxpur), near 




. ■ i 




the Narbada .. 

8,318 

395,206 

... 

5^ 

50 


Bhil, &c. 

Morana (Mardana) has 






Rajput, So^ 
har. 

a stone fort 

Nawari (Newali), has a 

9,211 

355,902 


5 

70 

... : 

stone fort 

9,779 

408,164 

370,208 

#*• 

... 

... 

••• 

Bhil. 

Nangalkadi 

9,057 

... 

5 

500 

... 

Bahai. 


Sarkdr of Mando. 

Containing 16 Mahals. 229,969 Bighas, 15 Bistms. 
Revenue 13,788,994 Ddms. _ Suynrghdl 127,732 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry 1,180. Infantry 2,626. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Sayur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Elephants 1 

Amjhera 

* 

395,400 

3,806 

60 


1 

Barodah 

27,370-19 

1,807,760 

8,936 

80 

150 

... 

Betman 

7,780-12 

656,556 

8,750 

60 

100 


Choli Mahesar 

18,183 

968,370 

10,500 

70 

200 

... 

Hasilpur, the vine here 
bears twice a year, 
and fine cloth of the 
kind Ainmi and Khd- 
sah are manufactured 

4,805-13 

210,000 

1 

40 

85 


Dhar, anciently a large 
city 

38,660 

2,079,806 

36,364 

120 

. 

150 

i . . 

... 


28 



1^18 ■ ,AQf“I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Mando —Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

' - — 

Sayur- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry j 


to 

1 

1 

Dikhtan 

17,643 

' 

958,986 


70 

200 


Dharmagaoii 

3,018-11 

916,442 

... 

... 

... 

... 

Sagor 

12,807-14 

683,084 

... 

50 

150 


Sanasi 

70,670 

3,097,190 

29,696 

800 

600 


Kotra 

'••• ' 

2,393,871 

385 

165 

300 


Mando, with suburb, 
district, 2 niahals , . 

540-17 

48,398 


10 

! 

50 


Manawara .. .. 

2,048-10 

102,164 


20 

50 

... 

Nalchah .. i 

9,949-7 

545,952 

34^05 

70 

200 

... 

Nawali 

224,608 


45 

100 



Sarkdr of Handiah. 

Containing 23 Mahals. Land under special crops 20 
Mahals. 89,573-18 Bighas, 18 Biswas. Amount of revenue 
in cash from crops charged at special rates and from land 
papng the general bigah rate. 11,610,969 Dams. Suyur^ 
ghal 157,054: Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 1,296, 
Infantry 5,921. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

Saynr- 
ghal D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

«5 

Ctf 

p, 

Castes 

Unchod 

59,495 

2,037,877 

10,825 

200 

500 



Angalgaon .. ., 

414 

422,947 

... 

150 

200 



Amondali .. .. 

392 

21,834 


7 

20 



Bijnola 

606 " 

44,418 

... 

25 

100 



Punasa 

873 

25,251 

«... 

10 

100 

... 


Balahri ( ? Bhilakheri) 


825 

... 

... 

15 



Chakhoda 

2,319 

158,876 

13,324 

20 

80 

... 


Champaner 

317 

20,350 


20 

100 

... 


Dewas 

188,249 

6,718,000 

42,837 

875 

2,000 



Rajora 

383 

25,641 


7 

20 



Satwas 

971 

89,080 

7’504 

45 

ISO 



Samarni [?Timurni] .. 

1 775 

62,115 


5 

40 



Siyamgarh 

160 

20,494 

... 

111 

550 



Seoni 


2,250 


50 

600 



Rhandoha Islainpur .. i 

22, 6^ 

1,298,581 

6’400 

120 

500 



Mundi .. „ ^ 

367 

19,443 


7 

20 



Mardanptir 


450 

^ V"; 

50 

500 



Nimawar 

18,207 

946467 

... 

25 

100 

... 


Naugaon 

1,187 

79,264 

... 

30 

120 

... 


Niman (=Nimanpur) ,. 

1,160 

75,152 


14 

56 



Handah (=Harda) 

2,954 

146,044 


30 

100 

■»** 


Handia, with suburb. 








district, has a stone. 








fort on the Narbada 








on a level plain- . .. 

5,1^^15 

350,051 

76,160 

40 

150 





’ NANDURBAR ANB MANIJESOR MAHAES 219 

Sarkar of Nandurbar. 

Containing 7 Mahals. 2,059,604 Bighas. Revenne 
50,162,250 Dams. Suyurghdl 198,478 Dams. Castes 
various. Cavalry 500. Infantry 6,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Sayur- 
ghal B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

m 

1 

1 

s 

m 

Bhamber (Bliamer) 

212,830 

69,244,355 





Snltaiipur .. 

995,993 

28,119,749 

159,744 

... 


"1 

Kliaer (or Jahnr?) 
Nandurbar, with sub. 

868 

53,310 

“* 


... 


district .. 

203,007 

14,252,191 

38,734 


... 

... 

Ner 

15,253 

722,760 

1 .*» 


... 

... 

Namorhi 

1,645 

89,585 

> 

... 

... 

... 


Sarkar of Mand'esor. 


\ Containing 17 Mahals. Revenue 6,861,396 Dams. 
Suyurghdl 23,387 Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 1,194. 
Infantry 4,280. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

: - 

Sayur- 
ghal B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Elephants | 

Castes 

Ringnod 


716355 


80 

250 


Sisodia. 

Ujenwas 

... 

170 953 

... 

60 

200 

... 

Ahir, Gond. 

Basad 


515,400 

... 

80 

250 

... 

Sisodia. 

Budha 

... 

255,062 

... 

65 

300 


Rajput, 

Dodia. 

(Bodhia.) 

Tharod 


109,220 

■ ■ ,■ 

74 

250 

... 

Ahir. 

Baraudah 


106 703 


50 

200 


Ahir, Gond. 

Baraltali ^ 


90 970 

727 

30 

100 

... 

Chauhan. 

Bhathpur ( ? Blianpur) 


63.104 

... 

16 

250 

i.. 

Rajput. 

Bodia. 

Tal 


1,600 000 


160 

250 

... 

Bo. do. 

Titrod 


500 000 


80 

220 

... 

Bo. do. 

Jamiawara 


619,759 

■ 

80 

200 

... 

Sisodia. 

Sukhera . 


46090 


50 i 300 

... 


Ghiyaspur 


138 890 


60 

j 800 

... 

Gond, Ahir. 

Qiyampur 


175,350 

«*« 

no 

300 

... 

Deora. 

Kotri 

Mandesor, with suburb. 


803 

i 

50 

500 

... 

Rljpnt. 

district, 2- mahal's .. 


1{65I,#20 

^ 28,660 

100 

400 

1 _ 

... 



220 .ain-i-akbaRI ^ 

Sarkdr of Gdgron. 

Gontaining 12 Mahals. 63^529 Bighas . Revtnue 
4,535.794 Dams. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Sayur- 
ghal D. 

Jti 

a 

% 

O 

^ u 

a 

CO: 

I 

d) 

r-M 

m 

Urmal 


502.774 





A.kbarptir 


in money. 
62 500 





Patich PaMr .. 

21,399 

1,573560 



• •• 


Ciiechat 

»•» 

222,640 





Khairabad 

17,136 

646 000 





Raepur 

9,716 

28,730 



••• ' 


Soiiel 

9,638 

281,909 





Sendar (=Sandliara) .. 

695 

81.929 





Ghati 

• •• 

600,046 



... 


Gagron, with suburb, 
district, has a stone 
fort 


19,781 





Nimthor 

4-945 

in money. 
608,834 

... 

... 

— 

... 


0 

Sarkdf of Kotri Pardwa. 

Containing 10 Mahals. 190, 0S9 Bighas. Revenue 
8,031,920 Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 2,245. Infantry 
6,600. 


1 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Sayur- 
ghal B. 

1 Cavalry 

Infantry 

to 

4>> 

« 

CS 

Cl. 

<v 

s 

Castes 

Mot (missp. Asop) .. 

42 220 

1,733 927 

250 

700 




Kjigarh 

4,553 

855 612 

350 

200 


... 

Rajut, 

Xwar , ■; . ■ . 

9204 

532,056 


80 

300 


Bcora. 

Barod .. | 

20,224 

923,667 


160 

400 


Rajput, ^ 

Bagdudhalia 

13.381 

458,144 


125 

400 


Sondhia. 

Bo. do. 

Soyat 

13 381 

693,585 


240 

500 


Bo. Beora. 

Kotri Parawa, 2 mahals* 

46,046 

1,856,566 

... 

770 

1,800 


Kayath. 

with suburb, dist. .. 

Gangrar 

200,615 

1,066,683 


200 

700 


Rajput, 

Ghosi ( ? Gadguchi) .. 

2,597 

116,380 

... 

60 

200 

... 

Sondha. 

Sondhia. 







filNIin kings Ol^ MAI<WA 


221 


Princes of Malwa. 

rl. 

Five Rajahs of this dynasty reigned in succession, 

387 years, 7 months, 3 days. 

(Dates from Prinsep.) 

Ys. Ms. Ds. 

B. C. 840. Dhanji, (Dhananjaya, a name of 
Arjun, about 785 before 
Vikramaditya), ... ... 100 0 0 

,, 760. Jit Chandra, ... ... 86 7 3 

,, 670. Salivahana, ... ... 10 0 

,, 680. Nirvahana, ... ... 100 0 0 

,, 580. Putraj, (Putra Rajas of Vansava- 

lis without issue), ... ... 100 2 0 


• II. 

Fighteen princes of the Ponwar caste reigned 
1,062 years, 11 months, 17 days. 

B. C. 400. Aditya Panwar, (elected by 
nobles. [Co-temp. Sapor, A. D. 

191. Wilford. ... ... 86 7 3 

,, 390. Brahmaraj, (reigned in Vidar- 

bhanagar), .... ... 30 7 3 

,, 360. Atihrahma, (at Ujain, defeated in 

the north), ... ... 90 0 0 

,, 271. Sadhroshana, (Sadasva Sena. 

Vasudeva of Wilford, Basdeo of 
Ferishta, A. D. 390, father-in- 
law of Bahram Gor. revived 
Kanauj dynasty), ••• ... 80 0 0 

,, 191. Hemarth, (Heymert, Harsha Me- 

gha, killed in, battle), ... 100 0 0 

,, 31. Gandharb,* (Gardabharupa, Bah- 

ramgor of Wilford), ... 35 0 0 

B. C. 56. Bikramjit, (Vikramaditya. Tuar 

caste, 3rd of Wilford), ... 100 2 3 

^ Under pt)wer of a curse » in consequences of a crime, he was changed 
into an ass resuming his human form only at night. Hemar I, nqtwith* 
standing, gave him his daughter in marriage and she gave birth to. Vikrain- 
aditya. 


Ys. Ms. Ds. 




A, B. 44. Chandrasen of the same race 

(possessed himself of all Hin- 
dustan), ... ... ... 86 3 2 

,, 135. Kharagsen, (Surya Sena, w. 676),. 85 0 0 

,, 215. Chitarkot, ... ... ... 1 0 0 

,, 216. Kanaksen, (conquered Saurashtra • ^ 

[Surat and Gujerat] founder of 
the Mewar family, ancestry 
traced by Jain* Chronicles con- 
sulted by Tod, to Sumitra, 56th 



from Rama), 

86 

0 

0 

302. 

Chandrapal of the same race, 

100 

0 

0 

402. 

Mahendrapal, 

7 

0 

0 

409. 

Karamchand of the same race, . . . 

1 

0 

1 

410. 

Bijainand, (Vijyananda), 

60 

0 

0 

470. 

Munja, (killed in the Deccan, 





reigned A. D. 993, according 





to Tod). 




483. 

Bhoja, (by Tod 567 A. D. The 





other two Rajas Bhoja, Tod 
fixes in 665 [from Jain MSS.] 
and 1035, the father Udayati. 

Kalidas flourished), ... 100 0 0 

,, 583. Jayachand, (put aside in favour 

of the following), ... ... 10 0 2 

III. 


Eleven princes of the Tonwar, (Tuar) caste 
reigned 142 years, 3 days. 


1. D. 593. 

Jitpap, 

5 

0 

0 

„ 598. 

Rana Raju, * 

5 

0 

0 

„ 603. 

Rana Baju, , ... 

1 

0 

3 

„ 604. 

Rana Jaj Jalu, var, and 

U.T.), 

20 

0 

0 

D. 620. 

Rana Chandra, 

30 

0 

0 

„ 654. 

Rana Bahadur, 

5 

0 

0 

,, 659. 

Rae Bakhmal, (Bakhtmal), 

5 

0 

0 

„ 664. 

Rae Sukanpal, 

5 

0 

0 

., 669. 

Rae Kiratpal, 

5 

0 

0 

„ 674. 

Rae Anangpal, (rebuilt and 
peopled Delhi 791, Tod.), 

60 

0 

0 

„ T34. 

Runwarpal, 

1 

0 

D 


MUSIvIM ROtElS m MALWA 


223 


IV. 


Eleven princes of the ChauhSn caste reigned 
140 years,. 


A. D. 736. 

Raja Jagdeva, ... 

Ys. 

10 

Ms. 

0 

Ds. 

0 


746. 

Jagannath, his nephew, ... 

10 

0 

0 


756. 

Hardeva, ... ... ... 

16 

0 

0 

M 

770. 

Basdeva, 

16 

0 

0 

» r 

786. 

Srideva, ... ... 

16 

0 

0 

f 9 

801. 

Dharmdeva, ... ... 

14 

0 

0 

} > 

815. 

Baldeva, ... ... 

10 

0 

0 

> > 

826. 

Nanakdeva, ... ... ... 

9 

0 

0 

f 5 

834. 

Kiratdeva., ... ... ' , 

11 

0 

0 

f t 

845. 

Pithura, 

21 

0 

0 

} > 

866. 

Maldeva, (conquered by Shaikh 
Shah father of Ala u’d din), ... 

9 

0 

0 


V. 


Ten princes reigned 77 3 rears. 


A. D. 1037. 

Shaikh Shah, (from Ghazni), ... 

70 

0 

„ 1037. 

Dharmraja Sud, (Vizier during 
minority of, 

Ala u’d din, son of Shaikh Shah, 
put the Vizier to death. 

20 

0 

„ 1067. 

20 

0 


Eamal u’d din, (murdered by, ... 

12 

0 

„ 1069. 

Jitpal Chauhan, (Jaya Sing of 


* 


Delhi and Eahore? 977, a 
descendant of Manikya Rai ?) ’ 

20 

0 

„ 1089. 

Harchand, 

20 

0 

,, 1109. 

Kiratchand, ... 

2 

0 

„ 1111. 

Ugarsen, 

13 

0 

„ 1124. 

Surajchand, ••• 

12 

0 

A. D. 1136. 

Birsen, (dispossessed by the 
following), ... 

10 

0 


0 

0 

0 

0 


0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 


VI. 

Eight princes reigned 206 years. 

A. D. 1146. Jalal u’d din, (an Afghan), ... 22 0: 0 

,, 1168. A’alam Shah, (killed in battle 

by, ... 24. 0. 0 



AEN-I-AKBARI 


224 

Ys. Ms. Ds. 

A.D. 1192. Kharagsen, son of Birsen 
(Birsen, emigrated to Kam- 
mp, married tiie king’s 
daughter, succeeded to the 
kingdom and regained Mal- 



wah), 

• • • # * • * * * 

8 

0 

0 



Udayadityadeva, 






Naravarmadeva, * 




1200. 

Narbahan. • 

Yasovarmadeva, 






J ay avarmadeva , ... 

20 

0 

0 



Lakhan,* 




1220. 

Birsal, 

'< . « • • • . ■ 

16 

0 

0 

.1236. 

Pur^nmal, 


39 

0 

0 

1268. 

Haranand, 

••• 

62 

0 

0 

1330. 

Sakat Sing 

, (killed at the inva- 





sion of the following), ... 

60 

0 

0 


VII. 

Bleven princes reigned 142 years, 2 months 
4 days.f 


A. D. 1390. Bahadur Shah, (king of Deccan, 

killed at Delhi), ... ... some ms. 

Ys. Ms. Ds. 

,, 1390. Dilawar Khan Ghori, (viceroy of 

M a 1 w a h assumed sove- 
' reignty), ... ... 20 0 0 

„ 1405. Hoshang Shah, ... _,... 30 0 0 

„ 1432. Muhammad Shah, (Ghizni 

Khan, poisoned), ... some ms. 

,, 1435. Sultan Mahmud, uncle of 

Hoshang, (Rana of Chitor 
Kumbho, presents tankas 
coined in his own name, 

1460), 34 0 0 




These* five reigned A.D. 1437—1143 according to the Ujjaiii inscription. 


t Correct list of Malwa Sultans^ — 

Dilawar Kh. Ghnri 

... A.H. 794/1932 A.D. 

Hushang Sh. 

... ... ... 

... 808/1405 

Muhammad Sh. 

(Ghazni Kh.) 

... 838/1435 

Ma’sud 

■ ^ ■' ..V ■ 

839/1436 . 

Mahmud I. 

... . ... 

839/1436 

Ghiyas-ud-din 

... 

873/1469 

Nasir-ud-din . 

... ...♦ 

905/1500 

Mahmud 11. 

... «.* 

916-937/1510-31 



EARLIEST HINDU DYNASTY OE MALWA 


225 


A.D. 1469. Sultan Ghiyas u’d din, ... 
,, 1600. ,, Nasir u’d din, (his son 

Shahab u’d din revolts), 
,, 1512. ,, Mahmud II, (younger 

son, last of the Khiljis), 
Qadir Shah, 

,, Shujaat Khan, known as Shuiawal 
Khan, 

,, Baz Bahadur. 


Ys. Ms. Ds 
32 0 0 

11 4 3 

26 6 11 
6 0 0 

12 0 0 


In 15S4: Malwah was incorporated with Gujerdt king- 
dom; in 1568 as a province of Akbar^s empire. 

It is said that two thousand, three hundred and fifty- 
five years, five months and twenty-seven days prior to this, 
the 40th year of the Divine Era [761 B.C.] an ascetic 
named Mahdbdh, kindled the first flame in a fire-temple, 
and devoting himself to the worship of God, resolutely set 
himself to the consuming of his rebellious passions. Seekers 
after eternal welfare gathered round him, zealous in a life 
of mortification. About this time the Buddhists began to 
take alarm and appealed to the temporal sovereign, asserting 
that in this fire-temple, many living things were consumed 
in flaming fire, and that it was advisable that Brahmanical 
rites shouldtebe set aside, and that he should secure the pre- 
servation of life. It is said that their prayer was heard, and 
the prohibition against the said people was enforced. These 
men of mortified appetites resolved on redress, and sought 
by prayer a deliverer who should overthrow Buddhism and 
restore their own faith. The Supreme Justice brought forth 
from this fire-temple, now long grown cold, a human form, 
resplendent with divine majesty, and bearing in its hand a 
flashing sword. In a short space, he enthroned himself on 
the summit of power, and renewed the Brahmanical obser- 
vance. He assumed the name of Dhananjaya and coming 
from the Deccan, established his seat of government at 
Malwah and attained to an advanced age. 

When Putraj, the fifth in descent from him. died with- 
out issue, the nobles elected Aditya Ponwar his successor, 
and this was the origin of the sovereignty of this house. On 
the death of Hemarth in battle, Gandharb, the chosen, was 
raised to the throne. The Hindus believe that he is the 
same as Hemarth whom the Supreme Ruler introduced 

29 



226 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

among the celestials in the form of a Gandhar¥ and then 
clothed in human shape. Thus he became universally 
known by this name and prospered the world by his justice 
and munificence. A son was born to him named Bikramajit 
who kept aflame the lamp of his ancestors and made exten- 
sive conquests. The Hindus to this day keep the beginning 
of his reign as an era and relate wonderful accounts of him. 
Indeed he possessed a knowledge of talismans and incanta- 
tions and gained the credulity of the simple. Chandrapal 
obtained in turn the supreme power and conquered all 
Hindustan. Bijainand was a prince devoted to the chase. 
Near a plant of the Munja^ he suddenly came upon a new- 
born infant. He brought him up as his own son and called 
him by the name of Munja. When his own inevitable time 
approached, his son Bhoja was of tender age. He therefore 
appointed Munja his successor, who ended his life in the 
wars of the Deccan. 

Bhoja succeeded to the throne in the SHst year of the 
era of Bikramajit and added largely to his dominions, ad- 
ministering the empire with justice and liberality. He held 
wisdom in honour, the learned were treated with distinction, 
and seekers after knowledge were encouraged by his sup- 
port. Five hundred [correctly nine] sages, the most 
erudite of the agCj shone as the gathered wisdom of his court 
and were entertained in a manner becoming their^ignity and 
merit. The foremost of these was Barruj [Vararuchi], a 
second was Dhanpal [Dhanwantari] who have- composed 
works of great interest and left them to intelligent seekers 
of truth, as a precious possession. At the birth of Bhoja, 
either through a grave miscalculation of the* astrologers or 
some inadvertence oh the part of those who cast his horos- 


^ A class of demigods who inhabit the heaven of Indra and form the celes- 
tial choir at the banquets of the deities. He appears in the lists as Gandha- 
pala, fostered by an ass, Candha-nipa or Har shame gha, epithets of the same 
animal. According to Wilford the Pandits who assisted Abul Pazl disfigured 
the chronology of the supplement to the Agni-purana. Of Salivahana and Nara- 
vahana they made two distinct persons as well as of Bahram wfith the title of 
Gor in Persian and Hiniar, or the Ass in Arabic. Thus they introduced Himar 
or Hemarth and Gor or Gandharb. 

2 Saccharum munja, a rush or grass from the fibres of which a string is 
prepared of which the Brahmanical girdle is proper fy formed. Munja wrote 
a geographical description of the world or of India which still exists under 
the name of Munja-prati-desOr^vyvdlsthd or state of various countries. It was 
afterwards corrected and improved by Raja Bhoja, and still exists in Gujerat. 
Munja transferred the capital from IJjjain to Sonitpura in the Deccan galled 
after hijn Munfa-fattana on the Gpdav^r}, . 



RAJA BHOJA AND MUNJA 


227 


cope, tlie learned in the stars in consultation announced a 
nativity of sinister’ aspect. They prognosticated hazard to 
the lives of such as sympathised with him, and these to save 
their own, cast this nursling of fortune in the dust of desti- 
tution and_ exposed him in an inhospitable land. He was 
there nourished without the intervention of human aid. The 
sage Barruj, who at that time was not accounted among the 
learned, having recast his horoscope after profound investi- 
gation, foretold the good tidings of a nativity linked to a long 
life and a glorious reign. This paper he threw in the way 
of the Raja, whose heart on reading it, was agitated with 
the impulse of paternal love. He convened an assembly of 
the astrologers, and when the nativity was scrutinised, and 
it was ascertained where the error lay, he went in person 
and restored Bhoja to favour and opened the eyes of his 
understanding to the strangeness of fortune. They relate 
that when the child was eight years old, the short-sighted 
policy of Munja impelled him to desperate measures and he 
contemplated putting the innocent boy to death. He 
entrusted him to some of his trusty followers to make away 
with him secretly, but these ministers of death spared him, 
and concealing him, invented a plausible tale. On his taking 
leave, he gave them a letter telling them to read it to the 
Raja in case he should inquire regarding him. Its purport 
ran as follows : — “How doth darkness of soul in a man cast 
him out of the light of wisdom, and in unholy machinations 
stain his hands in the blood of the innocent ! No monarch 
in his senses thinks to carry with him to the grave his king- 
dom and treasures, but thou by slaying me seemest to 
imagine that his treasures perpetually endure and that he 
himself is beyond the reach of harm.” The Raja on hearing 
this letter, was aroused from his day-dream of fancied 
security and brooded in remorse over his crime. His agents, 
when they witnessed the evidences of his sincerity revealed 
to him what had occurred. He gave thanks^ to God, Wel- 
comed Bhoja with much affection and appointed him his 
successor. 

When his son Jayachand’s’ reign was ended, 
none of the Ponwar caste was found worthy to succeed. 
Jitpal of th^Tonwar caste, who was one of the principal 
landowners was elected to the throne, and thus by the vicis- 
situdes of fortune the sovereignty passed into this family. 

‘ Jayananda according to Wilford, who gives the next name as Chaitra or 
Jytepal and identifies or confounds hini witli Chaiidfapala. 



228 


AIN-I-AKMM 


When Knnwarpal died, the royal authority passed into the 
hands of the Chauhans. During the reign of Maldeva, 
Shaikh Shah came from Ghazni and acquired possession of 
Malwah and lived to an advanced age. At his death his son 
Ala u’d din was a minor, and his chief minister Dharm Raj 
Sud occupied the throne. As soon as Ala u’d din came of 
age, he rose in arms to assert his rights and put to death the 
disloyal usurper. Jitpal Chauhan, a descendant of Manik 
Deva Chauhan, who was in the service of Kamal-u’d-din, 
under the impulse of malice and in pride of wealth com- 
passed the destniction of his master and in the hope of gain, 
acquired for himself eternal perdition. Under the rule of 
Tipparsen, an intriguing Afghan, getting together some 
desperate characters as his abettors, laying an ambush for 
the Raja, slew him while hunting, and assumed the 
sovereignty with the title of Jalal u’d din. Tipparsen had 
married his son Kharagsen into the family of the Raja of 
Kamrup. The Raja, for his eminent services, appointed 
this adopted son his heir, and when the Raja died, Kharag- 
sen ascended the throne and to avenge his wrongs marched 
an army against Malwah and Aalam Shah was killed in 
battle. 

In the reign of Sakat Singh a prince named Bahadur 
Shah advanced from the Deccan and having put the Raja to 
death, marched against Delhi and was taken prisoner while 
fighting against Sultan Shahab u’d din. 

From the time of Sultan Ghiyas u’d din Balban (A.D. 
1265) to that of Sultan Muhammad son of Firoz Shah (A.D. 
1387) no serious weakness in the imperial authority betrayed 
itself, but on his death the empire of Delhi became a prey to 
distractions. Dilawar Khan Ghori who had- been appointed 
by him to the government of Malwah, assumed independ- 
ence. The Sultan bestowed the government of four pro- 
vinces upon four individuals who had been faithful to him in 
his adversity. To Zafar Khan' he gave Gujerat; Khizr 
Khan was appointed to Multan; Khwajah Sarwar to Jaun- 
pur and Dilawar Khan to Malwa. After his death, the time 
being favourable, each of the four assumed independence. 
[Persian text confused.] 

Alp Khan the son of Dilawar Khan was fleeted to the 
succession under the title of Hoshang. It is said that his 
father was. poisoned by his order whereby he has gained 


* Zafar Ktian took the title of-. Mnzaffar Shah, 


SULTAN HOSANG’S WARFARE 229 

everlasting abhorrence. Sultan Muzaft'ar of Gujerat marched 
against him and took him prisoner and left his own brother 
Nasir Khan in command, of the province. But as he was 
tyrannous in conduct and ignored the interests of his sub- 
jects, Musa, cousin of Hoshang, was raised to the throne. 
Sultan Muzaffar released Hoshang from confinement and 
despatched him to Malwa-in company with his own son 
Ahmad Khan, and in a short time he was restored to power. 
On the death of Muzaffar, he perfidiously marched against 
Gujerat, but meeting with no success, returned. On several 
subsequent occasions he attacked Sultan Ahmad of Gujerat 
but was shamefully defeated. 

On one occasion cunningly disguised as a merchant, he 
set out for JdjnagarJ The ruler of that country accom- 
panied by a small retinue visited the caravan. Hoshang took 
him prisoner and hastened back. While journeying to- 
gether, Hoshang told him that he had been induced to under- 
take this expedition in order to procure a supply of elephants 
and added that if his people attempted a rescue, the prince’s 
life should pay the penalty. The prince therefore sending 
for a number of valuable elephants, presented them to him 
and was set at liberty. 

Hoshang was engaged in wars with Mubarak Shah son 
of Khizr Khan viceroy^ of Delhi, with Sultan Ibrahim of 
the Jaunpur dynasty, and with Sultan Ahmad of the 
Deccan.’ On his death, the nobles, in accordance with his 
bequest, raised his son Nasir Khan to the throne under the 


^ Jajpur on the Eaitarani river in Orissa, capital of the province under the 
Lion Dynasty, the Gajpati or Lords of Elephants. This story occurs in the 
Tab. Akbari, p. 537, and in Ferishta, Vol. II, p. 236. (Briggs, IV, 178). 
Ferishta’s account is that in A.H. 825 (1421 — 2), Hoshang with a 1,000 picked 
cavalry disguised as a merchant set out for Jajnagar, one month*s journey 
from Malwa and took with him a number of cream-coloured horses, much 
sought after by the ruler of Orissa and stuffs of various kinds, his object 
being to exchange these for elephants the better to meet Sultan Ahmad of 
Gujerat in the field. On his arrival near Jajnagar he sent to inform the 
Fajah of the presence of his caravan and the prince arrived with a number 
of elephants to barter for the horses, or ready to pay in coin, as the need 
arose. The horses were caparisoned and the stufis laid out for inspection, 
when a storm of rain came on and the lightning frightening the elephants, 
they trampled on the goods and caused great damage. Hoshang tore his hair 
and swore that life was no longer worth having and at a signal, his men 
mounted and attacked the Raja’s guard, and put them to flight. Capturing 
the Rajs, Hoshang discovered himself and excused his action on the ground 
of destruction of his property. He then stated his object. The Rajah admired 
his audacity and 75 elephants purchased his own release. Hoshang carried 
him as far as the frontier and set him at liberty. 

^ He never assumed the royal title but styled himself viceroy of Timur 
in whose name the coin was minted and the Khuthah read. 

® Ahmad Shah Wali of the Bahmani dynasty (1422—35). " ' — 


230 


ain-i-akbari 


title of Muhammad Shah, Mahmud Khan, cousin of Sultan 
Hoshang, basely bribed his cup bearer and that venal wretch 
poisoned the Sultan’s wine. The generals of the army kept 
his death secret hoping to place his son Masaud Khan upon 
the throne and they sent to confer with Mahmud Khan. He 
replied that worldly affairs had no longer any interest for 
him but that if his presence in council were necessary, they 
must come to him. They foolishly went to his house and 
were placed in confinement, and by the aid of some disloyal 
mercenary partisans, he seized upon the sovereignty of 
Malwa and was proclaimed under the title of Sultan 
Mahmud (Khilji). Upon such a wretch,’ in its wondrous 
vicissitudes thus did Fortune smile and the awe he inspired 
secured him the tranquil possession of power. He waged 
wars with Sultan Muhammad son of Mubarak Shah, king 
of Delhi, with Sultan Ahmad, king of Gujerat, with 
Sultan Hussain Sharqi of Jaunpur, and with Rana Kumbha 
of Mewar. 

Khwajah Jamal u’d din Astarabadi” was sent to him as 
ambassador by Abu Said Mirza with costly gifts which 
greatly redounded to his glory. Mahmud II (1512 A.D.) 
through his ungenerous treatment of his adopted followers’ 
fell into misfortune but was again reinstated in power by the 
aid of Sultan Muzaffar Shah (II) of Gujerat (A.D. 1611-26). 
Through his reckless bravery in battle he was taken prisoner 
by the Rana (Sanga)* who treated him with generosity and 
restored him to his kingdom. He was again captured in 
action against Sultan Bahadur of Gujerat and conveyed to 
the fortress of Champaner. He was killed (A.D. 1526) on 
his way thither and Malwa was incorporated with Gujerat 
until it was conquered by Humayun. When this monarch 
returned to Agra, one of the relations of Sultan Mahmud, 
by name Mallu, seized on the government of Malwa under 
the title of Qadir Khan. 


^ He proved notwithstanding, the ablest and most chivalrous of all the 
Malwa princes* 

* This ambassador arrived with presents from Mirza Sultan Said 3rd in 
descent from Tamerlane who reigned over Transoxiana and held his court at 
Bokhara — ^grandfather of Baber. He returned with presents of elephants, 
singing and dancing girls, Arab horses and an ode in the vernacular com- 
posed by Mahmud himself which Abu Said valued above all the other gifts. 
Ferishta II, 254. 

* The reference is to his dismissal of his Hindu minister Medni Rae and 
the Rajput troops to whom he owed his kingdom when deserted by his 
nobles at the beginning of his reign, 

* Rana Sanga (A.D, , ISOS^^-ISS^) under whom Mewar reached its highest 
prosperity, fought Babar in Ti^d. 


BAZ BAHADUR CONQUERED BY AKBAR 


231 


During the supremacy of the usurper Sher Khan the 
control of the province was invested in Shujaat Khan, who 
rebelled under the reign of Salim Khan and assumed in- 
dependence under Mubariz Khan. 

On his death, his eldest son Bayizid succeeded under 
the title of Baz Bahadur until the star of his Majesty’s for- 
tune arose in the ascendant and this fertile province was 
added to the imperial dominions. 

May the robe of this daily- widening empire be bordered 
with perpetuity, and its inhabitants enjoy to their hearts’ 
fill a prosperity that shall never deca3^ 


SUBAH OF DaNDES. 

This flourishing country was called but after 

the capture the fortress oi Asir (1600 A.D.) and when this 
province fell under the government of prince Danyal, it was 
known as DdndesJ It is situated in the second climate. Its 
length from Bofgaon which adjoins Handiah to Lalang 
which is on the borders of the territory of AhmadnCigar is 
75 kos. Its breadth from Jdmod adjoining Berdr to Pal 
which borders Mdlwa is 50, and in some parts only 25 kos. 
On its east is Berdr; to the north, Mdlwa; to the south, 
Gdlnah (Jalna)* : to the west, the southern chain of the 
mountains of Mdlwa. The rivers are numerous, the prin- 
cipal being the Tdpti which rises between Berdr and 
Gondwdna, the Tahi which has its source from the same 
quarter and which is also called the Puma, and the Girna 
near Chdpra. The climate is pleasant and the winter 
temperate. 

Jowdri is chiefly cultivated, of which, in sonie places, 
there are three crops in a year, and its stalk is so delicate 
and pleasant to the taste that it is regarded in the light of 
a fruit. The rice is of fine quality, fruits grow plentifully 
and betel leaves are in abundance. Good cloth stuffs are 
woven here : those called Siri Sdf and Bhiraun come from 
Dharangdon. ^ 

A sir is the residence of the governor. It is a fortress 
on a lofty hill. Three other forts encompass it which for 
strength and loftiness are scarcely to be equalled. A large 
and flourishing city is at its foot. Burhdnpur is a large city 
three kos distant from the Tapti. It lies in latitude 21° 
40', and is embellished with many gardens and the sandal- 
wood also grows here. It is inhabited by people of all 
countries and handicraftsmen ply a thriving trade. In the 
summer, clouds of dust fly which in the rains turns to 
mud. 

Additdbdd is a fine town. Near it is a lake, a noted 
place of worship, and the crime of Raja Jasrat (Dasarath)' 

* Galna is 20 m. S.W. of Bliujia in W. Khandesli, while Jalna is far to 
the south of B. Khaiidesh, beyond the Ajanta range. 

^ Dasarath* s crime was comiuitted in his youth when he unwittingly 
killed the hermit*s son in the forests by the banks of the river Sarayu in 
Oudh. The story is told in Ramayan, Bk. II, Sec. 63 (see Griffith’s transla- 
tion, Vol. II, p. 243). He was cursed by the bereaved father and fated to 
be similarly agonised for the loss of his son in after years, 



233 


KHANDESH— CITIES AETD REVENUE 

was expiated at this shrine. It is full all the year round 
and it irrigates a large area of cultivation. 

Chdngdeo is a village near which the Tapti and the 
Pimid unite, and the confluence is accounted a place of 
great sanctity. It is called Chafera Tirth. Adjacent to 
it is an image of Mahddeo. They relate that a blind man 
carried about him an image of Mahadeo which he wor- 
shipped daily. He lost the image at this spot. For a time 
he was sore distressed, but forming a similar image of sand, 
he placed it on a little eminence and adored it in a like spirit. 
By a miracle of divine will, it became stone and exists to 
this day. Near it a spring rises which is held to be the 
Ganges. An ascetic by the power of the Almighty was in 
the habit of going to the Ganges daily from this spot. One 
night the river appeared to him in a dream, and said, 
“Undertake these fatigues no longer ; I myself will rise up 
in thy cell.” Accordingly in the morning it began to well 
forth and is flowing at the present time. 

Jdmod is a rich parganah. In its neighbourhood is a 
fort on a high hill called Pipaldol. Dhdmarni is a pros- 
perous town. Near it is a tank in which a hot spring 
perpetually rises and which is an object of worship. 

Choprah is a large flourishing town, near which is a 
shrine called Rdmesar at the confluence of the Girna and 
the Tapti. Pilgrims from the most distant parts frequent 
it. Adjacent to it is the fort of Malkdmad [ = Malkheda]. 

Thdlner was for a time the capital of the Fdruqi 
princes. The fort though situated on the plain is never- 
theless of great strength. ■ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

This Subah contains 32 parganahs. Scarce any land is 
out of cultivation and many of the villages more resemble 
towns. The peasantry are docile and industrious. The 
provincial force is formed of Kolis, Bhils and Gonds. Some 
of these can tame lions, so that they will obey their com- 
mands, and strange tales are told of them. 

Its revenue is 12,647,062, Berdri tankahs as will 
appear in the statement. After the conquest of Asir, this 
revenue was increased by 50 per cent. The tanka is reckoned 
at 24 dams. The total is therefore, 455,294,232 Akbari 
dams. (Rs. 11,382, 355-12-9). 

30 


234 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Ddndes. 

Containing 32 mahals. Revenue in money 12,647,062 

Tankas. 


TanUahz 

Asir, north of Burhanpnr ... 1,060,221 
Atral, south ... ...' 264,249 

Brandwel, east, by south ... 543,328 

Amalhera ... ... ... 2,406,180 

Warangaon, east by south .... 215,504 

PSchorah, west ... ... 206,728 

Furmal, west ... ... 162,830 

Bodwad, south-west ... 183,540 

Names omitted in all MSS ••• | 

Bahil, south ... ... 290,311 

Bhadgaon, south ... ... 256,331 

Betawad, south ... ... 320,782 

Baer [Bhamer], west by south 595,968 
Thalner, west by south ... 594,239 

Jamod, east ... ... 175,844 

Jamner, midway between B. 
and W 470,042 


Tankahs 


Chandsir, south ... .... 198,900 

Jalod, south [Jalam?] ... 317,205 

Chopra, west ... ... 730,965 

Dangri, south ... ... 315,325 

Damri, west ... ... 325,300 

Raver, west ... ... 883,655 

Renpur, east [ ? Ratanpur] 820,971 
Savda, south ... ... 430,008 

Shendurni, between B. and 
W.v ... ... ... 104,754 

Aadilabad, east by south ... 527,223 

Baling, south .... ... 352,644 

Bohara, south ... ... 247,965 

Manjrud, east [Manjal] ... 104,965 

iNasirabad, south ... ... 824,925 

Name omitted in all MSS. ... 316,338 


In ancient times this country was a waste and but few 
people lived about tbe fortress of Asir. The locality was 
traditionally connected with Ashwatthamd* and established 
as a shrine. It is related that Malik Rdji from whom 
Bahadur^ is the ninth in descent, under stress of misfor- 
tune came from Bidar to these parts and established him- 
self in the village of Karondd,^ a dependency of Thalner, 
but being molested by the natives, he repaired to Delhi and 
took service under Sultan Firoz. The king admired his 
skill as a huntsman, and his reward being left to his own 
choice, he received a grant of that village and by judicious 
policy acquired possession of other estates and reclaimed 
much waste land. In the year 784 A.H. (A.D. 1382), he 
made Thalner his seat of government, assumed the title 
of Aadil Shah and reigned for 17 years. He was succeeded 
by his son Ghizni Khan under the title of Nasir Shah, after 
which this province became known as Khandes. He 
reigned 40 years, 6 months, and 26 days. On his death 
his son Miran Shah administered the State. By some he 
is called Aadil Shah. He occupied the throne 3 years, 8 


* Son of Drona, a hero of the Mcthdhhdrat. 

^ Bahadur Rhan Farnqi, 1596 A.D. last of the dynasty. 

^ According to X., his father was Khan Jahan one of the ministers in 
the court of Ala-ud-din Khilji and of Muhammad Xughlaq. He claimed 
descent from the Caliph Omar called by Muhammad ‘^al Faruq” or the discri- 
minator, on the day that he i)ublicly professed his conversion, because on 
that day '*Islam was made manifest and truth distinguished from falsehood.’* 
See as Suyuti’s Hist, of the Caliphs, Jarreft’s trAnslation, p. 118. Karonda- 
Karwand^ 12 m. n, of Thalner. 



235 


SUI.TANS OF KHANDESH 

months and 23 days. He was followed by his son Mubarik 
Shah Chaukandi Sultan during 17 years, 6 months and 
29 days. His son Aadil Shah Ayna whose name was 
Ahsan Khan, had a prosperous reign of 46 years, 8 months 
and 2 days. He removed to Burhanpur and made himself 
master of Asir. Sultan Ahmad of Gujerat, the founder 
of Ahmedabad, gave him his daughter in marriage. At 
his death, his brother Daud Shah reigned for 7 years, 1 
month and 17 days. Aadil Shah (II) son of Hasan took 
refuge in Gujerat. Sultan Mahmud Bigarah Raji gave 
him in marriage Ruqayya the daughter of Sultan Muzaffar, 
(his son) and accompanying him to KhdndeSj restored him to 
his kingdom and returned to his own. He reigned 13 years. 
He left two sons, Miran Muhammad Shah and Mubarik 
Shah. Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat being on terms of 
friendly alliance with the first-named’ made him his heir, 
and guadian to his nephew Mahmud and his own brother 
Mubarik. Miran Shah from a sense of their deserts, and 
with political sagacity did them no injury and contenting 
himself with the kingdom of Khandes, restored Mahmud 
to the sovereignty of Gujerat. He reigned 16 years, 2 
months and 3 days. When the measure of his days was 
full, the nobles raised his son Raji to the throne. Miran 
Mubarik wrested it from him and reigned in succession 
to his brother, administering the government for 31 years, 
6 months and 5 days. He was succeeded by his son Miran 
Muhammad who reigned 9 years, 9 months and 15 days. 
When he died, his younger brother Raja Ali Khan^ was 
elected and assumed the title of Aadil Shah. His adminis- 
tration was conducted with ability and he was killed in the 

^ His sister being mother of Miran Shah. 

^ He married a sister of Abul Fazl. 

Khundesh Muslim rulers — 


Malik Raja, Raja Ahmad ... 



A.H. 784/1382 A.D. 

Nasir Kliaii ... ... 



801/1399 

Adil Kh. 1. 



840/1437 

Mubarak Kh. I, Chaukanda 



844/1441 

‘Adil Kh. 11, Aina 



861/1457 

Daud Kh. 



907/1501 

Ghazni Kh. 



914/1508 

Hasan Kh. ... ...» 



914/1508 

‘Alarh Kh. (usurper) 



914/1508 

‘Adil Kh. HI. (‘Alam Kh.) 



914/1509 

Miran Muhammad Sh. I. ... 



926/1520 

Ahmad Sh. 

4 . ■ 


943/1537 

Mubarak Sh. II. ... 



943/1537 

Muhammad Sh. II. 



974/1566 

Hasan Sh. 



984/1576 

‘Adil Sh. IV. (Raja ‘Ali Kh.) 



985/1577 

Bahadur Sh. (Qadr Kh.) ... 



1006-1009/1597-1601 



236 


AIN-I-ARBARI 


wars of the Deccan fighting on_ the side of his Majesty’s 
victorious troops. He was buried at Burhanpur, after a 
successful reign of 21 years, 3 months and 20 days. At 
his death the succession devolved on Khizr Khan, his son, 
who took the name of Bahadur Shah. _ But the star of his 
destiny was obscure and in the 45th ’year of the Divine 
era, he was deprived of his kingdom as has been recorded 
in its proper place. 

SUBAH OF BERaR. 

Its original name was from Wdrdd, the 

river of that name and tat, $. bank. It is situated in the 
second climate. Its length from Baithalwadi to Biragarh 
is 200 kos, its breadth from Bidar to Handia 180 kos. On 
the east lies Biragarh adjoining Bastar ; to the north is 
Handia; to the south Telingdna;^ on the west Mahkardbdd. 
It is a tract— situated between two hill -ranges having a 
southerly direction. One of these is called Bandah upon 
which are the forts of Gdwilgarh, Narndla and Melgarh. 
The other is 5a/wa, where rise the forts of Mahur and 
Ramgarh. 

The climate and cultivation of this province are re- 
markably good. There are many rivers, the principal of 
which is called Ganga Gautami called also the Godavari. 
As the Ganges of Hindustan is chiefly connected with the 
worship of Mahadeo, so is this river with (the ‘Rishi) 
Gautama. Wonderful tales are related regarding it and 
it is held in great sanctity. It rises near Trimhak^ in the 
Sahia range and passing through the country of Ahmad- 
nagar, enters Berdr and flows into Telingdna. When 
Jupiter enters the sign Leo, pilgrims flock from all parts to 
worship.^ The Tali and Tapti are also venerated. Another 
river the Purnd rises near Dewalgdon, and again the Wardd 


^ As this province corresponds geographically with the ancient Tri-Kalmga, 
Gen. Cunningham thinks. Xelingana. to be probably, a slight contraction of 
TrijKalinga, See Am, Ge^a. Ind,, p. 519. 

In the Nasik District, about 50 miles from the Indian Ocean." At this 
spot is an artificial reservoir, reached by a flight of 90 steps, into 
which the water trickles drop by drop from the lips of an earthen image 
shrouded by a canopy of stone. 

® Once in every 12 ye^rs, a great bathing festival called Pushkaram, is 
held on the banks of Gpdaveri, .alternately, with the other eleven sacred 
rivers of India. The most trequented spots are the source at Trimbuk, 
Bhadrachalam on the left bank about 100 miles above Rajamahendri, the 
latter itself, and the village of Kotipali. I. G. Tali, variants Pali, Pdti, 



FAMOUS PLACES OE BERAR 237 

issues forth ten feos higher up than the source of the Tali. 
The Napta'^' also rises near Dewalgaon. 

In this country the term for a Chaudhri [village head- 
man] is Desmukh, for a Qdnungo, Des Pdndia; the Muqad- 
daw is called PatfZ and the Patwdri, Kulkarni. 

Elichpur is a large city and the capital. A flower 
violet in colour is found here and is very fragrant. It is 
called Bhui champah^ and grows close to the ground. 

At the distance of 7 kos is Gdwil, a fortress of almost 
matchless strength. In it is a spring at which they water 
weapons of steel. — ^ ^ ^ 

Pandr is a strong fort on an eminence which two 
streams surround on three sides. 

Kherla is a strong fort on a plain. In the middle of it 
is a small hill which is a place of worship. Four kos from 
this is a well, into which if the bone of any animals be 
thrown it petrifies, like a cowrie-shell only smaller. To the 
east of this resides a Zaminddr named Chdtwdi (=Jatiba) 
who is master of 2,000 cavalry, 60,000 foot and more than 
100 elephants. Another such Zaminddr is named Dddhi 
Rdo who possesses 200 cavalry, and 5,000 foot. To the 
north is Ndhar Rdo a chief whose force consists of 200 
horse and 5,000 foot. Formerly in this neighbourhood, 
was a ' Zaminddr named liatid, but now his possessions are 
under other subjection and the whole race are Gonds. 
Wild elephants are found in this country. The chiefs were 
always tributary to the kings of Malwa; the first, to the 
governor of Garha, and the others to the government of 
Handia. Narndlah is a strong fortress on a hill, containing 
many buildings. Bija Rdo is a Zaminddr in the neighbour- 
hood who has a force of 200 cavalry and 5,000 foot. An- 
other is Dungar Khdn with 50 horse and 3,000 foot : both 
of the Gond tribe. Near Bdldpur are two streams, about 
the borders of which are found various kinds of pretty 
stones, which- are cut and kept as curiosities. Six kos 
distant was the head-quarters of Prince Sultan Murad 
which grew into a fine city under the name Shahpur. 

Near Melgarh is a spring which petrifies wood and 
other substances that are thrown into it. 

* Napta — doubtfully written in Pensiaii, The great Penganga is evidently 
meant, but only one small feeder of it rises here; NPTA^PNNxV. 

^ The 5. til M. calls it Bhtiin Champa and adds ‘ht grows also in Bengal ; 
it shoots from the ground with leaves like the ginger-plant and till the rainy 
season it continues in growth and is green. In the winter it withers away 
and disappears altogether.** The word is properly Bhtini Champah, “The 
ground Champak*’, and is the ICoempferia Rotunda. 



238 


ain-^i-akbari 


Kallam (Kalamb), is an ancient city of considerable im- 
portance; it is noted for its buffaloes. In the vicinity is a 
Zaminddr named Bahjeo of the Gond tribe, more generally 
known as Chanda : a force of 1,000 horse and 40,000 foot is 
under his command. Birdgarh which has a diamond mine 
and where figured cloths and other stuffs are woven, is under 
his authority. It is but a short time since that, he wrested 
it from another chief. Wild elephants abound. 

About Bdsim is an indigenous race for the most part 
proud and refractory called Hatkars : their force consists 
of 1,000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry. Banjdra is another 
Zarninddri, with 100 horse and 1,000 foot. At the present 
time it is under the authority of a woman. Both tribes are 
Rajputs. 

Mdhur is a fort of considerable strength situated on 
a hill. Adjacent is a temple dedicated to Durgd, known in 
this country as Jagadathd [=Jagatdhatri]. Here the 
buffaloes are of a fine breed and yield half a man and more 
of milk. The Zaminddr is a Rajput named Indradeo and 
is entitled Rdnd. He commands 100 horse and 1,000 foot. 

Mdnikdrug is a remarkable fort on a hill surrounded by 
extensive forests. It is near Chandd, but up to the present 
is independent territory. 

Jitanpur is a village in the Sarkar of Pdthri, where 
there is a thriving trade in jewels and other articles of 
value. 

Telingdnah was subject to Quth ul Mulk'^ but for some 
time past has been under the authority of the ruler of Berar. 

In Indur and Nirmal there exist mines of steel and 
other metals. Shapely stone, utensils are also carven here. 
The breed of buffaloes is fine and, strangely enough, the 
domestic cocks are observed to have bones and blood of a 
black colour.* A Zaminddr called Chandneri/ is Desmukh, 
a man of the most distinguished character, who has a force 
of 300 horse. Rdmgir is a strong fort on a hill, enclosed 
by forests. Wild elephants are numerous. It has not as 
yet been annexed to the empire. 


* Warangal was the ancient capital of this kingdom founded by the 
Narapati Andhras which was also considered to include the coast territory 
from the mouth of the Ganges to that of the Kistna known as Kalinga. After 
the invasion of Ala u*d din in 1303, it continued with some interruptions 
under Hindu rule till its remains were incorporated in the dominions of Ouli 
Qutb Shah the founder of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, in 1512 with Golconda' as 
its capital. 

* See Constable’s ed. of Bernier, p. 251, note. 

* Var. Jaydberi. 



BERAR— HOLY PEACES 


239 


Lonar is a division oi Mefikar, and a place of gi'eat 
sanctity. The Brahmans call it Bislian Gaya. There are 
three Gay as, where the performance of good works can be 
applied as a means of deliverance to the souls of deceased 
ancestors; namely, Gaya in Behar which is dedicated to 
Brahma, Gaya nea.r Bijdpur dedicated to Rudra, and this 
one. Here is also a reservoir, having a spring in it of great 
depth, and measuring a feos in length and in breadth, and 
surrounded by lofty hills. The water is brackish, but 
when taken from the centre or at its sides, it is sweet. It 
contains the essential materials for the manufacture of glass 
and soap, and saltpetre is here produced and yield's a con- 
siderable revenue. 

On the summit of a hill is a spring at the mouth of 
which is carved the figure of a bull. The water never flows 
from this spring to the other, but when the 30th lunar day 
(conjunction) falls on a Monday, its stream flows into the 
large reservoir. In the neighbourhood is a Zamindar called 
Wdilah of the Rajput tribe, commanding 200 horse and 
2,000 foot. Another is called Sarkath, also a Rajput, and 
possesses 100 horse and 1,000 foot. 

Batialah is a fort of considerable strength on a hill, of 
which Pdtdl Nagari is a dependency. In the sides of the 
hill twenty-four temples have been cut, each containing re- 
markable idols. The zamindar is Medni Rdo, a Rajput, 
with 200 horse and 1,000 foot. Another is Kdmdeo, a 
Rajput having under him 100 horse and 1,000 foot. 

This Sub ah contains 16* sarkdrs and 142 (should be 
242) parganahs. From an early period the revenues were 
taken by a valuation of crops, and since the tankah of this 
country is equal to 8 of Delhi, the gross revenue was 3-| 
hrors of tankahs or 66 krors of ddms^ (Rs. 14,000,000). 
Some of the Deccani princes increased the revenue to 
37,625,350 tankahs. In the time of Sultan Murad a further 

* But only 13 Sarkars are named in the detailed statement- given in the 
following pages. 

^ This makes 16 dams to the tankah. In the revenue statement of 
Khandesh, the tankah is reckoned at 40 dams. That of Gujerat=twO”iifths of a 
dam or 100 to the rupee of AO dams, Bayley Hist, of Gujerdt, p. 6. If Prince 
Murad’s increase be added to that of the Deccani princes, the total gives 
40,162,804 tankahs. This sum multiplied by 16 results in 642,604,864 dams. 
As 40 Akbari dams are equivalent to a rupee, the above total represents 
16,065,121 rupees. Under Akbar, according to the I. G. the land tax of Berar 
was Rs. 17,376,117. Under Shah Jahan, Rs. 13,750,000, and under Aurangzeb, 
15,350,625, but the latter amount, taken by Mr. B. Thomas from Manned, is 
given by Tieffenthaler from the same authority as 10,587,500. See his disser- 
tation on the apparent inaccuracies of calculation in the registers of the 
empire and their cause. Vol. I, p. 65, 



240 


MN-I-AKBARI 


'I ifi 

I' 


T 




i 

|j'| 


addition of 2,637,454 Beraii tankahs was made. Tiie total 
amounted to 40,162,704 Berari towfealis. The original 
amount and the additional increase were thus tabulated, 
the whole reaching the amount of 642,603,272 Delhi daws. 

Eight parganahs bf the Sdrkar of Kallam (Kaiamb) 
were annexed to Chanda^ the revenue of which is not in- 
cluded, nor those of 22 parganahs of the Sarkdr of Kherla, 
held by Chatwa (Jatiba) and some few other Zaminddrs. 

Sarkdr of Gdwil. 

Containing 46 parganahs. Revenue 134,666,140 ddms. 
Suyurghdl 12,874,048 ddms. 




Revenue 

D 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D 


Revenue 

D 

Suyut- 

glial 

D 

Sub. dis, of Bllich- 
pur, has a fort of 
stone and brick 
on the plain 

14,000 000 

■ 

2,800,000 

Thugaon 

Chaklili, (Banjaras) 
and Gonds, 400 
Cav. 2,500 Inf.) .. 

5.600.000 

2.400.000 

... 

Asliti 


4,800,000 

Daryapur 

6,400 000 


A.ron 


3 200 000 


Dhamori 

2,718,540 

1,11^540 

Anji 


1,600 000 

••• 

Ridhpur 

6,400,000 


Anjangaon .. 


3,200,000 

»»• 

Sarasgaon .. 

5,296,000 

496,000 

Karyat Bahil 


604,000 

**• 

Qasbah Serala 

1,835 390 

1,015,390 

,, Bari 


114 368 

82,368 

Sarson 

4,800,000 

Bhadkali 


3,200 000 

Salor 

340,000 


Basrauli 


1,280 000 


Karyat Sherpur .. i 

48,000 


Beawada 


700,000 

60,000 

Karhatha Kuram .. 

2,400,000 


Palaskher . . 


960,000 

Kholapur .. .. i 

4,870,114! 

70,114 

Karyat Pala, 
Cav., 2,000 
Gonds) 

Baror 

(100 

Inf. 

800,000 

1,280,000 

... 

Karanja, Badlioiia, 

2 mahals .. 
Karanjgaon, Qasbah 
Kherah, 2 mahals 

4,800,000 

523,200 

Qasbah Baligaon 


817,350 

177,350 

Kumargaon 

640 000 


„ Postal! 
Radliaramani 


814,4161 

594,460! 

Karanja Bibi 

4,200,000 

1, 400, 000 


4,825,300.1,625,300 

Kurha 

4,800 000 

Tivsa 


800,000 


Mane 

4,800,000 


Maner .. . 

Manjarkher 


800,000 

6,400,000 

... 

Nandgaon Pith 
Nandgaon .. 

6,633,826 I 

233,826 

Malklier 


480,000 

... 

Parganah Nir 

3,220,000 : 

Mangier, (Mangrol) 

2,800,000 

*». 

Hatgaon 

3,200,000 

1,600 000 

Murpii LMojhri] 


4,800,000 


1,600,000 


I 


ri! 


Sarkdr of Pandr. 

Containing 6 Parganas. Revenue 13,440,000 Ddms. 


Revenue 

D. 

Sub. dist. of Panar, has a 
lofty stone fort, surround- 
ed on 3 sides by water ... 4,000,000 
Sewanbarha, Kant Barha 640,000 
Shelu, 10 horsemen, 400 foot 1,600,000 


Revenue 

D. 

Kheljhari, 100 horsemen, 400 
foot, Rajput ... .... 2,400,000 

Mandgaon Karar, 25 horse, 

400 foot, Rajput [=Nand- 

gaon Qazi of map] ... 4,800,000 


PARGANAS OF KHERtA & NARNALA 


241 


Sarkar of Kherla. 

Containing 35 Pa-rganahs. Revenue 17;600,000 Dams. 


Revenue 
■ , D. 

A tner, lias a stone fort on 
the plain . Rajput, 100 
horse, 2,000 foot ... ... 3,200,000 

Aslita ... ... ... 160,000 

Patan ^ ...^ ... ... 1,200,000 

Bhesdahi, Rajput, 100 horse, 

2,000 foot 1,600,000 

Barer, Chaiidji Mali (?) 20 
horse, 500 foot ... ... 2,800,000 

Basad, (Masod) , Brahman, 

Gon4 10 horse, 100 foot ... 480,000 

Pauni, Rljput, 40 horse, 500 
foot ... ... ... 400,000 


Maloi 
Mangah 
vSewah 
Jamkher 
Belwali 
Sirai 
Ghakhli 
Khawar [ ? Kenaur] 
Waldah 


Revenue 

T>. 

Suburb, dist. of Kherla, Raj- 
put, Bohari, Gond, 50 
horse, 2,000 foot ...3,200,000 

Satner, Atner, 2 inahals, 

Gond, 100 horse, 2,000 foot 1,600,000 
Sainkherah ... ... 2,000,000 

Qasbah Jaror ... ... 480,000 

Mundavi, Brahman, Gond, 

10 horse, 100 foot ... 480,000 

Multai 
Durgah 

Narangwari [ ?Maramjhiri] 

Malabil 


Bari 

Waigaon 
Deo thanah 
Bari 
Saloi 
Ramjok 
Janabak [ ? Halbatak] 
Jomar [ ? Chopar] 
Habiyapur 


Sarkar of Narnala. 

Containing 34 Parganas. Revenue 130,954,476 Dams. 
Suyurghal 11,038,422 Dams. 



Revenue 

D 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D 


Revenue 

D 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D 

AnkOt .. •• 

Idgaon, Dogar, 

Gond, 50 horse, 

6,470,066 

70,066 

Dharor 

Dhenda 

Rohankher 

1,200,000 

5,600,000 

2,000,000 

... 

2,000 foot 

A inner and Jalpi, 2 

8,000,000 


Rajor .. 

Sheola 

1,000,000 

640,000 

520,000 

niahals 

4,800,000 

V,. 

Sherpur 

48,000 


Angolah 

11,200 000 


Karankher .. 

2,400,000 

800,040 

Balapur 

Panjar • 

Barsi Tankli 

22 000,000 

3,300.000 

Kothal 

1,409,000 

209,000 

2,000.000: 


Kothil .. j 

640,000 

' 

2,864,000 


Mangaon .. .. j 

4,800,000 

... 

Pigalgaon 

2,400,000 


Malien .. .. j 

600 000 

280,000 

Patar Shaikh Babu 

3,700,000 

500000 

Malkapur .. .. i 

,11,200,000 


Qasbah Barigaon 
Patarra 

Banbahar 

1,600,300 

3,342500 

1,568,000 

640 000 
1,262 500 
668 000 

Melgarh, (from pro- 
ceeds of road tolls 
or safe-conduct 



Badner Bhuli 

2,764,450 

364,452 

passports) .. 1 

94,360 

... 

Badner Kanka 

4,813 700 

13.80<» 

Karyat Rajor 

400,000 

170,356 

Jalgaon 

Jfaipur 



10,000,000 

2,000,000 

NIdura, (Nandura) 

1,200 000 


400 000 
4,887,000 

87,000 

Qasbah Hatgaon 

1,500,000 

300,000 



242 


AIN-I-AKBAEI 


Sarkar of Kallam (Kalamb). 


Containing 31 Parganahs. Revenue 32,828,000 Da 

in money. 


Iiidori [Undri] 

Revenue 

D. 

... 1,200,000 

Qasba Kallam 


Reveiitie 

■■ 

500,000 

Amraoti ... 

... 1,200,000 

Kelapnr 


1,200,000 

rni [Anjm] 

... 1,600,000 

BMkher 


1,600,000 

960,000 

Punali [ ? Pusda] ... 

... 3,600,Cf00 

Naigaon 


Boti 

... 1,200,000 

Nachangaon 

t.j] 

640.000 

128.000 

Beiur 

... 2,800,000 

Yunt Lohara [ ? Noni 

Talegaon ... ... 

... 100,000 

Barkhonda or Tark Chanda 


Talegaon, Waigaon 

... 4,800,000 

(in the possession 

of a 


Bungar 

... 1,600,000 

Zamindar) ... 



Balegaon ... .... 

200,000 

Malbori ... ... 



Salod 

... 3,200,000 

Chandur ... 



Ktirlia ... ... 

... 960,000 
• 

I/ahnbati [ ? Bohagarh] 




Sarkar of Basim. 


Containing 8 Parganahs. Revenue 625, 250 Danis 

in money. Suyurghal 1,825,250. 



Revenue 

D 

Suyur- 

ghai 

D 


Revenue 

D 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D 

Aunda 

4,864,000 

1 64,000 

Char Tliana 

4,800 000 

1,600,000 

Suburb, dist. of Ba- 

Kalambuh Nari ., 

3 200 000 

sim, Rajput, 100 
horse, 1,000 foot .. 



Karari and Baiiini .. 

1,200,000 


8,161,250 

161,250 

Manglur 

3,200 000 


BSthi [Pathri] 

2,400,000 

Narsi 

4,800,000 



Sarkar of Mdhur. 


Containing 20 Parganahs. Revenue 42,885,444 Dams 
in money. Suyurghal 97,844 Dams. 


Ansing 


Revenue 

D. 

960,000 

Pusad 

Re\ enue 
B. 

.... 4,000,000 

Amar Kher 


6,400,000 

Tamsa 

.... 2,177,844 

Chikni 

... 

3,200,000 

Seoli 

64,000 

Chincholi ... 


2,400,000 

Giroli 

... 3,200,000 

Suburb, dist. 

of Mahur, with 

Khenot 

... 1,300,000 

Qasbah, of 
ghal 97,844 

Surah, Suyiir- 

3,680,000 1 

Korath [Korandh] ... 
Mefth [Mantha] ..., 

... 480,000 

... 2,400,000 

Dharwah 

... ... 

2,400,000 

Mahagaon 

... 1,600,000 

Dhanki [Dhamni] ... 

320,000 

N^ndapur 

... 2,000,000 

Shevala ,,, 


2,400,000. 

Hald Badhona ... 



TELINGANA parganag 


248 


Sarkar of Manikdmg. 

Containing 8 Parganahs. Revenue 14,400,000 Dams 


Papal 
Bhan 
Chandor 
Jair [ ? Jaora] 


in money. 

Revenue 

D. 

3.400.000 Rajor 
2,000,000 Karath 

2.400.000 Nair 

1.600.000 


Revenue 

D. 

.... 2,400,000 
2,000,000 
1,600,000 


Sarkar of Pathri. 

Containing 18 Parganahs. Revenue 80,805,954 Dams 
in money. Suyurghal 11,580,954 Dams. 



Revenue 

D 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D 


Revenue 

B 

Suyur- 

ghal 

I) 

A.rdhapur 

.. 1,600,000 


Jahri [Jlierree] 

1,600000 

400,000 

wSuburban district 

of 


Shevli 

3 600,000 

1,200,000 

Pathri 

.. 125,114,740 5,014,740 Kosri 

3,200 000 

Parbani 

.. 8,000 000 


Lohgaon 

4,800,000 

i,6o6’ooo 

Panchalgaon 

.. 2,000 000 

•»» 

Makat Madhkher .. 

2,400000 

Balhor [Valur] 

.. 2,400 000 

... 

Matargaon [ ? Mane- 

480,000 

160,000 

Basinat 

.. 11,200000 

••• 

gaon] 

6,871 203 

471,209 

Barad 

160,000 

«•« 

Nander 

400.000 

««• 

Takli 

640,000 


Wasa 

1,200,000 

240,000 

Jintor 

.. 3,600,OOOjl,2aO,OOOjHata 



Sarkar of Telingdna. 

Containing 19 Parganahs. Revenue 71,904,000 Dams in 
money. Suyurghal 6,600,000 Dams. 


Indur 

Ullah 

Bodhan, Suyurghal 4,400,000 
Basar, Suyurghal 400,000 ... 
Bhaisa ... ... ... 

Balkonda ... 

Bimgal [Potangal] 

Banora [Banauli] ... 

Bliukar 
Tambumi ... 


Revenue ! 

D. 

4,800,000 Qaryat Khudawand Khan 
800,000 Dhakwar [ ? Deglur] 
8,000,000 Rajor, Suyurghal 800,000 


8,000,000 Rajor, Suyurghal 800,000 . 

1.600.000 Kotgir, Suyurghal 1,000,000 

6.400.000 Kharki ... ... 

6.400.000 Kosambet ... 

2.400.000 lyuhgaon 

3.200.000 Mudhol 

1.600.000 Nirmal 
1,600,000 


Revenue 

D. 

. 640,000 

96 

. 1,600,000 
2,200,000 
,. 6,400,000 
.. 664,000 

.11,200,000 
. 6,400,000 
. 6,400,000 


Sarkar of Ramgarh \_=P.gLmgir'] 

Containing 5 Parganahs. Revenue 9,600,000 Dmns 

in money. 


Bal Arab 

Subub. dist. of RSnigir 
Chinur 


Revenue * Revenue 

D. D. 

... 800,000 Kliandwali [ ? Khaiidar] ...2,240,000 

....2,560,000 Mul Marg ... .... ... 800,000 

3,200,000 ; 



244 


AliJ-l-AKBARi 


Sarkar of Mehkar. 

Containing 4 Parganahs- Revenue 46,178,000 Dams 
in money. Suyurghdl 376,000 Dams. 


Revenue 

■D. 

Suburban district of Mehkar, 

7 divisions ... ... 2,560,000 

Taimirni [?Samarni] ...7,200,000 


Revenue 

Dewalgaon ... ... 5,600,000 

Sakkar Kherla,' Suyurghal 
376,000 6,776,000 


Sarkar of Baithalwadi. 

Containing 9 Parganahs . Revenue 19,120,000 Dams. 
Suyurghal 4,800,000 Dams. 


tJndangaoii 
Anawan [Anva] 
Baithal-wadi 
Chandor [ = Chaudol] 
Chikhli 


Revenue 

B. 

400,000 

40,000 

1,200,000 

1,280,000 

2,000,000 


Revenue 

B. 

Bahad [=Bhar] 4,800,000 

Bliawer [=Bhaora] ... 2,600,000 

Seoni ... ... ... 640,000 

Sanolad Barah [ ? Shilod 
Barud] 1,600,000 


This province was dependent on the ruler of the 
Deccan. During the reign of Sultan Mahmud, five Sardars 
rebelled and kept him under restraint, and the sovereignty 
was assumed by Fath-ullah who had held the office of 
Imad-ul-Mulk.' He ruled but four years. At his death, 


^ Imad-ul-Mulk one of the oldest of the Bahmani ministers had been 
appointed to the government of Berar by Muhammad Shah II of the Bahmani 
dynasty (A.B. 1463—1482) under the advice of his prime minister Mahmud 
Gawan, to whom this dynasty owed its splendour, and which perished at his 
death. Mahmud II (A.B. 1482 — 1518) for a period of 37 years was content 
with the nominal sovereignty leaving the real power in the hands of Qasim 
Barid and his son Amir, the founder of the Barid Shahi dynasty of Ahmadabad. 
The Bahmani kingdom was now broken up into five independent sovereignties, 
viz,, the Barid Shahi, the Adil Shahi of Bijapur, the Nizam Shahi of Ahmad- 
nagar, the Qutb Shahi of Golconda and the Imad Shahi of Berar. Imad-ul- 
Mulk, in the general anarchy seized the government which had been entrusted 
to him and declared his independence in A.B. 1484. The succession is thus 
given in the XJ. T. 

1484. Path uT lah Bahmani, governor of Berar, became independent. 

. Ala u^d din, Imad Shah, fixed his capital at Gawel. 

1528. Barya Imad Shah, married his daughter to Hasan Nizam Shah. 

. Burhan Imad Shah, deposed by his ministers. 

1568. Tufal, whose usurpation was opposed from Ahmadnagar and family 
of Imad Shah and Tufal was extinguished. In the appendix to 
Blphinstone’s Hist of India, (Bdit. Cowell 1866) .the dates are 
as follows ' 

A.B. 

Fatah Ullah ... ... 1484 

Ala u*d din ... ..4 1504 

Berya (about) ... 1529 

; Burhan (perhaps). ... ... 1560 

During the minority of Burhlin, ,hi» prime minister, Tufal usurped the govern- 
ment and the State merged in that of Ahmadnagar in A.B. 1572. 


MUStlM SOVEREIGNS OF BERAR 245 

his son Ala-ud-din, took the same title and reigned 40 years. 
His son Darya Khan succeeded, and enjoyed the govern- 
ment for 16 years. After him, his son, Burhan, a minor, 
was raised to the throne, but the nobles perfidiously usurped 
the administration, till Murtaza Nizam-ul-Mulk conquered 
and annexed the country to Ahmadnagar. 



SUBAH OF GUJARAT. 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length £i-oni 
Burhdnpur to Jagat Dwarka in Kathiawar] is 302 

kos; its breadth from Jalor to the port of Daman 'MQ kos, 
and from War to Kambhayat (Cambay) 70 kos: On the 
east lies Khdndes; to the north Jalor and Idar; to the south, 
the ports of Pawa-a and Kambhayat, and on the west, Jagat 
which is on the seashore. Mountains rise towards the 
south. It is watered by noble rivers. Besides the ocean, 
there are the Sdbarmatti {Savarnamati), the Batrak, the 
Mahendri, the Narbadah, the Tapti, the Saraswati, and 
two springs called Gawga and /am«a. The climate is tem- 
perate and the sandy character of the soil prevents it from 
turning into mud in the rainy season. The staple crops are 
Jowari, and Bdjra, which form the principal food of the 
people. The spring harvest is inconsiderable. Wheat and 
some food grains are imported from Mdlwa and Ajmer, and 
rice from the Deccan. Assessment is chiefly by valuation 
of crops, survey being seldom resorted to. The prickly 
pear is planted round fields and about gardens and makes 
a goodly fence, for this reason the country is difficult to 
traverse. From the numerous groves of mango and other 
trees it may be said to resemble a garden. From PattarP to 
Baroda which is a distance of a 100 kos, groves of mango 
yield ripe and sweet fruit. Some kinds are sweet even 
when unripe. Fine figs grow here and musk-nielons are 
delicious in flavour both in summer and winter, and are 
abundant during two months in both seasons. The grapes 
are only moderate in quantity : flowers and fruit in great 
plenty. From the thick growth of forest sport is not satis- 
factory. Leopards^ abound in the wilds. 

The roofs of houses are usually of tiles and the walls 
of burnt brick and lime. Some prudently prepare the foun- 
dations of stone, and of considerable breadth, while the walls 
have hollow spaces between, to which they have secret 
access. The usual vehicles are two-wheeled drawn by two 
oxen. Painters, seal-engravers and other handicraftsmen 

G. Anhilwara Pattan, lat. 23° 51^ 30"' N., long. 72° 10^ 30" B. on tlie 
Saraswati, one of the oldest, and most arenowned towns of Gujarat. 

®The term yuz is employed in lin 27 and 28 Vol. I, (Book II) for leopards 
generally including the hunting leopard, (F. Jubata), being used indifferentlv 
with the common name for the latter, chita. „ 



gujarat/manufactures and cities 


247 


are countless. inlay mother-o’ -pearl with great skill 

and make beautiful boxes and inkstands. Stufe worked 
with gold thread and of the kinds Chirah, Fotah,^ 
Jdmahtvar, Khdrd, and velvets and brocades are here skil- 
fully manufactured. Imitations of stuffs from Turkey, 
Europe, and Persia are also produced. They make like- 
wise excellent swords and daggers of the kinds JamdhaF 
and Khapwah, and bows and arrows. There is a brisk 
trade in jewelry and silver is imported from Turkey and 
Iraq. 

At first Pattan? was the capital of the province, next 
Champdner and at XPe. present day, Ahmaddbdd. The 
latter is a noble city in a high state of prosperity, situated 
on the banks of the Sdbarmatti. It lies in latitude 259.'* 
For the pleasantness of its climate and its display of the 
choicest productions of the whole globe it is almost 
unrivalled. It has two forts, outside of which are 360 
quarters of a special kind which they call P«ra/ in each of 
which all the requisites of a city are to be found. At the 
present time only 84 of these are flourishing. The city 
contains 1,000 stone mosques, each having two minarets 
and rare inscriptions. In the Rasuldbdd Pura is the tomb 
of Shdh Adlam Bokhdri. BatwalX is a village 3' kos from 

_ * See p. 52, (note II) Vol. II, Book III, and pp. 93—95 of Vol. I, B. I. 
Chirah is a parti-coloured cloth used for turbans. Jdmawar, is a kind of 
flowered woollen stuff, well known, Khdrd an undulated silk cloth. 

*See p. no, Vol. I, Book L 

* Of successive dynasties of Rajput kings from 746 to 1194 A.D, 
Champdner was taken by Mahmud (Bigarah) of Ahmadabad after a siege, it 
is said, of 12 j^ears and was made his capital and continued to be that of 
the Gujarat kings till about 1560 A.D. I. G. 

* Lat. 23^ V 45'VN., long. 72® 38' 30" B. The Emperor Aurangzeb had a 
different opinion of its climate and called it among other abusive epithets, 
Jahannumabad or the Abode of Hell. See Bayley, p. 91. 

® A quarter or ward of a town, having its own gateway. The I. G. has 
pol and describes it as a block of houses varying in size from small courts 
of 5 or 10, to large quarters of the city containing as many as 10,000 inhabi- 
tants. The larger blocks are generally crossed by one main street with a gate 
at each end and subdivided into smaller blocks each with its separate gate 
branching off from the chief thoroughfare, 

® The text has Patwah, the variant Batwah being relegated to the notes, 
but the best authorities concur in the latter reading. For Qutb-i-Aalam, see 
Ba\dey, p. 128, and Briggs* Cities of Gujarashtra, p, 292. Regarding the 
litlioxyle over the tomb, Briggs writes that one of the legends given him 
concerning it is that Qutb-i-Aalam on a journey to his masjid tripped against 
a stone and picking it up, said, *‘Can this be stone, wood or iron ?*’ and the 
combination ensued. A visitor who had preceded Briggs on a visit to this 
place wrote to him as follows : '*The size mentioned by Abul Fazl is correct. 
The stone is not now on the sepulchre but deposited in the chief Said’s house. 
Great reverence is paid to it and bn such occasions as visitors desire to see it, 
it is produced under a covering of brocade. It appears to be petrified wood, 
the barky part gives it the appearance of iron oxydised ; that portion where 
if has been chipped by the hand of Akbar when he visited Batwa (according 


248 


AIN-I-AKBAEI 


Ahmadabdd where are the tombs of Qutb-i-Adlam father 
of Shah Adlam, and of other eminent personages. In the 
vicinity are fine gardens. Over the tomb is suspended a 
covering of about the measure of a cubit, partly of wood, 
partly of stone and a part also of iron, regarding which they 
relate wonderful stories. At a distance of three kos is the 
village of Sarkhech (Sarkhej) where repose Shaikh Ahmad 
Khattu^^ Sultdn Ahmad after whom Ahmadabdd is named, 
and many other princes. Indigo of good quality is here 
grown and exported to Turkey and other countries. 

Twelve kos from Ahmadabad is Mahmuddbdd a city 
founded by Sultan Mahmud, in w^hich are beautiful 
buildings extending to an area of 4 kos square. The whole 
is, surrounded by a wall and at every half kos is a pleasure 
house and a preserve in which deer and other kinds of game 
are at large. ■ 

The chief of Idar is a Zaminddr named Nardin Das, 
and of such austere life that he first feeds his cattle with 
com and then picks up the grains from their dung and 
makes this his food, a sustenance held in much esteem by 
the Brahmans. He is regarded as the head of the Rdthor 
tribe and has a following of 600 horse and 10,000 foot. 

Tile ports of Ghoga and Kambhdyat {Cambay) are 
included in this (Gogo) Sarkdr. The latter is a large city 
where merchants of divers kinds reside and wherein are fine 
buildings and much merchandise. Vessels sail from and 
trade to Ghogah.^ The cargoes are put into small ships 
called Tawari which transport them to Kambhdyat. 

In Kari are fine oxen, a pair being worth 300 rupees, 
and according to 'their shapeliness, strength and speed 
fetching even a larger price. 

Jhdld'W'dr was formerly a separate principality contain- 
ing 1,200 villages. Its length is 70 kos and its breadth 40. 
It furnished 10,000 horse and the same number of infantry. 
Now it possesses but 2,000 horse and 3,000 foot. Its ruler 
was subject to the king of Gujarat. It formed four, divi- 
sions, the inhabitants mostly of the Jhdla tribe of Rajputs. 


to the Abbot of the ^ community) shews the fibre or vein of the wood ; and 
upon the opposite side, where it seems to have been ground crosswise, it 
bears the appearance of stone.**, 

'See Bayley^s Hist of GujarM, pp, 90 and 130. A description of these 
mausoleums will be found in Messrs. Hope and Fergusson*s ''Architecture 
of AhfnedabS.d/^ I/ondon Murray, 1860. Khattu is one of the towns in the 
garkSr of Nagor. Cf. Briggs* of Gujarashtm^ p. 275. 


GUJARAT— PARGANAS AND CITIES 249 

At the present day it is accounted a Pargana of Ahmadabad, 
aud its villages and districts are summarized in tlie follow- 
ing table. 

Great Jhaldwar contains Birdmgdon i-esidence of the 
chief, Halodj Wadhwdn, Koha, Daran Gadra, Bijdnd, Pdtri 
which has a salt-pit, Sahdld, Baroda, Jhinjhuwdrd, Sanjdn, 
Sanand), Dhulhar, Mandal. 

Parganahs of Machhuhhantd contain MorM, Rdmpur, 
Tankdrd, Khanjarid, M alia, Razor, in the vicinitj^ of which 
pearls are found, Dhansar, A'JMror(Amreli) . 

Parga/iialts of Jdmbuji contain Jdmbn, Limri, Sidni. 

Parganahs of CJiaubisi, chief seat of the Parindr tribe 
contain Morbi, with 36 villages and Chotild with 65 villages. 
Now Morbi with 7 districts is included in Sorath. 

Pattan has two forts, one of stone and one of brick. It 
lies in long. 117° 10', lat. 23° 30'. It produces fine oxen 
that will travel 50 hos in half a day. Good cotton cloths are 
here woven and are taken to distant parts as gifts of value. 

Sidhpur is a town oii the Sarsuti and a gi'eat place of 
pilgrimage. 

Barnagar [Vadnagar] is a large and ancient city and 
containing 3,000 pagodas, near each of which is a tank; it 
is chiefly inhabited by Brahmans. 

Chdmpdner is a finely situated fort on a crag of great 
height* ; the approach to it for two kos and a half is extre- 
mely difficult. Gates have been posted at intervals. At 
one place a cutting about 60 yards long has been made 
across which planks are laid which can be removed when 
necessity arises. Fine fruits abound. 

Surat is a celebrated port. The river Tapti runs bj’ 
it and at a distance of 7 kos thence, falls into the sea. 

Rdnder on the opposite side of the Tapti is a port depen- 
dent on Surat ; it was formerly a large city. The ports of 
Khandeivi and Balsdr also are a part of the Surat division. 
Numerous fruits abound especially the pine apple, and oils 
of all kinds and rare perfumes are obtainable. The followers 
of Zoroaster coming from Persia, settled here. • They follow 
the teaching of the Zend and the Pazend, and erect ftmeral 
structures. Thus through the wide tolerance of His Majesty, 
every sect enjoys freedom. Through the negligence of the 
ministers of state and the commanders of the frontier pro- 

^ Tieffenthaler states that the fortress on the sttmmit of the hill is called 
Pail agar h and the town at its foot ChSmpaner, 

32 


250 


ain-i-akbari 


vinces, many of these Sarkars are in the possession of 
European nations, such as Daman ^ Somjdn,^ Tdrdpur, 
Mdhim and Base (Bassein) that are both cities and ports. 

Bharoj (Broach) has a fine fort. The Narbada flows 
past it in its course to the ocean. It is accounted a maritime 
town of first rate importance, and the ports of Kawi, 
Ghandhdr, Bhdbhut and Bhankord [Bhakora] are its depen- 
dencies. 

Near the town of Hdnsot is a game preserve 8 kos in 
length by 4 in breadth, full of deer and other animals. The 
cover is rich and fresh with verdure, being situated on the 
banks of the Narbada and is perfectly level. 

The Sarkdr of Sorath^ was an independent territory, 
having a force of 50,000 cavalry and 100,000 infantry, the 
ruling tribe being Ghelot. Its length from the port of 
Ghogo (Gogo) to that of Ardmdde^ is 125 kos; its breadth 
from Sardhar ( ? Sadra, n. of Ahmadabad) to the seaport of 
Diu, 72 kos. On the east it is bounded by Ahmaddhdd ; on 
the north by the State of Kachh (Cutch) ; on the south and 
west by the (Indian) Ocean. Its climate is healthy, its 
fruits, and flowers numerous and grapes and melons grow 
here. This territory is divided into 9 districts each inha- 
bited by a different tribe, as follows : — 

Parganahs of new Sorath. 

Junahgarh with suburban district, Sultdnpur, Barwa 
fBantva], Hdnsdwar, Chaura Rdmpur, Kandolnd, Hast 
Jati, Und, Bagsard, Mahandrd [Mandurda], Bhdntror 
[Ghantwar], and others. 

Parganahs of old Sorath, called Ndghar. 

Pattan Somndth, Aunah, Delwdrah, Manglor, Korindr, 
Mul Mahddeo, Chorwdr, Diu, &c, 

Parganahs of Gohelwdrah. 

Ldthi, Luliydnah, Bhimpur, Jasdhom, Mdndwi, Birdi, 
Sehor. ' , ' ■ ■■■; , 


/ A small village in Thana (janaa): Dist., where the Parsis first landed in 
India, known to the Portuguese ahS long after their time as St. John. I. G. 

“The old name for Kathiawar, or: Saurashtra and Prakritised in that of 
Sorath which i.s to this day the name of a large district 100 miles in length 
in the south-west. 

*Aramda^ near port Okha, -n, of Jagat Dwarka, 


KA'THIAWAR, PARGANAS ■ 261 

Farganahs of Wald. 

Mahwali, Taldjd, Pdlitanah, &c. 

Farganahs of Bddhelah. 

Jagat (called Dwarka), ArdmMe, Dhdrhi (?Sanku- 
dhar). 

Farganahs of Barra. (Berda ?) 

Barra, Gumli, &c. 

Farganahs of the BdgheW tribe. 

Sordhdr, Gondal, Rdyet, Dhdnak, &c. 

Farganahs of the Wdji in the uncultivated tracts. 

Jhdnjhmer. 

Farganahs of the Timb el tribe. 

Not assigned in any of the MSS. 

The first district known as New Sorath had remained 
unexplored on account of the impenetrable nature of the 
forests and the intricate windings of the mountains. A 
recluse by chance found his way into it and through him 
a knowledge of it was gained. Here is the celebrated stone 
fortress of Junahgarh which Sultan Mahmud,^ I, captured 
by force of arms and at the foot of it built another fort of 
stone. At a distance of 8 kos is the fort of Osam on the i 
summit of a hill ; it has now fallen into decay, but is worthy 
of restoration. There is also another stronghold on the 
summit of the hill of Girndr in which are many springs, a 
place of w^'orship of the Jains. Adjacent is the port of Kondi 
Kolidydd which derives its name from two villages at a 
distance of one kos from it. In the rear of Junahgarh is 
an island called Sidlkokah 4 kos in length by 4 in breadth, 


^ The I. G. (I. 550) calls this clan Wagheja tribe of Rajputs, a remnant 
of the Solanki race who fled from Anhiiwarah when that kingdom was 
destroyed by Ala u’d din in A.0. 1297. 

® Bigarah of Gujarat. One derivation of this name is its supposed mean- 
ing of two forts (garh) because Mahmud^s army conquered on one day 
Champaner and Junahgarh, VoL I* p. 500, n. According to T. Junahgarh 
signifies the ancient fort, because it was long concealed in the dense forest 
and discovered by a wood cutter. The legend runs that 1500 years elapsed 
from its discovery to the time of MIndalik from whom Mahmud wrested the 
fortress. See Bayley^s Hist, of Gujarlt, pp. 161 — 182, for the derivation of the 
name. 

3 Var/ and G. Kondi or Gondilakiyat. [Can it be Kodinar}] 


262 : . ' ' : ' 

adjacent to which is a forest, 3 kos square.-where wild fruits 
grow and where there is a settlement of KoZis. This tract is 
called Gif. Near the village of Tunkagosha,^ the river 
Bhadar falls into the ocean. Its fish are so delicate that thej;- 
melt when exposed to the sun. Good camels are here 
obtainable and a breed of horses somewhat larger than the 
Gunth. 

In the second district is Faitan, a city on the seashore 
possessing a stone fort. This they call Faitan Somndth. It 
is both a capacious harbour and a town having nine^ stone 
towers on the plain, within an area of three kos on the sea- 
shore. Good swords are made here, there being a well in 
the vicinity the water of which gives them a keen edge. 

The ports of Manglor,^ Diu, Fiirbandar, Korindr, 
A hmadpur and Muzajfardbdd are about this coast. A spring 
of the Sarsuti (Saraswatf) rises near Somndth. The 
Brahmanical shrines are numerous, but among these Som- 
ndth, Fardnchi, and Korindr are accounted among the most 
sacred. Between the rivers Haran and Sarsuti about 4,000 
years ago, 660,000,000 of the Yad^l race while engaged in 
sport and merriment, fell to fighting and all of them 
perished in that field of death, and wonderful are the 
legends that thej' relate. Two and a half kos from Fattan 
Somndth is Bhdl ka TirtiA (or the shrine of the Arrow). In 
this place an arrow struck Sri Kishn and buried itself under 

^ A note says J'unkragosa, m the maps. There are two rivers of the name 
of Bhadar; one rises in the Mandav hills and flowing S. W. ’falls into the 
vsea at Nawi-Bandar after a course of 115 miles. Another from the same hills, 
flowing B. falls into the Gulf of Cambay. The Kolis are a predatory tribe 
and their distribution is not conflued to a single province. They were spread 
over the country between- Cambay and Ahmackibad and the well-w'ooded 
country afforded them a refuge from attack. 

® Oladw'in has turned these words into a name which mistranslation I notice 
as it has been adopted by Count von Noer in his monograph on Akbar, p. 98. 
(Mrs. Beveridge^s Trans,). The Diwan of Junagarh, Haridas Viharidas, has 
courteously given me the benefit of his local knowledge. The new temple 
and the ruins of the old are within the fort which was inhabited chiefly by 
the attendants of the shrine, the population living in the environs forming 
the town. Pattan is said Id have had three walls and hence named Trlgadhi. 
The length of the present walls covers nearly two miles. The fort had or 
has 10 towers or bastions of which 8 are existing and two are in ruins. 

® The I. G. gives Maiigrol. The text unites Diu and Purbandar (else- 
where Porbandar) in one name, , as Somnath is called Deo I^attan, but it is 
probable that the port of Diu was intended by Abul FazL 

^ The river rises in Mount. A.bii and enters the Rnnn of Cnlch, though a 
part of its course near Sidlipur and Fatan towms, is said to be subterranean. 

^ Apparently the Bhdt Kwid of tlfd I. G, Yudhisthira after the slaughter 
of the 56 tribes of the Yadu race ouTlie field of Kurukshetra and the death 
of Duryodhana, in grief at the Idas df many kinsmen, placed Parikshita 
on the throne of IndraprastlHa, ahd' retired w'ith Krishna and Bakleo to 
Dwarka. They were attacked by the Bhils and Krishna was slain. ' Bahleo 
founded the city of Patalibotra or 'Patna. 


253 


KATHIAWAR, FAMOUS PEACES 

a pipal tree on tbe banks of the 5aw<i/. This they call 
Pipal sir, and both these spots are held in great veneration. 
An extraordinarjf event occurs at the town of Mnl Mahadeo 
where there is a temple dedicated to Siva. Every ^-ear on a 
certain day before the i-ainj^ season, a bird called Mukld 
appears. It is somewhat smaller than a pigeon, with a coarser 
beak and pied in colour. It alights on the temple, disports 
itself for a while, and then rolls over and dies. On this day, 
the people of the city assemble and burn various kinds of 
perfume and from the proportions of black and white in 
the plumage of the bird, thej?^ calculate the extent of the 
coming rainfall, the black portending rain, the white, 
drought. In this tract, there are three crops of jowar 
annually. At Dbiah there are two reservoirs, one of which 
is called Jamna, the other Ganga. The water bubbles up 
and forms a stream and the fish of these two springs have 
three eyes, the third e 3 ^e being in the forehead. 

Between Manglor and Chdrdwdr is a tract into which 
the sea enters. On a certain da\^ of the jmar the water is 
sweet. It is related that in ancient times a certain person 
was in need of Ganges water. A recluse made a sign to 
the Expanse and sweet water came forth. Ever since, upon 
that day this wonder is repeated to the astonishment of all. 

In both of these districts the Ghelot tribe of Rajputs 
prevail and the ruling power in this country is in their 
'hands. At the present time the force (of the first district) 
consists of 1,000 horse and 2,000 foot. There is also a 
settlement of Ahirs called Bdhriyas} The force (of the 
second district) is 2,000 horse and 3,000 foot. 

In the third district at the foot of the Satnmjah 
(Satrunjaya) hill,^ is a large fort and on its summit, the 
fort of Pdlithdnah. Though in ruins, it deserves restora- 
tion. It is in great veneration with the Jams. The port 
of Glioga (Gogo) is a dependency of this district. The 
island of Birani (Perim) was formerh’- the residence of the 
governor; it is 9 kos square and is a low r'^cky island in 


^ Or Makh. In a work called Haqiqat-i-Hlndiistan, the word is Sakh or 
Siikh. See Bayley, p. 197, who records, this event and place.s it in the village 
of Madhopnr. 

* The name of one of the old territorial prants or districts into which 
Kathiawar was divided, w'as called Bahriawar, a hilly tract on the S.B, 

® The hill is sacred to Adinath the deified priest oi* the Jains. The descrip- 
tion of Prditaiia in the I. G. taken from Mr. Burgess’ “Notes of a visit to 
vSatriinjaya Hill,” gives an interesting sketch of this temple hill. .Perim (the 
Baiones of the Peripliis) is in the Gulf of Cambay, 8 miles S. of Gogo. 



254 


Ain-i-AkbArI 


the midst of the sea. The Zmninddf is of the Go heP tribe. 
This district possesses 2,000 horse and 4,000 foot. 

In the fourth district, are the ports of Mohwah and 
TaUljd, inhabited by the Wali clan. The local force con- 
sists of 300 men and 500 foot. 

In the fifth district is Jagat, called also Dwdrkd. Sri 
Krishna came hither from Mathura (Muttra) and here died. 
It is a great Brahmanical place of worship. The island of 
Sankudhdr [Bait] 4 kos square is reckoned within this 
district. Near Ardmdde is an island 70 kos in length and 
breadth. An area of half a kos of this land is for the most 
part stony and if an excavation is made salt-water pours in 
on all sides. Malik Aydz'^ Khds Khel, of Sultan Mahmud I 
of Gujerat, had, one-fourth of it dug up. The port of 
Ardmdde is superior to most of its class. The inhabitants 
are of the Bddhel tribe. It musters 1,000 horse and 2,000 
foot. 

In the sixth district Barra, ^ the country is so hilly, the 
forests so impenetrable and the defiles so extensive that it 
is impassable for troops. The Jaitwah clan inhabit it. It 
furnishes 1,000 horse and 2,000 foot. , 

In the seventh district are the Baghelahs. It furnishes 
200 horse and the same number of foot. The Kdthis* are 
numerous in this tract; they are of the Ahir caste and are 
skilful in the management of horses. The military force 
is 6,000 cavalry and 6,000 infantry. They are said by 
some to be of Arabian origin. Cunning but hospitable, 
they will eat of the food of people of every casfe, and are 
a handsome race. When any Jagirdar comes amongst 
them they make it a condition that there shall be no account 

^ The Gohels came from the north in the 1 3th centur}^ and retreating 
before the tide of Muhammadan conquest conquered for themselves new seats 
in the decadence of Anhilwara* They are now in B. Kathiawar. ' 

See Bayley’s Hist, of Gujarat, p. 233 et seq. Khas Khel represents the 
position of a royal equerry combined with high command. Perish ta calls him 
the ghulam-i-khas or confidential attendant of Mahmud. He was premier 
noble (Amir ud Umara) and commander in chief of the army, fought and 
defeated the Portuguese fleet at Chaul and sank the admiraPs flagship valued 
at a kror of rupees. (A.H. 913 — ^A.D. 1507), 

® I have no doubt that this is Barda (or Jaitwar) of the I. G. ; a division 
of Klathiawar lying between 21^ IP and 21*^ BT N. lat., and 69^^ 30' and 70° 7' 
E. long., bounded N. and N.-E. by Hallar; B. by Sorath, and S.-W, by the 
Arabian Sea. The Barda hills are from 12 to 18 miles distant from the coast 
and formed a favourite refuge for outlaws. 

^ The name of Kathiawar, was formerly given to a tract to the B. of the 
centre of the peninsula; from having been overrun by the Kathis who entered 
from Cutch in the 13th and 14tli centuries, it was extended to the whole 
country by the Mahrattas wlio had conle into contact with them in their 
forays. . 


KATHIAWAR, TRIBES 


255 


taken of the incontinence of any of their people. In the 
vicinity of the Kdthis on the banks of the river Dondi, 
there is a sept of Ahirs called Porechas. Their force is 
3,000 horse and the same number of foot. They are per- 
petually at feud with the Jdmsd 

In the eighth district Jhanjhmer is a maritime port. 
The Wdji tribe prevail. There are 200 horse and 2,000 
foot. . 

In the ninth district is the Charan tribe. Mahadeva 
formed a man from the sweat of his brow and gave him the 
charge of his own bull. He spoke in rlwthmic sentences 
and sang the divine praises and revealed the past and the 
future. His descendants are known by his name. They 
chiefly recite panegyrics and genealogies and in battle chant 
deeds of valour and animate the warriors and some of them 
reveal future events. There are few of the nobles of 
Hindustan who have not some of these in their retinue. 
This district furnishes 500 horse and 4,000 foot. The tribe 
called Bhdt resemble this caste in their panegyrics, their 
powers, their battle-chants, and genealogical recitations, 
and although in some of the:ge respects they surpass them 
3 ’-et the Chdrans are better swordsmen. Some pretend that 
the Chdrans were called into life by the mere volition of the 
divinity, and the Bhdts from Mahddeva. 

Between Jhdlwdra in the Sarkdr of Ahmaddbdd, and 
Pattan and Sorath is a low-lying tract, 90 kos in length by 
7 to 30 in breadth, called the Ran^ (the Runn). Before the 
rainy season, the sea rises and covers this area and falls as 
the rains cease. A considerable part dries up and is covered 
with salt, the duties of which are collected in the pargana of 
Jhdlwdra. Ahmaddbdd lies to the east of this tract. On the 
west is a large separate territory called Kachchh (Cutch) 
250 kos in length by 100 kos in breadth. Shfd lies to the 

^ The Jareja 1 .yputs, to which branch the Rao of Cntcli belont^s, are 
descended from the Summa (Sama!) tribe and came originally from the 
north. Thev are said to have emigrated from vSind about the 15th century 
under the leadership of Ja hakha, son of Jara from whom the tribe derive 
their name. Till 1540 the Jams ruled over Cutch in three branches. About 
that year Khengar succeeded in making himself head of the tribe and master 
of the province. His uncle Jam Rawal fled to Kathiawar and founded the 
present reigning house of Nawanagar, the rulers of which are still called 
Jams. See Jam under the account of Sind. 

^ The word in Hindi signifies a waste or wilderness. There are two, the 
northern or larger Runn, 150 by 80 miles has an area of about 7,000 square 
miles. The eastern or smaller Runn, . 70 miles from H. to W., covers an 
area of 2,000 square miles. Except a stray bird, a herd of wild asses, or an 
occasional caravan, no sign of life breaks the desert lonelinevss. I. G, 


256 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

west of Cutch. The physical aspect of the country is barren 
and sandy. There is an excellent breed of horses believed 
to be of Arabian race, and there are good camels and goats. 
The chief of this country is of the Yadtt} race and his tribe 
is now known as Jdrejas. The military force of this clan 
is 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 infantry. The men are hand- 
some, tall in stature and wear long beards. The residence 
of the chief is Bhuj, which has two strong forts Jharah and 
Kantkot. On the Gujarat side towards the south is a 
Zaminddr of note whom they call /am, a relative of the 
ruler of the above-mentioned state. Sixty years ago. Jam 
Rawal, after a war of two months, was driven out of the 
country, and settled in Sorath between the territories of the 
Jaitwah, Bddel, Chdran, and Tumhel tribes. He posssessed 
himself of other parts and founded the city of Na-wanagar 
and his country;' received the name of Little Cutch. Sattarsdl 
the present Rajah, is his grandson. There are many towms 
and the agricultural area is extensive. The residence of 
the chief is at Naivanagar and his force consists of 7,000 
cavaliy and 8,000 infantry. The camels and goats are of 
good breeds. For a considerable period the prime ministers 
of these two states have been of the Muhammadan religion. 

In the vicinity of Mom and Mangrej is a state called 
PdP through which runs the river Mahendri towards the 
Gujarat side. It has a separate ruler who resides at Dun- 
garpur. On the Malwa side is Banswara and that too has 
a separate chief. Bach of them has a force of 5,000 horse 


^ The lunar race established by the Scythian Budh, expanded into fifty- 
six branches and filled nearly the whole of northern India. Yadu 4th in 
descent from Budh^ gave his name to the royal line which closed in Krishna 
and Bahama. While the solar race was confined to a narrow, strip of land 
between the mountains and the Ganges, the Yadus had spread over the whole 
country. Yadu, says BlHot, (Races of the N,-W. P., Vol. I, 128) is the patro- 
nymic of all the descendants of Buddha, the ancestor of the Lunar race, of 
which the Bhatti and the Jareja are now the most conspicuous, but the title 
of Jadon is now exclusively applied to that tribe which appears never to have 
strayed far from the limits of. the ancient Suraseni, and we consequently find 
them in large numbers in that neighbourhood,. The tract south of the Cliainl.>al 
called after them Yaduvati is in the possession of the Gw^alior Mahrattas and 
the state of Kirauli on the Chambal is now their chief independent possession. 

* Pdk in the text, with the emendation Pal by the Kditor. There are. two 
of the name, one within Mahi Kanta on its N. E. frontier. The other one of 
the petty states^ in Hallar, Kathiawar. The former must here be meant, as 
Dungarpur lies in lat. 23° 52'. N., long. 73° 49' B. It is now a separate native 
state, pie early history of the ruling family is not knoivn with certainty; 
they paid tribute to the Mughal: -Empire and did militarv service, and on the 
fall of the Empire became ^tributar;^ to the Mahrattas. I. G. The name Pal 
says Bayley, seems to hafe been given' to a congeries of petty hill states of 
which the rulers were Hindus, They appear to have included Dungarpur, 
Bijanagar and others, — 


257 


SUBAH GUJARAT, SUB-DIVISIONS 

and 10,000 foot, and both are of the Sisodia claxi. The 
rulers were of the Rana’s family, but for some time past 
it has been otherwise. 

Adjoining the Sarkar of Pattan is a state, the chief 
town of which is Sirohi and which possesses a force of 2,000 
horse and 6,000 foot. On the summit of a hill is the strong 
fortress_ of Ahugarh (Mount Ahu) about which are 12 
flourishing villages. Pastmrage is plentiful. 

There is also a territory having Nandurbdr on the east, 
Mandu on the north, Nandod on the south and Chdmpdner 
on the west. Its length is 60 kos, and its breadth 40. The 
chief is a Chauhan and his residence is the town of A li 
Mohan. Wild elephants are numerous. The force consists 
of 600 horse and 15,000 foot. 

Between Surat and Nandurbdr is a mountainous but 
flourishing tract called Bagldna, the chief of which is a 
Rathor, commanding 3,000 cavalry and 10,000 infantry. 
Fine peaches, apples, grapes, pineapples, pomegranates, 
and oranges grow here. It possesses seven remarkable forts, 
among which axe Mulher^ and Salher. 

Between the Sarkdrs of Nandod and Nandurbar is a 
hilly district 60 kos in length by 40 in breadth, which the 
Gohel tribe of Rajputs inhabit. At the present day a 
Brahman named Tewdri has the management of affairs, 
the titular Rajah being of no account. He resides at 
Rdjpipla or Khulu, and has a force of 3,000 horse and 
7,000 foot. The water of this tract is very unwholesome. 
Rice and honey of the finest quality are here produced. 

This Subah embraces 9 Sarkdrs and 198 Parganahs, 
of which 13 are ports. The revenue is 43 krors, 68 lakhs, 
22,301 dams (Rs. 10,920,557-8-0) and one lakh, 62,028% 
Mahmudis^ as port dues. 

The measured land (except Sorath which is paid in 
money by estimate) is 1 kror, 60 lakhs, 36,377 bighas, 
3 biswas, out of which 4 lakhs, 20,274 dams are Suyurghdl. 
The local force is 12,440 cavalry, and 61,100 infantry. 


^ Both these lie in the Navasari (Nosari) district of the Baroda territory, 
the latter in the S. B- corner. Songarh nnd Rupgarh are two other forts. The 
former 43 miles B. of Surat, and Rupgarh 10 miles S. of Songarh. The hills 
must refer to the Rajpipla range, there being no other in the whole territory. 

*Mr. B. Thomas {Numismatic Chronicle, Vol. Ill, 3rd series) quotes Sir 
T. Herbert as saying about 1676 A.D. **A mahmudi is twelve pence, a rupee 
two shillings and three pence.*^ See Bayley’s Histary of Gujarat, p. 16. 
The relative value of coin varied according to time and locality.. The Changezi 
Mahmudi is variously valued at half and two-thirds of a rupee and at half a 
crown, French money. Ihtd, pp. 12 and 16» 

33 


258 


Am-I-AKBAKI 

Sarkar of Ahmaddhdd. 

Containing 28 Mahals. 8,024,153 Bighas. Revenue 
208,306,994 Dams. Suyurghdl 6,511,441 Dams. Castes 
various. Cavalry 4,120. Infantry 20,600. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

City of Ahmadabad ... 


15,000,073 

144,680 

100 

300 


Suburb, dist. of Ahmadabad 
Rurdhu Matar [mis. Arhar 

370,087 

23,999,371 

4201,783 

. 

... 

Chauhan. 

M.) on the river Baroli 
Ahmadnagar has a stone 

145,384 

9,662,753 

160,938 

100 

200 

fort faced with chunam 
Idar, [revenue by estimate 

54,370 

1,770,912 

50,774 

500 

5,000 

Solanki. 

of crops] 

... 

1,616,000 

... ■ 

1000 

5,000 

Garasiah^ 

Bahiel 

375,675 

6,988,920 


li)0 

200 

Rajput. 

Barah Sewah [Bala Sinor] 
Birpur [? Pithapur] has a 
stone fort on the Mahen- 

84,960 

2,814,124 

*5.608 

50 

. 100 

Bhodia 

Rajput, 

Lodiah. 

dri 

173,385 

1,778,300 

... 

300 

600 

Rajput, 
Kharba 
and Bonah. 

Paplod [Palod] ... 

39,930 

159,273 

1,493,249 


50 

100 

Rajput. 

Parantij 

Bandar Solah [?Bhadarwa] 

2,076,574 


100 

200 

01. 

(revenue in money) 

... 

600,000 


... 

' ... 


Petlad 

Thamanah [ ? Thawad] 


771,960 

128, *990 

... 

... 


(rev. in money) 
Chhala-Babra, has a brick 
fort, somewhat dilapi- 
dated, saltpetre obtain- 


600,000 




Koli. 

ed here 

43,283 

34,908,220 

232,860 

200 

10,000 

Dholqa, the Sabarmati 

579,877 

4,825 392 

5,627 

50 

200 

Jhalawar. 

flows adjacent ... 
Dhandhok, has a masonry 

834,606 

1,650,000. 

188,160 

50 i 

100 

Ponwar. 

fort of chtinam 

403,523 

113077044* 

1 

500 

4,000 

Bo. 

Simal ’ ... 

80,646 

2,528,632 

- 

100 ; 

300 

Garasiah, 

Mehtar. 

Kari 

936,837 

30,125,778* 

394,963 1 

300 

1,000 

01. etc. 

Kambhayat 

Kapadbhanj, a masonry 

336,813 ; 

22,147,986 

1 160,405 

100 

200 

Rajput, 

Barah. 

fort of 

'' ... 

80,125,778 

■ 27.309 

100 ! 

500 

Roll. 

Mandwa 


22.147,978 

1801,320 

50 

500 

Do. 

Modasa, has a brick fort 
Mahmudabad, has a tem- 

507,370 

423,510 1 

16,062 

100 , 

200 

Do. 

ple to Mahadeva 
Masaudabad, has a brick 

45,590 

1,748.080 

; 160,088 



Chauhan. 

fort 

Mangrej, has. a masonry 

213,805 

1,400,000 

* 

— 


01 (Koli) 

fort of chunam 

76,629 

121,762 

... 

lOO 

300 

Chauhan. 

Nariad ... ' ' ...v . 

202,062 

' 

8,103,098 

49,478 

entered 

under 

Sirual 

Garasiah. 

Hasol 

200,020 

752,202 


20 

100 

Koli. 


„ ^ The Rajputs are here divided into two clavsses. (1) Garasiahs or land- 

owners (see Bayley’s History of Gujarat, p. 98, for the derivation of this term), 
and (2) Cultivators. The former live a life of idleness on their lands and ^r^ 
greatly given to opium. I. Q* 


MAHALS OF AND NANDOD 259 

Sarhdr of Pattan, north. 

Containing 16 Mahals. 38,500,015 Bighas. Revenue 
500.325,099 Dams. Suyurghdl, 210,627 Dams. Castes 
various. Cavalry 715. Infantry 6,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

B. 


S' 

.1 

Cdstes. 





6 

,5 


Pattan, has two forts ... 


957,462 

143,862 

150 

3,000 

Rajput, Koli, 




Kumbi. 

Bijapur ... 

290,554 

6,001,832 

2,832 

200 

500 

Roll. 

Pathanpur 

... 

528,611 

3, 600, 000'“ 

50 

500 

Do. 

Badnagar, has a stone fort 

■ , ■ . " ' ■ ^ ■ 

37,600-13 

1,844,324 

1,749 

under 

Bijapur 

Do. 

Rajput, 

Visalnagar ... ... 

13,281 

674,348 

... 

20 

100 






Jadun. 

Therad, has a brick fort ... 

240,052-11 

4,000,000 

... 

50 

200 

Rajput, 





Barhah. 

Tervada do. ... 

294,516-17 

2,130,000 


50 

1,000 

^ Koli. 

Suburb, dist. of Pattan .... 

14,787-50 

20,054,045 

862,104 

under 

Pattan 

1 

Radhan [-pur], has a brick 
fort 

Sami, has a shrine much 

257,709-6 

4.000,000 


100 

200 

Koli. 

venerated in Hindustan 

107,298* 

1,266,498; 

... 

20 

100 

Do. 

Santalpur 

34,267 

287,340 

... 

... 

... 


Kheralu 

101,946-17 

4,000,000 

... ! 

... 

... 


Kakrej ... , 

112,338 , 

1,312,590 

... 

under 

Tehrar 


Munjpur 

51,814-11 

909,630 

. . • " ' 

25 

100 

Do. 

Morvada 

47,777 i 

320,020 



200 

Do. 

Bisah, has a brick fort ... 

288,270 

1 

1,600,000 

... 

50 

200 

Do. 


* So the MSS, but I apprehend these figures should be reversed, the larger 
coming under revenue, as G. has it. 


Sarhdr of Nandodr — north. 

Containing 12 Mahals. 641,817 Bighas, 16 Biswas. 
Revenue 8,797,596 Dams, Suyurghdl 11,328 Ddms. 


Amreli 

Avidlia 

Barsai, {Suyurghdl 

11,328) 

Badal [?BhadH] 

TilakwMa 

Tahwa [Tankhala] 


Biswas 

Revenue 


Bighas 

Revenue 

Bighas 

B. 


Biswas 

D. 

15,548-16 

148,620 

Jamungaon ... 

21,444 

412,093 

4,290 

17,07^ 

Kahaar ' ... 

14,903 

80,307 

Marghadrah 

15,028 

62 328 

153,696 ; 

40,663 

2,061,36^ 

272,645 

Mandun 

Nandod with suburb 

5,402 

16,000 

55,859 

1,595,525 

dist. 

128,021 

3,929,330 

73.263 

165,500j 

Natrang 

15,188 

40,798 


260 


. ain^-akbArI ; V , 

Sarkaf of Baroda, south. 

Containing 4 Mahals. 922,212 Bighas. Revenue 
41,145,895 Dams. Suyurghal ^8, SB8 Dams. Castes 
various. Cavalry 900. Infantry 6,800. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D, 

Suyur- 

ghal 

''D. 

cd 

t ' 
1 ■ 

Castes 





cd 

O 

a 


Baroda with sub. dist. has 

' 






a brick fort ... 

500,920 

20,403,485 

... 

200 

400 

j Ponwar, &c 





Rajput. 

Bahadurpur, has a brick 







fort ... ... 

1,680,920 

6,243,280 


500 

5,000 

Rajput. 

Babhoi, has a stone fort ... 

167,090 

9,252,550 

4,562 

500 

500 

Rajput, 





Bahrah. 

Sinor, the Narbada, in its 







course from the north, 







passes under the town ... 

148,150 

5,746,580 

... 

500 

5,000 

Rajput, , fol- 






lowing 
name ille- 








gible). 


Sarkar of Broach, south. 

Containing 14 Mahals. 349,771 Bighas. Revenue 
21,845,663 Dams. Suyurghal 141,820 Dams. Castes 
various. Cavalry 990. Infantry 8,600. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Suyur 

ghal 

B. 

>> 

' M 
a 

1 

/vs \ 

Castes 


■ '1 



a ' 

3 


Olpad 

186,420 

1 1,659,877 





Anklesar 

138.376 

i 558,010 


... 

'•». 


Atlesar [Amalsari] 

Broach, has a brick fort, 

90,333 

307,737 

... 

50 

230 

Gwalia. 

on the Narbada; here is 
a Hindu shrine 

64,660 

456,230 


500 

5,000 

Rajput, 

Tarkesar 

8,752 

5,651 


... 

... 

Chharmandvi 

44,821 

122,795 


... 



Suburban dist. of Broach ' 

52,975 

7,022,690 

64*516 

... 

... 


Behej Barha [Vagra] , ... 

42,664 

1,174,540 


• •• 


Kari [Kareli] , ;.. 


4,275,000 

12,6*50 

20 

300 

Rajput, 

KbIsl [Ghalha]/ 






Barhah. 


353,670 

. ^ ^ ■ 

... 

300 

, Rajput, 

, % ' ' ■ ; ■ ’* , ' 'i 




Garasiah. 

Gandhar, a port frequent- 







ed by vessels ... 


240,000 

... 

... 





26 l 


iCAHAlyS O# CiHAMPANER 


Sarkar of Broach, South — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

i>ii. 

u 

1 

u 

■ "S . 

■as 

Castes 





O 



i^rakh [ Pl^tiliara] , on the 
seashore 

Maqbulabad, oti the sea- 

31,760 

1,287,250 

.... 


... 


shore. Salt, here obtained 

81,750 

1,912,040 


20 

100 

Rajput. 

Musalman. 

Hansot, one of the ports 







of this district 

77,560 

2,439,158 

... 

400 

: 3,000 

Rajput 




1 


Baghelah. 


Sarkdr of Champ aner. 

Containing 9 Mahals. 80,337 Bighas. 11 Biswas. 
Revenue 15,009,884 Dams. Suyurghal 173,730 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry 550. Infantry 1,600. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

B. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

B. 

cd 

& 

4.J 

1 

Castes 





cd 

O ' 

a 


Arwarah 

19,129 

48,209 





Champaner, with sub. dist. 







has two stone forts, one 







on a hill called Pawah, 







and the second at its 







foot 

159,590 

1,429,649 

173,730 

500 

1,000 


Chandawarah 

27,328-8 

21,530 





Chaurasi ... 

107,713 

2,215,275 





Dohad, has a stone fort ... 

68,249 

i 1,283,300 


• 



Bhol [Derol] 

32,014 

; 172,992 


•*« 



Dilawarah ... 

18,129 

48,628 


••• 



Sonkherah 

240,313 

; 2,995,696 


».« 



Sanwes, has a strong stone 






Rajput. 

fort 

120,391-1 

, 2 300,000 

... 

50 

100 


Sarkdr of Surat. 

Containg 31 Mahals. 1,312,815 Bighas. 16 Biswas. 
Revenue 19,035,180 Dams. Suyurghdl 182,370 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry 2,000. Infantry 5500.' 



: Bighas 
Biswas 

Revenue 

B, 

•uynr- 

ghal 

B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Ambhel, has a stone fort 
Parchol [=Parujan] 

6,581 

55#20 

424,355 

1,508,000 

... 

... 

... j 



AlN-I-AdECSAIll 


Sarkdr of Surat — Contd. 



Bighas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Balsar, on the sea 

74,702 

1,281,420 

59,785 

100 

500 

i ' ' . ■ ; 

Balesar 

86,400 

1,013,045 

15,035 

... 

... 

1 ' 

Beawarah, has a stone fort 






' 

: .near Tapti ' ..... 

53,659 

554,320 


2000 

5,000 

, Rajput. 

Baiwarah, has a stone fort, 







and a shrine with a hot 







spring [ PPalsana] 

41,650 

478,620 

••• 


... 


Bhesrot [Bhestan] 

21,170 

425,055 

*«* 


*«• 


Parnera 

54,4160 

277,475 


... 

«•« 


Bhutsar 

12,075 

146,230 

i 


#*» 


Balor [?Kadod] 

21,435 

592,180 


... 



Mari ['I'aori] 

35,095 

917,890 

90,835 

«... 



Mnba ... 

51,029-19 

263,390 

2,040 




Chikhli, on the sea, has an 







iron mine 

337,613 

389,320 


... 



Dhamori, on the river 







Ximi? (Kim?) ..., 

40,994-19 

767,520 

• *. 


• •• 


Rander 

5,523 

63,692 

13,092 

... 



Surat with suburb, dist. 


\ 





has a stone fort ... 

50,733 

5,530,145 


... 

• • • 


Supa ...V ... ... 

I 87,594 

73,151 

8^20 

... 

• •• 


Sarbhun ... 

64,127 ! 

601,257 

• »* 

... 



Khoblori [PKumbharia] ... 

4,024 1 

026,760 





Ghandevi ... 

4,524 

835,380 

7,310 

... 

*♦* 


Kharka [Kharsawa], on 

■■ 1 






the Timi ... ... 

42,019 

629,310 


... 



Karodah [Kathodra] 

000,704 

383,240 

24,550 




Kamrej 

68,044 

828,205 

• •• 

... 



Kos [-amba], has a stone . 







' fort 

9,771 

228,390 





hohari .... 

5,928 

85,280 

• •• 

... 



MaroH, on the sea 

17,044 

370,410 





Mahwah (Moha ?) on the 







sea 

15,016 

100,290 

... 

... 

*«• 


Naroli 

1,620 

65,220 

.*• 

... 



Nosari, with a manufac- 







tory of perfumed oil, 







found nowhere else 

17,353 

297,720 


... 



Nari^j on the sea . ... 

7,290 

130,700 

•f* 





Sarkdr of Godhra. 

Containing 12 Mahals. 535,255 Bighas. Revenue 
3,418,624 Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 1,000. Infantry 
5,000. ,,u 



Bigha 

'.DJ 


Biglia 

D. 

In 

Audha [Aradra] : 

17,877 

184,935 

Bern [Bariya] ... 

37,318 

257,202 

At'lawara [ ?Atar 
Sunba] 

46,704 

63,460 

Jadnagar* ... ! 

46,690 

120,660 


* Jadnagar^tlih^v Jambuglioda or Chandpur^ 



KATHIAWAR MAHALS 263 


Sarkar of Godhra—Contd. 



Bigha 

; D. 


Bigha 

D. 

Jhalod tHalol] ... 
Dliaiibod [Bhan- 
par] 

Shehera 

Godhra with snb. 
dist. ... 

92,409 

17,082 

35,702 

150,250 

794,654 

146,322 

785,660 

Kohaiia [Kadana] 
Maral [Marwa] 
Mahadwtoh ; 

20.858 

46,755 

19,285 

785,360' 
525,975 ' 
10,826 : 


Sarkdr of Sorath {Kathiawad). 

Containing 12 Mahals, of which 13 are ports. Revenue 
63,437,366 Dams. Cavalry 17,000. Infantry 365,000. 



Revenue 

D. 


Revenue 

D. 

Una ... ... , ... 

7,620,388 

Dharwar [Dholarwa] 

59,792 

Aivej 

780,500 

Dhantror 

252,048 

Amreli ... ... ... 

1,784,160 

1,214,592 

Dhari 

644,270 

Apletah ... 

Ranpur ... 

16,127 

Pattan Deo [Somnath] ... 

4,453,912 

Ralgan ... 

113,280 

Banwara [ ?Wadhwan] ... 

2,049,340 

Ramot 

28,320 

Belkha ... 

140,000 

Siyor 

Sarii 

42,480 

Balsar ... 

509,760 

4,936 

Beri [ ? Baori] ... 

145,600 

Suitanpur 

424,800 

Barwa [ ? Baroda] 

50,664 

Gariadhar 

623,040 

Bandah ... 

84,960 

Korinar 

4,538,560 

Bandor [Wanod] 

14,060 

Ghogah (Gogo), exclusive 


Bhitnrad 

28,320 

of port 


Palitana 

240,592 

Ki anabanaera 

42,480 

Bagsra [?Digsar] 

56,340 

Kathar ... 

127,480 

Barar 

734,790 

Gari dhari 

598,704 

Barwara [ ? Wasawad] ... 

74,792 

Gondal ^ ... 

56,640 

1,797,256 

Badli 

14,160 

Kotiana (Katiana) 

Talaja ... ... ... | 

2,435,520 : 

Kandolna 

198,432 

Cliokh [Charkha] 

453,120 

Duliana 

1,423,080 

Jaitpnr 


Demora Batwa ... 

487,576 

Jagat [Dwarka] 

1 803,200 

Dathi ... ... ... 1 

296,152 

Chorwad (Charadwa) 

936,960 

Malikpur ... ... 

995,048 

Chaura ... 

97,288 

Mohwah, (Mowa) 

2,051,136 

Jetwad ... 

; 1,071,660 

Mandwi 

Manglor 

127,440 

16,689,472 

Jasdhon (Jasdan 

98,560 

Medarah 

2,208,160 

Suburban dist, o£ Sorath 

932,000 

Morbi 

2,603,326 

Daulatabdd ...» 

* 357,424 

Mianah ... 

14,106 

Dang ... 

4,410 

Nagsari ... 

755,376 

Dungar ... 

760,400 

Hatasni (?) 

1,012,592 


264 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Port duties. 



Revenue 

Mahmudis 


Revenue 

Mahmudis 

Port of Manglor 

27,000 

Port of Mohwah (Mowa) 

1,000 

„ Pattan Deo 

25,000 

,, Meykor ? ... 

3,000 

„ Korinar 

1,000 

„ Dungar 

1,000 

„ Nagsari ... 

10,000 

„ TaUja, 4 Mahals 

7,000 

„ Porbandar ... 

^ ' i 

27,228 

„ Una 

15,000 


Princes of Gujarat. 


Seven princes reigned in 

succession 196 years. 

Years. 

Bana-raj Chaulian’ . 

... 60 

Jog Raj ... ... 

... 35 

Bhimraj ... ... 

52 

Bhor 

... 29 

Bahr Singh ... ... 

... 25 

Ratnadat (var. Rashadat) ... 

... 15 

Samant ... ... 

... 7 


* Sorath corresponds to mod. Junagad. The following emendations are 
suggested from Hamilton's K. J. G^etteer and the Survey of India Atlas : 
Dhantror (=I)hamnagar), Dhari (=^Darwa), Ralgaon (=Ranigaon), Siyor 
(=Sihor), Sarii (=:Sarya), Korinar (=Kauri Nagar, 10 m. N. of Diu point), 
Kathar (=Kantharia), Kandolna (=Hadorna), Tuliana (=I/ilaola), Una =Una- 
Delwara).— /. Sarkar, 

^The following table is from the U. T. taken from the Ain-i-Akbarij and 
collated with the Agni Parana of Wilford. 

A.D. 

696. Saila Deva, living in retirement at Ujjain found and educated. 

745. (S. 802) Banaraja, son ■ of Samanta Sinh . (Chohan) who founded 
Anhalpur, called after Anala Cohan. 

806. Jagaraja. 

: 841. Bhira Baja, (Bhunda Beva. Wilford;. 

866. Bheur. " . 

895. Behersinh. 

920, Reshadat, (Raja Adity W.}. " * 

; ; ; 935. Samanta, (dau. married son of Delhi Raja). The total of years of 
. reigns in the A. A. makes' 223 instead of 196. G. and T. give 
w Bhimraj 25 instead of 42^ and thus correct the error, 


GUJARA1' HINDU KINGS 


265 


Ten princes of the Solanki race reigned 224 years. ^ 


Yrs. Ms. 

Mulri-j Solanki ^ ... ... 66 G 

Chamand ... ... . ... 13 0 

Balabha ... ... ... 0 6 

Durlabha, his nephew ... ... ... 11 6 

Bhim, his nephew ... . ... ... 42 0 

Karan ... ... ... ... 31 0 

Jai Singh, called also Sudhraj ... ... 50 0 

Kumarpal, grandson of his uncle ... ... 23 0 

Ajaipal, his nephew ... ... ... 8 0 

Lakhmul ... ... ... ... 8 0 


Six princes of the Baghelah tribe reigned 126 years.^ 



Yrs. 

Ms. 

Ds. 

Hardmul Baghelah ... 

... 12 

5 

0 

Baldeva 

... 34 

6 

10 

Bhim, his nephew ... 

... 42 

0 

0 

Arjun Deva 

... 10 

0 

0 

Sarang Deva 

... 21 

0 

0 

Karan 

6 

JO 

15 

^ The totals give only 238 years. 

The U. T. runs as follows : — 




A.D. 

910. Mula Raja, usurped the throne. 

1025. Chamund, invaded by Sultan Mahmud (Samanta. W.). 

1038. Vallabha (ancient line restored). 

1039. Durlabha (Dabisalima Ferishta) usurped the throne. 

1050. Bhima Raja. 

Kaladeva (Karan. A. A.) Carna Rajendra or Visaladeva, (W.) who 
became paramount sovereign of Delhi. 

1094. Siddha or Jayasinha, an usurper. Kumarapal, poisoned (by Ajaya- 
pala, son of Ja'yasinha). 

The U. T, give the following : — , 

The Bhdghela tribe. 

Mula (Dakhmul. A. A. Dakhan Raya. W.) without issue. 

Bdl<Sva } Baluca— Mula, W. of Bhaghela tribe. 

A.D. 

1209. W. Bhima Deva, or Bala Bhima Deva, same as last W. 

1250. Arjun Deva, ] 

1260. Saraiiga Deva, [ A. A. 

1281. Karan I 

Kama the Gohila fled to the Deccan when in the year 1309 Gujarat 
was annexed to Delhi by Ala ud din. 

34 


266 


ATN-I-AKBARI 


Fourteen (Muhammadan) princes* reigned about 160 years. 

A.D. Yrs. Ms. Ds. 

1391. Sultan Muzaffar Shah, ... ... 3 8 16 

1411. Sultan Ahmad, I, his grandson (builds 

Ahmadabad and Ahmadnagar), ... 32 6 20 

1443. Mahammad Shah, his son, ... 7 9 4 

1451. Qutb ud din Ahmad Shah (opposes 

Malwa King and Chitor Raja 
Kombha), ... ... ... 7 0 13 

1469. Baud Shah, his uncle, (deposed in 

favour of) ... 0 0 7 

1459. Mahmud Shah I, son of Muhammad 

Shah (Begarra : two expeditions to 
Deccan), ... ... ... 55 1 4 

1511. Sultan Muzaffar, his son, (v^ar with 

Raja Sangram), ... ... 14 9 0 

1526. Sultan Sikandar, his son, (assas- 
sinated),- ... ... ... 0 10 16 

1526. Sultan Nasir Khan, his brother, 

(Mahmud Shah II, displaced by), ... 0 4 0 

1526. Sultan Bahadur, son of Sultan 

Muzaffar, (invades Malwa : murdered 
by Portuguese), ... ... 11 9 0 

' 1536. Muhammad Shah, sister’s son, 

(Faruqi of Malwa), ... ... 0 9 0 

1536. Sultan Mahmud, grandson of 

Muzaffar, ... ... * ... 18 2 

some days. 

1553. Sultan Ahmad (II) a descendant of 
Sultan Ahmad, (spurious heir set up 
by ministers), ... ... ... 8 0 0 


* List of Gujrat Muslim rulers : 
Muzaffar I 
Alimad I 

Md. I. Karim ... 

Qutbuddin ... ... 

Daud 

Mahmud I ^ ... 

Muzaffar II ... , ... 

Sikandar 

Mahmud II 

Bahadur 

Muhammad II ... 

Muhammad HI ... 

Ahmad II ... ; ... 

Muzaffar III . , 


A.H. 798/1396 A.D. 
814/1411 
846/1442 
855/1451 
862/1458 
862/1458 
917/1511 
932/1526 
932/1526 
932/1526 
943/1537 
943/1557 
9^1/1554 
969-980/1562-1572 



anhil-paWan how founded 


m :■ 

A.D. . Yrs, Ms. Ds. 

1561. Sultan Muzaffar III, (Habbu, a suppo- 
sitious son of Mahmud), ... ... 12 & odd. 

1583. Gujarat becomes a province of Akbar’s Empire. 

The Hindu chronicles record that in the year 802 of 
Bikramajit, corresponding with A.H. 164 kindled the 
torch of independence and Gujarat became a separate state. 
Raja Sri Bhor Deva ruler of Kanauj put to death one of 
his dependants, named Samant Singh for his evil disposi- 
tion, disloyalty and disorderly conduct, and seized his ' 
possessions. His wife was pregnant at the time, and urged 
by distress, she fled to Gujarat and in an uninhabited waste 
gave birth to an infant. It happened that a Jain devotee 
named Saila Deva passing that way took compassion on 
the child and committed it to the charge of one of his disci- - 
pies who took it to Radhanpur, and brought it up with 
tender solicitude. When he grew to manhood, associating 
with wicked reprobates, he fell to outrage and highway 
robbery and a gang of free-booters was formed. He 
plundered the Gujarat treasure on its way to Kanauj, and 
through the good fortune that attended him, he was joined 
by a grain merchant' called Champa. Wisdom guided his 
sword and from works of evil he inclined to deeds of good- 
ness till in the fiftieth year of his age, he acquired the ■ 
sovereignty of the state, and founded Pattan. It is said that 
he long deliberated regarding the site of his capital and was 
diligent in search of a suitable place. A cowherd called 
Anhil informed him that he knew an excellent site which 
he would show on condition that the king would call the 
city after his name. His offer being accepted, he directed 
them to a wooded spot where a hare, he narrated, had 
grappled with a dog and by sheer strength of limb had got 
away. The Raja founded the city there and named it 
Anhilpur. . Astrologers have predicted that after the lapse 
of 2,500 years, 7 months, 9 days, and 44 gharis, it shall be 
in ruins. Through the corruption of language and -syllabic 
change it came to be called Nahrwalah, but as in the 
tongue of that country ‘chosen’ is rendered ‘Pattan,’ it 
became imiversally distinguished by that name. 

Raja Samant Singh gave his daughter in marriage to 
Sri Dandak Solanki, a descendant of the Delhi princes. 

^ A trade in favour, apparentl;^, with Gujarat kings. One was the intimate 
friend and counsellor of Sultan Mnhammad. See BayJey, pp. 132 and 188, 



268 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

She died when on the point of giving birth, but a son was 
by a surgical operation taken from her womb. The moon 
at the time was in the sixteenthV mansion termed by the 
Hindus Mul, and hence he was named Mulraj . Raj a 
Samant Singh adopted him as his own son and watched over 
his education. When he grew up, he entered into a cons- 
piracy with some evil-disposed persons. Th? Raja in a fit 
of drunkenness abdicated in his favour, but on becoming 
sober recalled his promise which so infuriated this mis- 
creant that he slew his benefactor and assumed the 
sovereignty. During the reign of Raja Chamand A.H. 416 
or 1064 of the era of Bikramajit,^ Sultan Mahmud of 
Ghazni conquered this country, but on leaving, he found 
no fitter person on whom- he might confer the government 
than a descendant of the royal line, and having arranged 
for the annual payment of a tribute, he returned by way 
of Sind. What is remarkable is that at the desire of this 
prince he carried with him captive another scion of the same 
family. After a time, either through fear or foresight, the 
captive’s restoration was solicited by the same prince who 
went out to meet him as he approached his territory in order 
that intriguers might not secure his favour. On the day 
that they were to meet, the Raja fell asleep for a short space 
under a tree, when an animal of prey tore out an eye. At 
that time a blind man being incapacitated from reigning, 
the ungrateful soldiers substituted the captive prince in his 
place and placed the Raja in confinement.® 

Kumarpal Solanki through fear of his life lived in 
retirement, but when the measure of Jai Singh’s days 
became full, he came forth from the wastes of disappointed 
ambition and seated himself on the throne and considerably 
enlarged his dominions. Ajaipal wickedly poisoned his 
sovereign and for a fleeting gratification has acquired eternal 
abhorrence. 

Dakhmul having no issue, the worthiest representative 
of the Baghelah tribe was chosen as sovereign. 


^Variously taken as the 17th, 19th and 24th lunar asterism, containing 
11 stars, apparently those in the tail of Scorpio and said to be unlucky. In 
the dissertation on Astronomy that .follows in a subsequent book, Mul is 
counted as the 19th mansion, . 

* 1064 A.B. is equivalent to A.D. 1007 and A.H, 416 to A.D. 1025. It 
was in Sept. 1024 A.D. that Mahmud set out from Ghazni in his expedition 
against Somnath. 

* The story is related at greater length from the Mimt i Ahmadi in Bayley’s 
Hist of Gujarat, pp. 29-34 and its probability defended in a discursive note. 


269 


fiARI,Y MUStiM RUtERS OR GUJARAT 

During the reign of Karan, the troops of Sultan Ala 
u’d din overran Gujarat. Karan, defeated in the field, fled 
to the Deccan. Although previous to this time Muizz u’d 
din Sam’ and Qutb u’d din Dibak had made expeditions 
into the country, -it was not until the reign of Ala u’d din 
that it was formally annexed to Delhi. 

In the reign of Muhammad, son of Firuz Shah, Nizam 
Mustakhraj, called also Rasti Sian,^ was appointed to the 
government of Gujarat, but his injustice becoming oppres- 
sive, he was removed and the viceroyalty was conferred on 
Zafar Khan son of Wajih u’l Mulk Tank. The foimier 
governor disloyally rebelling, was killed in the field. The 
events of this time may be gathered from the history of the 
Delhi sovereigns. His son Tatar Khan was a man of base 
character and in whom wickedness was ingrained. At this 
period after the death of Sultan Muhammad when the throne 
of Delhi devolved on Sultan Mahmud, considerable anarchy 
prevailed. Zafar Khan withdrew from affairs and Tatar 
Khan assumed the royal state and marched against Delhi, 
but was poisoned at the instigation of his father® who coming 
forth from his retirement had the Khutbah read and the 
coin struck in his own name, and was proclaimed under the 
title of Sultan Muzafiar. (1407.) Gujarat thus became an 
independent kingdom and the government of the province 
was established in the Td»fe family. The father of Zafar, 
Wajih u’l Mulk had been a Brahman and was converted 
to Islam. Ahmad the son of Tatar Khan conspired against 
the life of his grandfather and took possession of the throne 
thus garnering eternal perdition. Ahmadabad was founded 
by him. With deep design and meditated hypocrisy he 
withdrew hjmself from all worldly pageantries till at a 
festival when all suspicion was laid asleep in the midst of 
rmiversal enjoyment, he put to death twelve of his uncles. 
Subsequently he applied himself with earnestness to the 


^ Otherwise Shahab iid din Ghori, 

^ Malik Mufarrah Sultaiii, who afterwards obtained the title of Farhat ul 
Mulk Rasti Khan. Zafar Khan was appointed to succeed him on the 2nd Rabia 
r, 793 A.H. (21st Feb. 1931) (Bayley Hist, of Guj.), p. 58. Wajih ul Mulk 
was a Hindu called Sadharan, converted to Islam and belonged, says the 
Mirat v Sikandari, to the Tank caste, an outcast branch of the Khatris. One 
of them was expelled for his use of strong drinks and the name is said in 
Hindi to signify an outcast. The derivation is asserted to rest on some form 
of the Sanskrit tydga, meaning separation, divorce. See Bayley "s note. Ihid^ 
p. 67. Baber calls the race Tang, Brskine, p. 31 1. 

^ It is commonly believed, says the Mirat i Sikandarl that Tatar Khan 
placed his father in confinement and seated himself on the throne under 
title of Mhd. Shah, whence the reprisal. Ibid,, p. 81-82. 


270 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


duties of his governinent and was filled with continual 
remorse, and to his last breath set himself to a just and 
capable administration of the state. 

When Baud Khan was deposed on account of his 
incapacity, Fath Khan son of Muhammad Shah was raised 
to the throne and was proclaimed as Sultan Mahmud (I). 
He distinguished himself by his recognition of merit' and 
by his justice, and girt himSelf with the fence of munificence 
and liberality. Malik Shaban who held the title of Imad 
u’l Mulk was of the utmost service to him.’' In the beginn- 
ing of his reign some of the wealthy favourites conspired 
against the life of their lord and in the first instance plotted 
the overthrow of this judicious and sincere counsellor. Like 
intriguers as they were, they conveyed false allegations to 
the king, and as the worldly-minded are suspicious of each 
other, he imprisoned this peerless denizen of the world of 
faith and purposed putting him to death. He was on the 
point of being condemned when Malik Abdu'llah the super- 
intendent of the elephants who had the royal ear, revealed 
the innocence of his faithful minister and the designs of the 
conspirators. The king skilfully contrived his escape and, 
the veil of their pretence being rent asunder, the miscreants 
took to arms. The royal guard and the slaves together with 
the ofiEcers in charge of the elephants made a stand against 
them, and the elephants themselves proved of service in 
chastising the rebels. Disgracefully routed, these disloyal 
subjects met with just retribution.. At Mahmud’s death, 
his son Muzaffar Shai, with the assistance of the nobles, 
ascended the throne and assumed the title of Saltan 
Muzaffar (II). His reign was beneficent. Shah Ismail of 
the Sufi dynasty of Persia sent him as presents the choicest 
goods of Iraq’ and he in turn courteously reciprocated his 
acknowledgments. On his decease, his son succeeded him 
under the title of Sultan Sikandar. In a short time he was 
wickedly done to death by Imad u’l Mulk who raised his 
brother Nasir Khan to the throne. The nobles plotted to 

^ And likewise hy his enormous appetite. His daily allowance of food was 
one man Gujarat weight (equal, to 15 Bahloli seers). He put aside 5 seers of 
boiled rice and before going to sleep, placed half on one side of his couph and 
half on the other, so that on whichever side he awoke, he might find some- 
thing to eat. This was followed iin the morning by a cup of honey, a cup 
of butter and lOG to 150 plaihtains.. After this, Abul FazPs appetite sinks 
into insignificance. Hh allowance was 22 seers daily. 

The whole account will 'be .found in Bayley under this monarches reign. 
The reader is referred to that work for details of this historical S 3 mopsis. 

®A turquoise cup of great value, a chest full fo jewels, many valuable 
tissues and 30 Persian horses. Bayley, p. 244. 


271 


BAHAirUR, . SULTAN OF GUJARAT 

displace him. The king appealed for succour to His 
MajestyTaber and engaged to surrender to him the port of 
Dib (Diu) with its dependencies and several krors of 
tankahSj if he would advance in aid with his victorious 
troops. On account of his former ungrateful conduct, his 
offer was refused.* At this juncture, Bahadur the son of 
Sultan Muzaffar came from Delhi at the invitation of the 
Babriyas^ and the nobles joined his standard. During his 
father’s reign he was unable to remain at court through the 
envy borne towards him by his brother (Sikandar). He, 
therefore, betook himself to Sultan Ibrahim Dodi at Delhi 
and was received with favour. The nobles of Jaunpur 
invited him to be their king, and his intentions were inclined 
that way, when at this time his partisans wrote to him from 
Gujarat and entreated his acceptance of the throne. He 
willingly set out for the capital and being successful, he 
made his administration prosperous by his justice and 
liberality. Carried away by the intoxication of worldly 
success, he imprudently engaged in a war with Humayun, 
and being defeated, sullenly withdrew in discomfiture.® 

At his death, Miran Muhammad ruler of Khandesh, 
his nephew, whom during his lifetime he had constituted his 
heir, was in his absence proclaimed in the khutbah by the 
nobles, but died shortly before reaching Gujarat. Mahmud, 
grandson of Sultan Muzaffar, who was then in confinement, 
succeeded him. A miscreant called Burhan with some of 
his adherents put him to death^ and under pretence of 

^ Ferishta says (Bayley, p, 319) that this letter never reached Baber, the 
Bajah of Dungarpur having intercepted it, 

® See Bayley, p. 35, n. ; and for his adventures after leaving Gujarat, 
p. 321 et seq, 

® Baber says of him that he acted rightly in enforcing the law of retalia- 
tion by putting to death Imad Mulk who had strangled his brother Sikandar, 
but besides this, he slew a number of his father’s Amirs and gave proof of a 
blood-thirsty and ungovernable nature. 

^ Bayley, p, 445, et seq, Burhan who had been a low favourite of the king, 
poisoned and stabbed his master and sallied forth from the palace in the 
pomp of royalty when he was met and slain by Shirwan Khan Bhatti, adopted 
son of Afzal one of the murdered nobles. Ferishta ’s account is that on the 
death of the king becoming known, Itimad Khan with Changiz Khan, Ulug 
Khan, Habshi and others, came out to oppose him. Burhan was thrown at 
the first charge and killed by Shirwan Kh^. His feet were tied to a rope 
and he was dragged throughout the city. The Mirat4-Sikandm'i gives the 
name of Razi ul Mulk to one of the nobles who was sent to bring the new 
king, Ahmad, to the capital, but Ferishta expressly states that this, descendant 
of Ahmad Shah was named Razi ul Mulk and was raised to the throne as 
Ahmad Shah II. He continues, that disgusted with his nominal sovereignty’', 
after a 5 years’ tutelarge he* took refuge with Miran Mubarak Shah one of 
the ^ principal nobles on whose death in the field, an accommodation was 
again 'effected with Itimad Khan, but having expressed himself too openly 
as desirous of death of that minister^ he himself was found dead the next day, 



272 


AUSr-I-AKBARI 


establishing a rightful succession, massacred twelve of the 
nobles. Itimad Khan prudently absented himself on the 
occasion, and next morning collecting his followers, attacked 
him and put him to the death he deserved. He then set up 
one Razi u’l Mulk by name a descendant of Sultan Ahmad, 
I, under the title of Sultan Ahmad (II) as a nominal 
sovereign and took the government into his own hands. But 
when the boy grew to manhood, he altered his purpose and 
carrying him to the house of one of his adherents, he slew 
bim and then leading some unknown minor by the hand, 
swore upon oath that he was the son of the last Sultan 
Mahmud (II). By fraudful allegations, he bestowed on him 
the sovereign authority and giving him the title of Sultan 
Muzaffar, he himself assumed the reins of power, until his 
present Majesty threw the shadow of justice over the pro- 
vince and annexed this prosperous country to the imperial 
dominions.. , 

May it ever be adorned with perpetuity and high and 
low enjoy unfading blessings. 


near the river opposite the house of Wajih, ul Mulk and it was given out 
that, caught in a love^ intrigue in that nobleman’s house, he had been unwit- 
tingly slain. The Mirat4-Sikandari tells the story more in detail. On his 

death, Itimad Khan produced a boy (not named in Ferishta nor, I think, in 

the Mlrat) whom he swore to be the son of Mahmud Shah II, his mother’s 
pregnancy not having been discovered till the 5th month when too late to 
check it. For Mahmud had unnaturally interdicted the fertility of his wives 
to avoid a disputed throne. The nobles accepted or feared to oppose the 
pretension, and the boy was placed under the control of Itimad Khan. The 
subsequent history may be read in Ferishta, or in Brigg’s free but generally 
faithful rendering,^ but the events of his worthless life— it cannot be called 
a reign— are lost in the contests of the nobles for their share of short-lived 
power till tlie incorporation of the kingdom with the empire on the 24th 

Rajab A.H. 890 (Nov. 20th, 1672). Bayley’s translation concludes with the 

death of Mahmud Shah IV,, but, his original continues the history of Gujarat 
to 1001 A.H. (1592-3) and th^ death by his own hand of the last of its 
sovereigns, ' 


SUBAH OF AJMER 



It is situated in the second climate. Its length from 
the village of Pokhar {Bhakar — ^Pushkar) and dependencies 
oi Amber to Bikaner and Jaisalmir is 168 kos. Its breadth 
from the extreme limits of the Sarkar of Ajmer to Ban- 
swarah is 150 kos. To the east lies Agra : to the north the 
dependencies oi Delhi: to the south Gujarat: to the west 
Dipalpur and Multan. The soil is sandy, and water obtain- 
able only at great depth, whence the crops are dependent on 
rain. The winter is temperate, but the summer intensely 
hot. The spring harvest is inconsiderable. Jowari, Lahda- 
rah and Moth are the most abundant crops. A seventh or an 
eighth of the produce is paid as revenue, and very little in 
money. The people dwell in tent-shaped bamboo huts. To 
the south are the (Aravalli) mountains of which the passes 
are difficult to traverse. 

This Subah is formed of Mewdr, Marwdr and Hadauti.^ 
The former possesses 10,000 (troops) and the whole of the 
Sarkar of Chitor is dependent on it. Its length is 40 kos 
by 30 in breadth. It has three famous fortresses, Chitor 
the residence of the governor, Kombhalme'A and Mdndal. 
In the village of Jdwar,^ one of the dependencies of Chainpur 
is a zinc mine. In Chainpur and other dependencies of 
Mdndal are copper mines,, which are extremely profitable. 

The chief of the state was formerly called Rdwal, but 
for a long time past has been kno.wJi as Rdnd.^ He is of the 
Ghelot clan and pretends a descent from Noshirwan the 
Just.® An ancestor of this family through the vicissitudes 
of fortune came to Berar and was distinguished as the chief 
of Narndlah. About eight hundred years previous to the 
present time, Narndlah was taken by an enemy and many 
were slain. One Bdpd, a child, was carried by his mother 

^ Harowtee or Haraoti, a tract formed of the territory of Kotah and Bundi, 
and named after a dominant tribe of Rajputs. 

* Komulniir is a pass that runs through a series of rugged ravines in the 
Aravalli ranges and is defended by a fortress. In art. Udaipur, it is spelt 
Kumalmer. 

Jawar, 24 miles S. of Udaipur, is said to have possessed zinc mines now 
un worked. 

, ^The foundation of the Ghelot dynasty in Rajputana was effected by Bappa 
Rawal who is said to have established himself in Chitor and Mewar in 728 
A.D. 1. G. 

^ It is asserted that a daughter of Noshirwan, wdiose queen was a daughter 
of Maurice of Constantinople married irjto the CFdaipur royal family. 

35 


274 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

from tMs scene of desolation to and found refuge 

with. Rajah Mandalik,^ a BMl. When he grew up to man’s 
estate he followed the pursuit of a shepherd and was devoted 
to hunting in which his daring was so conspicuous that he 
became in favour with the Raja and a trusted minister of 
state. On the death of the Raja, his four nephews disputed 
the succession, but they eventually decided to resign their 
pretensions in favour of Bapd and to acknowledge his 
authority. Bdpd, however, declined their offer. It hap- 
pened one day that the finger of one of these four brothers 
began to bleed, and he drew with the blood the ceremonial 
mark of installation on the forehead of Bapa, and the others 
concurred in accepting his elevation. He then assumed the 
sovereignty. To this day the custom continues of making 
with human blood this sign of investiture on any Rdna who 
succeeds to the throne. The ungrateful monarch put the 
four brothers to death.. On a former occasion while pass- 
ing through the wilds, mistaking one Marich [Rishi], a 
hermit, for a wild animal, he fitted an arrow to his bow. 
The hermit intuitively prescient of this action through his 
purity of heart, made himself known, and the Raja repen- 
tantly excused himself and humbly visited him with 
assiduity. The hermit one day predicted his elevation, and 
marvellous tales are told regarding him. Having made his 
head quarters at the tribe is called Sisodiah and as 

a Brahman, at the beginning of their history nurtured their 
house, they are accounted as belonging to this caste. 

When Rdwal Rattan Si died, a relative named Arsi 
was raised to the throne^ and entitled Rana from whom the 
present Rdna Umrd is tenth in descent, thus ; Hamir, 
Kaitd, Ldkha, Mokul, Komhhd, Rdemal, Sangd, Udai 
Singh, Partdb, Umrd. 

Ancient chronicles record that Sultan Ala ud din Khilji 
king of Delhi had heard that Rdwal Rattan Si prince of 
Mewdr possessed a most beautiful wife. He sent to de- 
mand her and was refused, upon which he led an army to 
enforce compliance and laid siege to Chitor. After a long 
persistence in beleaguering the place in vain, he had recourse 
to artifice and proposed terms of peace and friendship. The 
Raja readily acquiesced and invited him to an entertainment. 
The Sultan entered the fort with his chosen followers and 
the meeting took place amid festivity and mirth, and finding 

'Rao Maadalik says B&yley {Hist, of GujarUt) is the title assumed by all 
the chiefs of Gimarj , ^ " 



AlvAlJDDlN CHITOR 


275 


his opportunity he'- seized tlie Raja and carried him off. It 
is said that the Sultan’s retinue consisted of a hundred men 
and 300 picked soldiers dressed as attendants. Before the 
Raja’s troops could assemble he was hurried away to the 
camp amidst the wailing of his people. The king kept the 
Raja in close confinement with a view to extort compliance 
with his desire. The faithful ministers of the Raja implored 
the king not 'to injure him and promised to deliver up to 
him not only the object of his love but other suitable partners 
of his harem. They also sent a forged letter purporting to 
come from the virtuous queen and lulled his suspicions to 
sleep. The king was delighted and not only refrained from 
personal violence but treated the Raja with cordiality. It 
is related that 700 of the choicest troops dressed as women 
were placed in litters and set out for the king’s camp and 
it was given out that the Rani with a large number of her 
attendants was on the way to the royal pavilion. When they 
approached the camp, word was sent that the Rani wished 
to have an interview with the Raja previous to entering the 
king’s quarters. Lapped in his illusive dream of security 
the king granted the interview, during which the soldiers 
seizing the opportunity, threw off their disguise and bore 
off their prince. Time after time the Rajputs stood to face 
their pursuers fighting manfully and many were slain before 
the Raja had gone far. At length the Chauhans, Gaura and 
Badal made a stand fighting to the death enabling the Rawal 
to reach Chitor in safety amidst universal acclamation. The 
king having endured great hardships during the siege and 
finding it to no purpose, returned to Delhi. After an inter- 
val, he set his heart again on the same project but returned 
discomfited. The Rawal wearied with these assaults, con- 
ceived that an interview with the king might result in an 
alliance and that he would thus escape this state of con- 
tinual strife. Guided by a traitor he met the king -at a 
place 7 kos from Chitor where he was basely slain. His re- 
lative Arsi, after this fatal event, was raised to the throne. 
The Sultan returned to the siege of Chitor and captured it. 
The Raja was slain fighting and all the women voluntarily 
perished by fire. 

Hamir his son betook himself to the adjacent moun- 
tains. Sultan Muhammad Khuni^ made over the govern- 

^ *‘The murderer/’ the special title to fame of Muhammad Tuglak, but this 
monopoly of the epithet is scarcely fair to many other members of the royal 
houses of Delhi, 


276 


-Al]Sf-I-AKBARi 


ment o£ Chitor to Maldeva Chaulian ruler- of Jalor. As this 
prince was unable to bring the province into order, he sum- 
moned Hamkj made him his son-in-law, and through his 
means restored its prosperity. At his death, Samir made 
away with his sons and raised the standard of independence. 

The present local militia consists of 16,000 cavalry and 
40,000 infantry, but Mewar formerly controlled much more 
extensive territories, so much so that Rajah Sanka (Sanga) 
possessed a force of 180,000 cavalry and a numerous in- 
fantry. 

Mdrwar is 100 kos in length by 60 in breadth, and it 
comprises the Sarkdrs of Ajmer, Jodhpur, Sirohi, Ndgor, and 
Bikaner. It has long been the head quarters of the Rathor 
tribe. When Muizz ud din Sam had terminated his campaign 
against Pithurd (Prithwi Raja, A.D. 1191-93), he resolved 
to turn his arms against Jaichand king of Kanauj. The 
Rajah in his flight was drowned in the Ganges.'. His 
brother’s son Siha, who resided in Sharnsdbdd was slain 
with a large number of troops. His three sons Sutik, 
Ashwatthama and Aj set out for Gujarat, and on their way 
rested at Pali near Sojhat. In this city dwelt a number of 
Brahmans who were much molested by the Minah tribe, 
some of whom at this period made a raid on the town. The 
exiles came out, attacked them valorously, and put them to 
flight. The Brahmans gave them great honour and treated 
them with every consideration and thus alleviated in some 
degree their distress of heart. As they acquired the means 
of worldly success they grew bolder and seized Kher [Kum- 
bher] from the Gohel tribe and thus advanced their condition. 
Sutik independently wrested Edar from the Minahs, and Aj 
setting out for Bagldnah, took that district by force from the 
Kolis. From that time their descendants have inhabited the 
country. The descendants of Ashwatthama who remained 
in Mdrwdr gradually gained credit till eventually Maldeva 
his sixteenth descendant waxed so powerful, that Sher Khan 
nearly lost his life in his campaign against him.'’ 

^ Other accounts assert that he was slain by an arrow from the bow of 
Qutb-uddin the favorite general of the Muhammad Ohori, and the founder of 
the Dynasty of the Slave Kings. , It is historical that his body was found and 
recognised by his false teem, ‘*a circumstance/^ says Blpliinstone in the 
solitary instance of humour in his solemn histor}^, ‘/which throws grave light 
on the state of manners/^ One result of this defeat was the retreat of the 
greater part of the Rahtor clan from Kanauj to Marwar. 

® Sher invaded Marwar in A.D. 1544 and his camp was surprised by an 
atttack of 12,000 Rajputs who so nearly put an end to his campaigning that 
he declared he had nearly lost the empire of India for a handful of millet, 
alluding to the poverty of the country and the low quality of its produce. 


SUBAH AjMfiR, SMTISBICS 


m 

This territory contains many forts, but the most 
important are ri/wer, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisahnir, Amar- 
kot, A bugarh and Jdlor. 

Hdddoti is called also the Sarkdr of Nagor. It is 
inhabited by the Hadd (Kara) tribe. 

This Suhah comprises 7 Sarkdrs and 197 parganahs. 
The measured land is 2 Krors, 14 lakhs, 35,941 bighas, 
7 Biswas. The revenue in money is 28 krors 84 lakhs, 
1,M7 ddms, (Rs. 7,210,308-14-9) of which 23 lakhs, 
26,336 dams (Rs. 51,158-6-5) are Su3rurghal. The local 
force is 86,500 cavalry, 347,000 infantry. 



278 


Am-I-AKSAUI 


Sarkar of Ajmer. 


Containing 28 5,605,487 BigJias. 'R&-verme 

in money, 62,183,390 Dams. Suyurghdl 1,4:15,714: Dams. 
Tribes, Kachhwdhah, Afghan, Chauhdn. 



Bighas 

Revenue 

D 

Suyurghal 

Ajmer with dist. its fort on a hill, one of 

795,335 

6,214,731 

D. 

the moat important in India ... 

1,135,095 

12,256,297 

802,440 

Amber, has stone fort on a hill 

179,573 

1,755,960 


Arain ... ... ...» 

279-295 

2,200,000 

. . , , 

Parbat [-sar] ... ... 

90,488 

486,161 


Pliagi 

349,774 

1,400,000 

... . 

Bhinai ' ... ... ... 1 

68,712 

271,256 


Bharana [Baghera] ... ... 

168,712 

749,733 


BawH [ ? Borach] ... 

81,914-11 

600,000 


Bahai [Bari] 

15,522 

435,664 

15,674 

Bandar Sindri ... ... 

24,220 

270,000 

... 

Bharonda ... 

« 351, 779-12 

3,300,090 


Tusina [ ? Tilonia] ... ... ... 

138,718 

241,442 

... 

Jobner 

27,092-18 

501,844 

... 

Jhak 

49,065 

1,200,000 

: ... 

Deogaon [Baghera] ... .... 

76,548 

692,512 


Koshanpur [ ? Kishanpur] ... ... 

194,064 

9,649,947 

277^537 

Sambhar, has a stone fort 

245,136 

1,616,825 


Sarwar, has a brick fort 

72,098 

1,270,000 

16^027 

Sithla [Setholao] ... ... ... 

147,923 

1,860,016 


Kekri ... ... ... 

50,640 

1,808,000 


Kherwah ... ... ... ... 

71,356 

7,020,347 


Marot ... ... ..., 

252,871 

5,756,402 


Muzabad ... ... ..v 

251,973 

1,459,577 


Masaudabad [Masuda] ... 

14,361 

1,587,990 


Naraina 

266,614 

2,660,159 

260,’ ioO 

HarsuH, has a bri.sk fort 

163,273 

1,200,926 

926 


Sarkar of Chitor. 

Containing 26 Parganahs, 1,678,800 Bighas, 17 
Biswas. Revenue, 30,047,649 Dams. Suyurghdl, 360,737 
Dams. Tribes, Rajput Sesodia, Cavalry, 22,000. Infan- 
try, 82,000. 



Bighas 

Revenue 

D 

Suyurghal 

D. 

Islampur, known as Rampura 
Udaipur, here a large lake about 
in circumference; by its means 
crops are grown ... 

16 Kos 
■wheat-* 

101,526 

7,000,000 

1,120,000 
in money 



279 


MAHALS OF CHIXOR 


Sarkar of Chitor- — contd. 



Bighas 

Revenue 

Suvurghal 

D. 

Uparmal ... ... 

27,805 

280,000 


Arnod ... ... 

44,720 

200,000 


Islampiir, known as Mohan ... 

■ ...I 

126,600 


Badttor, has a stone fort ... ..., 

113,265 

in money 
4,311,551 

59,815 

Plmlia do. 

257,481 

2,843,470 

43,470 

Banera 

58,038 

3,296,200 

244,000 

Pur ... ... 

199,209 

2,601,041 

13,452 

Bhainsror, has a stone fort ... 


1,200,000 


Bagor (Bagol) ... ... ... 

1,744-17 

39,550 


Begun 

234,804 

1,175,729 

... 

Barsi [? Patti] Hajipur, has a stone fort 

35,098 

1,375,000 


Chitor, with sub. dist. 2 mahals, has a 




stone fort, and is a frontier of Hindus- 




tan proper 

451,118 

800,000 


Jiran ■■ ■ ' ■ ' . ■■ ... : 

39,218 

1,985,250 

■■ ■ '■ 

Sanwarghati 


470,294 


Sadri, has a stone fort ... ... 

5,m 

400,020 


Sembal [ ?San wad] with the cultivated 




, tracts ■ 


100,000 


Kosianah [ ? Gosunda] 


in money 


52,713 

263,812 


Mandalgarh, has a stone fort on a hill ... 

... 

3,384,750 




in money 


Mandal has a brick fort 

18,848 

447,090 


Mandariya [Madri] ... 

... ■ 

160,000 

... 



in money 


Nimach &c. 3 mahals 

21,416 

719,202 

••• 


Sarhar of Rantamhhor. 


Containing 73 Mahals. 6,024,196 Bighas, 11 Biswas. 
Revenue, 89,824,576 Dams. Suyurghdl, 181,134 Dams. 
Rajput Hada (Kara). Cavalry, 9,000. Infantry, 25,000. 


* 

Bighas 

Revenue 

B. 

Suyurgha] 

B. 

Alanpur 

XJnara ... ■ ... 

Atada [ ?Btawa] 

Aton 

■ . .., 4 : . ■ 


18,481 

57,308 

45,349 

14,584 

1,562,239 

1,237,169 

770,525 

600,000 

20,209 



280 


Am-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Rantambhor — contd. 


Manipur [ = Aligarh] 
Amkhorah 

Antardah 
Awan Bosamir 
■Bundi, has a stone fort on 
Baonli, has a stone fort 
Baroda 
Jarwara 

Patan [Kesorai] 

Bhadlaon ... 

Bakiant 
Palaita 
Bhosor 
Banahta 
Bilan a 
Bijari 
Balakliatri 

Bhori Bhari (Bari Pahar) 
Baran 
Tonk 
Toda 
Todri 
Talad 
Jetpur 
Chatsu 

Jhalawa (Jhalai) 

Jhain 

IChilchipur 
Dhari ( ? Darah) 

Dablana ... 

Rantambhor with sub. dist 

Rawanjna (Dungar) ... 

Sheopur 

Sarsop 

Sahansari ... 

Kota, has a stone fort on 
, which the Cliambal flows 
Khandar, has a stone fort or 
Khankra ... 

Kheri 

Kliatoli 

Gendawar 

Karor, has a stone fort on a 
Lakheri do. 

lyonda ... ' 

Loharwara 
Luawad 

Mau-niaidana, 16 Mahals 
Malarna ... 

I^angrol ' 

Nawai 

Nagar (Nagor) 



Bighas 

Revenue 

D. 


5,191 

77,500 

... 


160,000 


166,173 

in money 


25,747 

1,500,000 

hill 

33,161 

1,200,000 


151,430 

2,622,747 


267,326 

4,571,000 


163,226 

1,969,776 

... ... 

139,280 

2,800,000 


96,895 

2,686,389 

... 

149,087 

1,200,000 

.... 

29,302 

1,400,000 

... 

40,677 

600,000 


21,257 

524,356 

... 

31,615 

456,479 


15,594 

334,800 


33,930 

300,000 

... 

16,845 

110,000 

... ... 

242,107 

880,000 


502,402 

7,500,000 


443,028 

5,859,006 


400,768 

5,456,840 


32,509 

423,288 


23,014 

928,500 

...■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ ' 

516,525 

7,536,829 

. . .» ■ ■ . , . * 

13,180 

500,000 


37,753 j 

475,000 

... ... 

30,813 i 

1,209,886 

... ... 

97,861 

1,800,000 


54,668 

409,260 

... 


733,400 



in money 

... 

371-19 

156,795 


49,745 

430,354 

. . , 

494,070 ‘ 

5,041,306 

... 

36,636 

1,058,876 


28,575 

300,000 

a hill, near 



. a* hill 

360,378 

3,000,000 

90,246 

400,000 


220,350 

1,511,994 


35,443 

528,178 


2,389 

200,000 


'6,930-12 

188,095 

hill 

6,377 

200,000 


3,523 

800,000 

... 

17,400 

250,000 


20,334 

250,000 

... 

3,678 

125,000 



4, 100, 000 


172,693 

3,299,241 

**• ••• 

140,799 

1,004,348 


33,927 

930,000 

: •'*« ■■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ 

33,900 

1,000,000 


Suyurghal 

D. 


22,747 


9,260 


1,505 

6,292 


li’,994 

26,744 


JODHPUR AND SIROHI MAHALS 


281 


Sarkar of Jodhpur. 

Containing 22 Mahals. Revenue 14,528,750 Dams. 
Tribe, Rathor, Cavalry 15,000. Infantry, 50,000. 



Revenue 

D. 

xAsop has a brick fort .... 

8,000,000 

Indraoti 

8,000 

Phalodi, has a stone fort 

640,000 

Palparah [Pipar] 

1,463,000 

Bilara 

314,000 

Pali &c., 3 Mahals j has a ' 
small stone fort ... , 

250,000 

Eahila ... ... i 

180,000 

Podhah has a stone fort i 

46,003 

Ehadrarjun, has a stone 
fort on a plain ... ' 

800,000 

1 

Jodhpur with sub, dist. j 


has a stone fort on a hill 

280,000 


Revenue 

D. 


Jetaran, has a small fort 1 
on a hill ... ... I 

Dunara, has a stone fort I 
Sojat, has a stone fort on I 
a hill 

Saalraer do. 

Siwana do. one of 

the most important 
vStrongholds in India ... 
Kherwa 

Kdiimwasar, has a stone 
fotr ... ... ... 

Gundoj do. ... I 

Mahewah ... ... i 


3,000,000 

100,000 

2,812,750 

560,000 


1,200,000 

220,000 

172.000 

90.000 
960,000 


Sarkar of Sirohi. 


Containing 6 Mahals. Revenue 4,2,077,437 Dams. 
Tribes, Rajput, Ghelot, Afghan. Cavalry, 8000. Infantry, 
3,800. 



Revenue 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Tribe 

Abugarh and Sirohi, 2 Mahals; the 





latter has a strong stone fort .... 
Banswarah, a delightful country ; 

12,000,000 

3,000 i 

15,000 

Rajput. 

has a stone fort ... ; 

Jalor, Sanchor, 2 Mahals; has a ; 

8,000,000 

1,500 

20,000 

Do. 

very strong stone fort ... 1 

14,077,437 

2,000 

5,000 

Afghan. 

Dungarpur 

8,000,000 

1,000 

2,000 

Rajput 

Ghelot. 


Sarkar of Nagor. 

Containing 31 Mahals. 8,037,450 Bighas, 14 Biswas. 
Revenue, 40,389,830 Dams. Suyurghal, 30,805 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry, 4,500. Infantry, 22,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 
. D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Amarsar 

849,809 

7,029,370 


4000 

20,000 

Kachhwa- 

hah. 

Indana 

262,302 

1,313,006 

479 

[... 




36 


•i8’2 AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Nagor—contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghai 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

■ 

Bhadana 

544,340 

2,271,960 

70460 




Baidu .. .. 

87,947 

570,000 





Fatoda 

141,370 

322,816 

... 




Baroda 

2,620 

220.363 

... 




Barah Kaiii 

230,379 

58,000 




... 

Jael 

293,069 

955,273 

3^0 




Jarodali 

Jakhara, surrounded by 

141,592 

874,284 

2147 




a waste of sand 

Kharij Khattu, has a 
stone fort, and a quarry 


137,757 


... 

. . ... 


of white marble* 

77,577 

348,814 

... 




Didwana, has a brick fort 

36,531 

4,586 828 

15215 


... 

■' ■ ... 

Dronpur 

219,698 

780,085 



... 


Rewasa 

801,117 

1,995,824 





Run 

615,212 

•913,251 

«• « 




Rasulpur 

114,985 

704,306 





Rahot 

45,269 

183,137 





Sadela 

Fatehpur Jhunjhunu, has 

153,032 

1,262,930 

••• 




a stone fort .. 

152,200 

1,233,222 


500 

2000 

Qiyaui 

Khani. 

Kasli 

28,740 

1,587,157 





KhMa 

114,955 

558,560 





Kuchera 

270,490 

466 890 





Kolewa [Kolia] .. 

12,748 

352,305 





Knmari 

469,881 

435,604 

3220 




Kheran 

26,033 

57,160 





Ladnu 

149,760 

780,842 

4337 




Merta, has a stone fort 

2,114,773 

7,701,522 

45,433 




Manoharnagar 

129,895 

2,903,386 




Nokha 

Nagor with sub. dist. has 

83,096 

380,756 





a brick fort .. 

57,755-14 

313,581 

114,440 


... 



* Khatu is 38 miles s.e. of Nagor. 


Sarkdr of Bikaner. 


Containiiig 11 Mahals. Reveiiue 4,750,000 Dams. 
Tribe, Bhati. Cavalry, 12,000. Infantry, 50, 000. 


y 

Tribe 


Bikanipur 


Bikaner 

Barsalpur 

... 

Jaisalmir 

Baharmel (Barmer) 

... 

Chhotan 

Pung^ 

' , ■■ ? 

Kotra - : 

Barkal 


Bewadawar 

Pokharnn 



Tribe 


Rathor. 

Bhati. 



SUBAH OF DELHI. 

It is in the third climate. Its length from PalwaV to 
Ludhianah on the bank of the Satie j is 165 kos. Its breadth 
from the Sarkdr of Rewdri to the Kumdon hills is 140 kos, 
and again from Hisdr to Khizrdbdd is 130 kos. On the east 
lies^ the capital, Agra ; on the north-east it marches with 
Khairdbdd in the Subah of Oudk,; to the north are moun- 
tains; on the south the Suhahs of Agra and Ajmer; on the 
west is Ludhianah. The chief rivers are the Ganges and 
the Jumna, and both these take their rise in this Subah. 
There are besides numerous other streams, amongst them 
the Ghaghar. The mountains principally to the north. 
The climate is nearly temperate. Much of the land is sub- 
ject to inundation and in some places there are three 
harvests. The fruits of Iran, Turan and Hindustan are 
here grown and abundant flowers of various kinds. Lofty 
buildings of stone and ^rick delight the eye and gladden 
the heart, and it is scarce equalled for the choice produc-- 
tions of every clime. 

Delhi is one of the greatest cities of antiquity. It was 
first called Indrapat and is situated in long. 114° 38', lat. 
28° 15'. Although some consider it as the second climate, 
making the southern mountainous system begin from this 
region they are certainly mistaken as the latitude shows. 
Sultans Qutbuddin (1206-10), and Shamsuddin (Altmish, 
1210-35) resided in the citadel of Rajah Pithura (Prithwi). 
Sultan Ghiydsuddin Balkan erected another fort, intending 
it as a (royal) cemetery. He also built a handsome edifice 
in which if any criminal took sanctuary, he was absolved 
from retribution. Muizz ud din Kai Kubdd (1286-9) founded 
another city on the banks of the Jumna called Kelukhari. 
Amir Khusrau in his poem the ‘Qirdnu"s Sadain^^ eulogises 
this city and its palace. It is now the last resting-place of 

^ A town of undoubted antiquity, supposed to figure in the earliest Aryan 
traditions under the name of Apelava, part of the Pandav^ kingdom of Indra-* 
prastha. 

* The word "Khdwar* like "Bdkhtar^ is often misapplied and the two are 

interchangeably and incorrectly used for B. and W. alike. Abul FazI, how- 
ever, invariably uses for W. and Khawar for B., though with a 

southing tendency, as may be seen from* His delimitations of other provinces. 
Hence Agra is certainly B. of Delhi in longitude, but it is almost south of 
it. See Cunnningham^s explanation of the anomalous use of ^Khawar' and 
'Dakkhin* in his Anc. Geog. af IndM, p. 94. 

* See JouTfk, As, Soc. Bengal' 1860, p. 225, and Blliot, iii, 524. 


284 


Am-I-AKBARI 


Humdyun where a new and splendid monument has been 
erected. Sultan Ala tid din (1295-1316) founded another 
city and fort called 5m. Tnghlaqd'bdd is a memoxial of 
Tughlaq 5hdh (1321-24). His son Muhammad (1324-51) 
founded another city and raised a lofty pile with a thousand 
columns of marble and constructed other noble edifices. 
Sultan Firoz (1351-88) gave his own name to a large town' 
which he founded and by a cutting from the /wmna brought 
its waters to flow by. He likewise built another palace at 
a distance of B kos hom'Firozdbdd, named fahdnumd {the 
world-view) . Three subterranean passages were made wide 
enough to admit of h’is passing along in mounted procession 
with the ladies of his harem ; that towards the river, 5- jarihs 
in length; the second towards the. Jahdnumd, 2 kos, and the 
third to old Delhi, 3 kos. Humayun restored the citadel of 
Indrapat and named it Dinpandh {asylum of the faith). 
Sher Khan destroyed the Delhi of A id ud din and built a 
separate town. Although the monuments of these cities are 
themselves eloquent and teach us the highest moral lessons, 
yet even is this latest Delhi now for the most part in ruins. 
The cemeteries are, however, populous. Khwdjah Qutb ud 
din Ushi lies here and Shaikh Nizdm ud din Aulia, and 
Shaikh Nasir ud din Mahmud, the Damp of Delhi, and 
Malik Ydr-i-Pirdn, and Shaikh Saldh, and Mdlik Kabir-i- 
Aulia, and Mauland Muhammad, and Fldji Abdul Wahhdb 
and Shaikh Abdullah Quraishi, and Shaikh Shams Tark-i- 
Biydbdni, and Shaikh Shams-i-Autdd and Amir Khusrau^ 
with many other servants of God instructed in Divine 
knowledge who in this spot repose in their last sleep. Here 
too lie Sultan Shahdb ud din Ghori, and Sultdn Shams ud 
din, and Ndsir ud din Ghdzi, and Ghiyds ud din, and Aid 
ud din and Qutb ud din, and Tughluq, and Muhammad 
Addil, and Firoz and Bahlol, and Sikandar Lodi. Many 
now living, likewise, have laid out pleasant spots and groves 
for their final resting-place — ^to the introspective a source 
of blissful ecstasy, to the wise an incentive to watchful- 
ness. 

In the hill of Jsldmdhdd is a very deep spring called 
Prabhds Kund*irom which warm water continually bubbles 
up, and which is a great place of worship. 

‘It is supposed to. have occupied the ground between Hnmayun’s tonib 
and the Ridge. I. O. , ; . . . 

' *Of these personages the last is sufficiently famous. The second and 
third and last on the list will be found in Ferishta’s lives of the saints at 
the close of his History; AJbo I si. 


DELHI PROVINCE— NOTED PLACES 


m 


Biswatnitra Rikhesar [Risliisliwar] made a deep exca- 
vation of three bighas of this hill and devoted it to purposes 
of worship, and to this day it testifies to the antiquitj^ of 
this construction. 

Baddon is conspicuous amongst ancient cities and a 
great many holy religious are there buried. 

A part of the northern mountains of this Subah is 
called Kumdon. Here are mines of gold, silver, lead, iron, 
copper, orpiment and borax.. Here also are found the musk- 
deer and the Quids cow,' as well as silk- worms, hawks, 
falcons and game of various kinds, and honey in abundance 
and the species of horse called Gut (Gunt). 

There is game in plenty in the Sarkdr of Sambal 
(Sambhal), where the rhinoceros is found.' It is an animal 
like a small elephant, without a trunk, and having a horn 
on its snout with which it attacks animals. From its skin 
shields are made, and from the horn, finger-guards for bow- 
strings and the like. In the city of Sambal is a 
temple called Hari Mandal (the temple of Vishnu) belong- 
ing to a Brahman, from among whose descendants the tenth 
avatar will appear in this spot. Hdnsi is -an ancient city, 
the resting-place of Jamal the successor of Shaikh Farid-i- 
Shakar-ganj. 

Near the town of Sahnah* is a hot spring on the 
summit of a hill, the peculiarity of which is undoubtedly due 
to a sulphtir mine. 

Hisdr (Hissar) was founded by Sultan Firoz who 
brought the waters of the Jumna to it by means of a cutting. 
A holy devotee predicted his accession to the throne and at 
his request the canal was made. Strange to say, it enters 
a pool named Bhadrd near the town of Sirsd,_ and there 
loses itself. Wonderful stories are related regarding it. 
There are few rivers in this district, and wells have to be 
dug to a considerable depth. 

^ Visvamitra is the name of a celebrated Kshatriya deriving his lineage 
from an ancestor Knsik of the lunar race : he was king of KanyM<!ubja or 
Kanauj. His jEajnous quarrel with the rival sage Vasishtha to perform the 
great tribal sacrifice, runs through the Rig Veda and he succeeded in raising 
himself to tlie rank of a Brahman by long and plainful austerities. Accord- 
ing to the Rtoayan he became the companion and counsellor of the young 
Ramachandra. He was the father of Sakuntala by the nymph Menaka whom 
the gods, jealous of his increasing power, sent to seduce him from his 
passionless life 

* Sohna, 15 miles S. of Gurgaon City. 


286 


AIN-I-AKSASI 


Sahrind (SirMnd) is a city of note. Here are the 
g'ardens of Hafiz Rakhnah, the delight of all beholders. 

T hanesar is accounted one of the most sacred places of 
pilgrimage. The Saraswati flows near it for which the 
Hindus have great veneration. Near it is a lake called 
Kurukshetra,^ which ■pilgrims from distant parts coine to 
visit and where they bathe, and bestow charitable offerings. 
This was the scene of the war of the Mahabhdrat which took 
place in the latter end of the Hwa^ar Yttg. 

In the city of Hastinapur reigned Raja Bharat who by 
his justice and consideration for his people gathered a 
fitting reward of happiness, and his virtues and good deeds 
confirmed for a long period the succession in his family, and 
forttme favoured son after son. The eighth in lineal descent 
from him was Raja Kuru from whom Kmu-Kshetra 
received its appellation. After six intermediate progeni- 
tors, an heir was bom named Vichitravirya/ who had two 
sons, one of whom was Dhritardshtra. He was the father 
of 101 children, the eldest of whom was Rdjd Duryodhana, 
and they are called the Kauravas. The other was Pandii, 
Although the first mentioned was the elder son yet on 
account of his blindness, the succession fell to his brother 
who obtained the sovereignty. His sons are called the 
Pdndavas. They were five, -namely, Yudishtir, Bhimsen, 
Arjuna, Nakul and Sahadev. On Pdndu’s death the king- 
dom reverted to Dhritarashtra, but although the nominal 
sovereignty was his, the real power was possessed by 
Duryodhana. Since to crush their enemies is the way of 
the princes of the earth, Duryodhana was ever in fear of the 
Pdndavas and sought their destruction. When Dhrita- 
rdshtra observed the growing feud, he resolved to establish 
his nephews in the city of Varanavatra, and sent skilled 
artisans with instructions to build their residences. The 

^ Genl. Cunningham says (p. 145) that "the name of Sarhind or ^frontier 
of Hind’ was popularly given to the city at an early period when it was the 
boundary town between the Hindus and the later Muhammadan kingdom of 
Ghazni and I^ahore, but the name is probably much older as the astronomer 
Varaha Mihira mentions the Sairindhas immediately after the Kulutas or 
people of Kullu and just before Brahmapura which was the capital of the hill 
country N. of Hardwar. 

® It is an oblong sheet of water, 3,546 feet in length by 1,900. During 
eclipses of the moon, the waters of all other tanks are believed to visit this, 
so that the bather is blessed hj the concentrated virtues of all other ablutions. 
The right ankle of Durga is .saii^rto have fallen here on her being cut to 
pieces and her limbs scattered* over the earth by Vishnu. 

^ He died childless, btit at the. request of his mother Satya-vati, the Rishi 
. Dwaipayana raised up three children to him, viz., Dhritarashtra, Pandu and 
Vidura. Vishnu Furdnu, 



KURU-PANDAV LEGEND 


287 


workmen at the instigation of Dmyodhana constructed a 
secret chamber of lac and pitch, in order that at a fitting 
opportunity the Pdndavas might be destroyed in a flaming- 
conflagration. But whom the Lord defends by his protec- 
tion, what avails against him the striving of the impotent? 
When the Pdndavas accepting their exile, settled in this 
spot, they became aware of the design. By chance a woman 
with five sons dwelt hard by. The Pdndavas set the house 
on -fire and set out for the wilds with their mother, while 
their neighbours were consumed in the flames. 

Duryodhana believing that the Pdndavas were des- 
troyed, held a festival of rejoicing. The Pdndavas after 
many adventures came forth from the wilds to the inhabited 
country and settled in- the city of Kampild [Panchal]. In a 
short time, the fame of their valour, skill and open-handed 
munificence filled the world, but none knew their name or 
lineage, till Duryodhana himself awaking from his dream 
of security suspected that the burning of the Pdndavas was 
a fable. After prosecuting inquiries, his suspicions were 
confirmed, upon which he had recourse to entreaty, and 
recalled them with protestations of friendship, hoping thus 
to secure his aim. He bestowed Delhi (Indraprastha) upon 
them with half his kingdom and retained Hastinapur with 
the other half. Yudhishthira by his prudence and good 
fortune aided by the divine favour rose to greatness and his 
administration advanced his power. The Kauravas flocked 
to his service, and in a short space he acquired universal 
sway. The other brothers likewise reduced many princes 
to their obedience. Duryodhana was beside himself at the 
sight of their sovereign splendour, and the pangs of envy 
drove him more distraught. With deceptive intent, he held 
a restival and invited the Pdndavas and proposed a game of 
chaupar, playing himself, with cogged dice. By this means 
he won all they possessed. The last stake was made on the 
condition that if the Pdndavas won, they should recover 
all that they had lost, but if otherwise, they were to quit 
the royal dominions and wander in the wilds for twelve 
years in the garb of mendicants after which they might 
return to civilised life for a peatj, and so conduct themselves 
that none should know them. If this last particular were 
infringed, they would have to pass a similar period of twelve 
years in the forests. Unsuspecting foul play, their upright- 
ness brought them to ruin. Elated by the success of his 
device, Duryodhana was lulled into the slumber of a false 


288 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

security while the Pdndavas under the divine direction 
accomplished their part of the agreement. Duryodhan now 
began to treat them with severity. Much altercation 
followed till the Patidams consented to accept five villages 
if peacefully surrendered to them. Duryodhana in his 
pride refused and rose in arms. The scene of the conflict 
WAS in the vicinity of Kufu-kshetm. But as the end of the 
fraudful is disaster, Duryodhana, and his companions were 
totally destroyed and Yudhishthira was victorious after 
eighteen days of successive engagements. 

Towards the close of the Dwdpar Yug, 135 years before 
the beginning of the Kali Yug, and 4,831 years anterior to 
this the 40th of the Divine Era,* this event rose into fame 
and was left to posterity as a record of portentous warning. 

It is said that in this mighty war, the army of the 
Kauravas consisted of 11 achhauhini, and that of the 
Pandavas of 7. An achhauhini consists of 21,870 men 
mounted on elephants, the same number in chariots, and 
65,610 cavalry; and 109,350 infantry. Marvellous to relate 
but 12 individuals of both armies survived this war. Four 
of the army of Duryodhana, escaping with their lives took 
refuge with Yudhishthira, viz:, Kripdchdrya Brahman who 
had been preceptor to both families and was renowned for 
wisdom and valour ; Ashwatthdman who was celebrated for 
the same qualities; Xnfuarmaw Yadu, a brave champion; 
and Sanjaya who, together with his reputation for wisdom, 
acquired renown as the charioteer ot Dhritardshtr a. ■ On the 
side of the Pandavas, eight survived,’ viz., the 5 brothers; 
Satyaki Yadu famous for his bravery and sagacity ; Yuyutsa 
brother of Duryodhana by another mother, and Krishna. 
After this Yudhishthira reigned supreme for 36 years', and 
his happy destiny and virtuous disposition discovering to him 
the vanity of mundane things, he sought retirement and 
resolutely forsook a world that oppresses the weak. To- 
gether with his brethren he chose the path of renunciation 
and played the last stake of his life. 

This great war has been related in the Mahdbhdrata 
with numerous episodes in a hundred thousand couplets, 
and has been translated, into Persian by command of His 
Majesty \mder the title of Razmndma (History of the War). 

*See p. 15 where it is stated that from the era of Raja Yudhishthira to 
the 40th of Aldar’s reign |A:.H. 1003, commencing 5th Dec. 1594 and ending 
25th November, 1595 A, D.) there , had elapsed 4,696 years, making the com- 
mencement of the Kali Yuga 3,Wl B.C. To this period an addition of 135 
brmgs the figure to 4 , 831 . . • • 



ANAI,YSIS OF MAHABHARAT 289 

It is set forth in eighteen Parhu ot books. The fhfst part is 
an account oi th& Kaurovas and Pandmas and a list of 
contents. The second; Yudhishthira sends his brethren to 
conquest— his supreme monarchy — ^the gambling feast held 
by the Kauravas, &c. Third, the departure of the Pandavas 
into the solitude of their exile and other events. Fourth, 
the coming of the Pandavas from the wilds to the city of 
Virata and remaining unknown. Fifth, the Pandavas dis- 
cover themselves ; the mediation of Krishna and his rejection ; 
the gathering at Kura-kshetra and disposition of the armies. 
Sixth, the opening of the combat, the wounding of Bhishma, 
the slaughter of many of the sons of Dhritarashtra, and the 
events of the ten days’ engagement. Seventh, the council 
of war held hy . Duryodhana ; the appointment of Drona to 
the general command, his death and other events during five 
days. Eighth, description of the two days’ battle; Duryo- 
dhana names Kama to the command, his exploits-r-the 
flight of Yudhisthira before him — ^the death of Kama at the 
hand of Arjuna on the second day. Ninth, Shalya is 
appointed general on account of his heroism — ^his death — 
Duryodhana conceals himself in a tank — ^his end and that 
of many champions. Tenth, the conclusion of the war, the 
coming oi Kritvarman, A shwatthamdn, and Kripachdrya to 
Duryodhana on the field of battle while still breathing and 
his advice of a night attack &c. Eleventh, the lamentations 
of the women on both sides — -Gandhari mother of Duryo- 
dhana curses Krishna. Tw-elfth, account of Yudhishthira 
after the victory — ^his desire to resign his kingdom. Byas 
and Krishna comfort him by their counsel. Bhishma 
delivers many admirable and instructive maxims setting 
forth the duties of sovereign administration. ^ Thirteenth, 
the advice tendered by Bhishma. In my judgment, the 12th 
and 13th books should be comprised in one as they both 
contain the counsels of Bhishma, and the 9th divided into 
two, the one dealing with the episode of Shalya and the 
other with the death of Duryodhana. Fourteenth, the great 
horse-sacrifice (ashwa-medh). Fifteenth, the retirement to 
a hermitage of Dhritardstra, Gd'^dhdri, and Kunti mother 
" of Yudhishtira. Sixteenth, the destruction of the Yadu tribe. 
Seventeenth, Raja Yudhishtira retires with his brethren who 
all perish in a snow-drift. Eighteenth; Yudhishtira in his 
own body mounts to the upper world ; the dissolution of the 
mortal remains of his brethren. The conclusion called 
Haribans, contains the history of the Yadus, 

37 


•290 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


In this work, although there are numerous extravagant 
tales and fictions of the imagination, yet it affords many 
instructive moral observations, and is an ample record of 
felicitous experience. 

This Subah contains 8 Sarkdrs subdivided into 232 
parganahs* — ^the measured land consists of 2 krors, 5 lakhs 
and 46,816 Bighas 16 Biswas. The revenue is 60 krors, 
16 lakhs 15,555 Dams (Rs. 15,040,388-14) of which 3 krors, 
30 lakhs, 75,7 9 are Suyurghdl (Rs. 8,26,893-7-7). The 
local force is 31,490 Cavalry, 242,310 Infantry. 


* The eight Sarkars comptise 232 tnahals, if we ouiit the five unsettled 
mahals of Kuraaon. The Siiyurghal total is incorrect, because by adding toge- 
ther the Suyurghdl for 7 Sarkars only (that of Kumaon not being given), we 
get a totalof 3,31,75,437 tj- 30 


MAHALS Ot mm SARKAR 


291 


Sathar of Delhi. 

Contains 48 Mahals, 7,126,107 Bighas, 17 Biswas. 
Revenue 123,012,590 Dams. Suyurghal 10,990,260 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry, 4,000. Infantry 23,980. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

'Revenue 

D. 

S «cd 
cs bJO 

m 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes. 

Islamabad Pakal, has a 







stone fort on a hill .. 

970,6749 

1,779,407 

31,462 

50 

1000 

Rajput Sand 

Adhah [ ?Odhan] 

14,912-8 

513,081 

45,420 

20 

200 

Ahir 

Panipat, has a brick fort 

568, 444 

10,756,647 

3,540,632 

100 

2000 

Afghan, Gu 
jar, Rang- 
har 

Palam 

245,240 

5,726,787 

1,231,880 

70 

1000 

Jat 

Baran, has a brick fort 





on the KUli Naldi 
Ba^hpat, on the Jumna, 

171,160 

3,907,928 

153,190 

20 

300 

[Brahman 

between two streams 

200,515 

3,582,868 

180,159 

20 

200 

Chauhan 

Palwal,^ has a brick fort 





and it stands on a 






Rajput, Gu- 

mound 

234,783 

1,769,493 

218,2^5 

25 

500 

jar 

Baniawah 

145,000 

1,879,125 

50,759 

25 

200 

Shaikhza- 

dah 

Path, has a brick fort 

48,191 

621,749 

7,243 

60 

600 

Tonwar 

(Tuar) 

Beri Dobaldhan 

119,002-19 

1,404,225 

... 

40 

800 

Jat 

Tilpat, has a brick fort 

Tandah Phuganah on 

119,578 

3,077,913 

92,583 

40 

400 

Brahman, 

Rajput, 

Gujar 

Afghan 

the Jumna .. 

51,669 

1,289,306 1 

11,366 

25 

200 

Jat 

Tilbegampur 

14,237-7 

370,374 

15,754 

10 

100 


Jhajhar 

Harsia, has a stone fort 

128,417 

1,422,451 1 

306,461 

60 

1000 

1 

in the village of 
Dhanah (cor. Dhmlri) 
built by Sultan Firoz 
on the banks of the 







Hindan 

87,923 

3,605,228 

376,079 

60 

600 

Badgujar 

Jewar 

133,746 

1,878,378 

85,439 

40 

400 

Rajput, 

Chhokar 

Jhinjhanah 

Chaprauli, stands be- 

57,923-16 

1,700,250 

100,250 

20 

300 

Jat 

tween two streams 
Jalalabad, stands be- 

32,701-12 

1,138,759 

5,719 

20 

300 

Bo. 

tween two streasni 







amid much forest .. 
Jalalpur Barawat, much 

96,189 

1,333,711 

9,099 

50 

600 

Do. 

forest 

42,061-17 

1,001,875 

1,775 

20 

400 

Do. 


^Palwal ^This mound stands to this day considerably above the surround- 

ing level and consists entirely of ancient remains crumbling to decay. It is /a 
town of undoubted antiquity and supposed to figure in the earliest Aryan 
traditions under the name of Apelava, patt of the Pandava Kingdom of Indra- 
prastha. Bar an is the mod. Bulandshahar. 


292 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkdr of Delhi— Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

.Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

''Castesv:' ■ 

The old suburban dis- 







trict 

128,417 

1,422,451 

306,460 

10 

, 40 

Jat, Chau- 
han. 

The new do. . do. .. 

36,447 

3,635,315 

595,984 

25 

300 

Gujar, Jat, 
Ahir. 

The metropolis of Delhi 
Dasna between Ganges 

971 

■ . 

736,406 

18,783 

135 

1,500 


and Jumna .. 

282,777 

■ ■ ■ 

4,933,310 

162,535 

60 

800 

Ghelot (here 
some illegi 
ble words) . 

Dadri Taha 

179,789 

4,326,059 

118,577 

20 

400 

Afghan, Tat, 

Dankaur, on the Jumna 

128,523 . 

1.016,682 

4,840 

20 

200 

Gujar. 

Kohtak, has a brick 

636,835 






fort 

Sonipat (Sonpat) has a 

8,599,270 

428,000 

100 

2,000 

Jat. 

brick fort .. .. 

Safidun, has a brick 

283,299 

7,727,823 

775,105 

70 

1,000 

Afghan, Jat. 

fort 

81,730 

1,975,596 

99,647 

60 

600 

Rajput Ran- 
ghar, Jat. 

Sikandarabad 

66,907-15 

1,259,190 

17,844 

50 

400 

Bhati, Gujar 
etc. 

Sarawa, has a brick 







fort 

42,387-12 

1,583,899 

31,914 

40 

800 


Santha 

39,147-9 

854,191 

48,207 

SO 

300 

Chauhan. 

Siyana, between two 

166,407-17 





streams 

: 849,090 

4,959 

50 

400 

■Taga.* 

Shikarpur 

52,189 

2,111,996 

780,305 

70 

200 

Chauhan. 

Kamal, the stream 
Sanjauli flows below 







the town 

540,444 

5,678,242 

207,999 

50 

800 

iRanghar 

Chauhan. 

Ganaur, has a brick fort 
Garh Muktesar, has a 

40,990-16 

i 1,718,792 

33,390 

20 

, 400 

Taga. 

brick fort on the 
Jumna, a Hindu place 







of pilgrimage 

101,340-10 

1,591,492 

41,490 

40 

400 

Rajput, 

Musalman, 

Hindu. 

Kutaua .. ..i 

91,706-13 

1,423,779 

892 

20 

150 

Jat. 

K3ndhla 

68,934-5 

1,874,430 

37,930 

20 

. 80 

Gujar. 

Kasna, on the Jumna 

104,021-19 

1,522,315 

149,250 

40 

400 

Do. 

Kharkhanda 

Gangeru Kherah, has 

51,895-15 

T, 105, 856 

4,958 

50 

600 

Afghan, Jat. 

a brick fort between 







two streams 

Ivoni, has a brick fort 

11,062-15 

316,405 

13,830 

40 

300 

Sayyid 

between two streams 

75,363 

1 

3,278,878 

148,445 

20 

200 



*Sir H. Elliot has an interesting discussion on the Gaur Tagas, an 
iBiportaiit tribe of Bralimaiiical descent in the N.-W. of India extending* over 
Rohilkhand, the upper Doab and the Delhi territory. 
Shemng s Hmdu Tnbes and Castes should be consulted in elucidation of the 
doubtful readings of the text. 


MAHALS OF BADAON ^93 

Sarkdr of Delhi— Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

■ Suyur- 
Suyur* 
D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Mirath (Meerut) has a 
brick fort between 
two streams .. 

610,422 

4,391,^ 

331,096 

100 

300 

Tags,.' Ran*': 

Mandauthi, the autumn 
harvest abundant : 

near the town a tank 
which is never dry 
throughout the year 

90,464 

2,858,223 

2,934 

30 

500 

ghar, 

Chandral. 

Jat. 

Masaudabad, has an 
old brick fort 

89,478 

2,809,156 

269,315 

30 

30 

Do. 

Hastinapur, on the 
Ganges : an ancient 
Hindu settlement 

176,340 

4,466,904 

1 ■ 

36,291 

20 

300 

Taga. 

Hapur, on the Kali 
Nadi between two 
streams 

239,845 j 

2,103,589 

j 5,229 

4 

1 

300 

Do. 


Sarkdt of Baddon. 

Containing Id Mahals. 8,093,850 Bighas, 10 Biswas. 
Revenue 34,817,063. Pams. Suyurghdl 467,181 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry, 2,850. Infantry, 26,700. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D, 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Ajaon [Raj wan] 

82,467-17 

1,362,867 


500 

3000 

Chauhan. 

Aonla 

Badaon with suburban 

14,701 

690,620 


50 

400 

Kan war 
C?Taar] 

district .. 

658,320*5 

7,357,571 

287,986; 

■ ■■ i 

50 

5000 

Shaikhza- 
dah, Kay- 
3th. 

Bareli 

661,227 

12,507,434 

91 320 i 

1000 

10,000 

Rajput, 

Barsar [?Paraur] 

196,700 

2,147,824 

6,754 

50 

500 

Kayath. 

Paund [Blliot Punar] 

5,749 

260,840 

i 

50 

300 

Kahor 

Talhi (Balhati) .. 

25,982 

1,077,811 

1,505 

50 

1000 

Taga, Brah- 
man. 

Sahiswan .. 

Sanas Mahdah (B. Satasi 

253.120 

2,493,898 

15,444 

100 

2000 

Tagi, Brah- 

Mundiya)* 

58,110 

795,815 

^ 3,471 

50 

500^ 

man. 

[ 


204 


aih-i-akbari 


ScttkSf of Baddon — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Reveniie 

D. 

Suytir- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Suneya 

Kanit E==Kant] .. 

29,753 

1,815,725 


50 

500 

Ulus ? 

55,584 

2,439,369 

48,’444 

300 

2000 

Btchhal. 

Kot Salbahan has a fort 

227,500-8 

1,219,165 

■ 

SO 

500 

Kan war. 

Golah 

24,540 1 

1,136,931 

4,257 

100 

1000 

Dewak, 

Bachhal. 


Sarkdr of Kumaon. 


Containing 21 Mahals. The revenue of 5 Mahals 
undetermined. 16 Mahals, in money. 40,437,700 Dams. 
Castes various. Cavalry, 3,000. Infantry, 50,000. 



Revenue 

D. 


Revenue 

D 

5.udan [ ?Adon] 

"400,000 

Jakram ..., ... 

5,000,000 

Bhuksi and BhakvSa, 2 


Jariyah — 

3,000,000 

Mahals 

400,000 

Jawan ... 

2,500,000 

Bastwah ... 

200,000 

Chauli, Saha j gar, Guzar- 


Pachotar ... 

400,000 

pur, Dwarakhot [Kot 


Bhikan Diwar ... 

200,000 

Dwara]**^ 


Bhakti .., 

11^000,000 

Malwarah . ... ... i 


Bhuri, undetermined 


Malachor, Sitaehor, Ke- 


Ratila [?Bama] 

10,025,000 

mus, 3 Mahals 


Chanki [Chauki-ghal3 ... 

400,000 




* Sahajgat is now Jct-spar, Gnzarpur is Gadarpura; Malwara may be 
Talwara. 


Sarkdr of Samhhal. 

Containing 47 Mahals. . 4,047,193 Bighas, 2 Biswas. 
Revenue 66,941,431 Dams. Suyurghdl 2,892,394 Dams. 
Castes various. , Cavalry, 4,376. Infantry, 31,560. 
Elephants, 60. 



; Bighas 
Biswas 

Revenue 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

CO 

1 

I -a 

1 (L) 

W 

Caste.s 

Amrdfciah 

820,654 

6,342,000 

993 858 

1000 

5000 

50 

Sayyid. 

Aazampur ^ i. 

55467 

2.889,478 

187^544 

30 

300 

... 


Islampur Bharu 

66,096 

1,870,640 

12,133 

100 

200 

... 

Baishnavi. 


MAHALS OP g4MBHAI. SARKAR 395 

Sarkar of Sambhal — -Contd. 




1 

Biglias 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Blephants I 

Castes . 

Ujiiari 


125,221 

697,609 

2,788 

20 

300 


Jat. ■ 

Akbarabad 


58,790-14 

640,264 

27,860 

50 

200 

... 

Islampur Dargu 


11,217-30 

429,675 

675 

20 

200 



IslamabM 


25,26140 

346,348 

6,394 

50 

500 


Jat. 

Bijnaur 


60.362 

3,355,465 

18,154 

60 

500 

... 

Taga, Brill- 

Bachharaan 


115,226-12 

828,322 

8,632 

50 

200 


man. 

Taga. 

Biroi 


15,02742 

150,000 

... 

25 

100 


Kohi 

Bisara 


3,008-7 

200,000 

... 

25 

100 


Rhasia. 

Chandpur 


87,278 

431,071 

259,959 

50 

200 

... 

Taga, Jat, 

Jalalabad 


49,398 

1,470,072 

12,263 

25 

100 


8i,c. « 

Jat. 

Chaupalah 


1,016,199 

1,340,812 

... 

100 

500 


Gaur. 

Jhala 


26,795 

237,809 

34,916 

50 

400 

... 

Jat. 

Jadwar 


76,75749 

828,846 


50 

200 

.i. 

Badgujar. 

Suburban district 
Sambhal 

of 

206,450 

3,822,448 

148,739 

100 

500 


Taga, Brail- 

Deorah 


96,965 

1,924,887 


25 

200 


man &c. 

Dhaka 


130,158-16 

670,364 

6,487 

25 

200 

... 

Rahes. 

Dabharsi 


82,69241 

280.306 


25 

200 



Dudilah 


80,18045 

210,000 

... 

20 

100 

... 

KqU 

Rajpur 


189,390 

700,000 


50 

400 

... 

Rajput. 

Raiabnur 


40,346-9 

612,977 

2288 

25 

100 

*•* 

Kokar, 

Sambhal, has a brick 
fort 

42,400 

8^,958 

63,404 

50 

400 


Shaikhzadali 

Khokhar. 

Seoharah 


27,945 

1,833,732 

1,418 

50 

800 


Taga. 

Sirsi 


52,400-11 

958,769 

152,814 

20 

200 

... 

Sayyid, &c. 

Sahanspur .. 


54,844-10 

944,804 

1,038 

50 

400 

... 

Taga. 

Sursawah 


37,502 

808,065 

... 

15 

400 


Kaurawah, 

Sherkot 


19,870 

4,921,051 

218,157 

100 

1000 



Shahi 


80,417 

500,496 

478 

20 

200 


Gaur. 

Kundarki 


86,164 

674,986 

74,936 

50 

400 

... 

Kyatli. 

Kiratpur 


80,973 

2,410,609 

166,218 

100 

5 (Kr 


Taga, Jat. 

Kachh 


99,868 

1,248,995 

5,765 

20 

200 


Taga. V 

Gandaur 


18,576-1: 

751,520 

34,270 

30 

200 


Kabar 


83,232-7 

566,339 

16,019 

50 

400 


Chauhan. 

Ganaur 


51,005-1 

267,919 

17,719 

10 

100 

... 

Musalman. 

Khankari 


31,546-7 

200,000 

..*■ " 

10 

100 


Gaur. 

Dakhnor 


246,440 

2,499,208 

32,983 

1000 

5000 


Liswah 


1,871 

100,000 

' 

10 

100 


Taga, 

Mughalpur 


168.374 

3,580,800 

80,800 

100 

500 


Majhaulah 


142,461 

1,737,556 

6,970 

400 

8000 


Badgujar. 

Mandawar 


65,710 

1,256,995 

20,455 

25 

300 

... 

Bais. 

Nagina • 


99,233 

2,647,242 

284,368 

50 

500 

1 


Ahir. 


296 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkdr of Sambhal—Contd. 




Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

m . 

§ 

<y 

s 

Castes 

Nahtaur, in this far- 
ganah, the mulberry 
grows in great per- 
fection of size and 
sweetness— a span in 
length* 

85,974-12 

1,788,160 

4,675 

50 

300 


Taga. 

Neodhanah 


209,620-10 

904,675 

... 

100 

500 


Gaur. 

Naroli 


181,621 

1,408,093 

48,212 1 

50 

400 

... 

Badgujar. 

Hatamnah 


5,706-14 

250,000 


50 

400 


Kodar, 


> ’^Probably, according to Dr. King, the Moms laevigata, a long thin berry 
with a mawkish, sweet taste. 


Sarkdr of Sahdranpur. 


Containing 36 Mahals. 3,530,370 Bighas, 3 Biswas. 
Revenue, 87,839,659 Dams. Suyurghdl 4,991,485 Dams. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 3,955. Infantry, 22,270. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

\ 

Revenue 

D, 

Suyur- 

ghal 

I>V 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

1 sfUBqdaia: 

Castes 

Indri, has a brick fort 

. .. . 







near the Jumna 

143,900-28 

7,078,326 

691,903 

50 

lOOO 


Ranghar, 

Taga. 

Ambihta .. 

17,764 

324,560 

... 

20 

300 


Gujar, 
'Aawan'? . 

Budhana 

155,683 

3,698,041 

131,780 

40 

300 


Taga, Jat. 

Bidauli 

111,226 

3,115,125 

1,400,255 



... 

• Sayyid 

Bhatkanjawar 

Bhogpur, has a brick 
fort on the Ganges, 
a Hindu place of 

173,471 

2,676,407 

146,749 

50 

500 


Taga, 

Barhah. 

worship 

94,428 

2,338,120 

6,941 

100 

1000 


Rajput 

Purchapar 

86,949 

2,191,460 

120,438 

20 

■:l.200:. 


Sarir. 

Bhumah 

67,451 

2,135,490 

28,453 

2000 

7000 


, Sayyid. 

Baghra 

50,390 

1,918,196 

74,840 

20 

200 

% 

lijat.-' 

Bhanath 

49,288 

1,321,440 

8,650 

20 

200 


Taga. 

! Rajput, 

:''''SjEidbar.'v'", 

Thanah Bhim 

281,377 

3,578,540 

317,260 

20 

500 

• •IT 



SAHARANPUR MAHALS 

Sarkdr of Saharanpur — Contd. 


297 





Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Q 

St 

u" 

4-t 

C ^ 
cd 

« i 

CO 

XJ 

eu 

<u 

Castes 







6 


s 


Tuglilaqpiii* 



81,856 

222,277 

128,853 

20 

30 


Jat. 

Janrasi 

. 


211,751 

2,471,277 

71,297 

20 

200 


Bidar. 

Jauii 



45,653 

1,310,057 

152,396 

... 



Sayyid 




1 





i 

(Cavalry 

entered 

under 

Sarot), 

Cliarthawal 



35,916 

1,668,882 

68,872 

20 

200 

1 

Taga. 

Suburban district 

of 




j 

Saharanpur, 

has 

a 








brick fort, cloths 

of 








the kinds Khasa and 








ChttutSr (Vol. I, 

P* 








94) are here 
perfection 

made 

in 

212.385-16 

6,951,545 

706,448 

100 

800 


Afghan. 

Deoband, has 

a brick 







Kulal Taga. 

fort 



335,861 

6,477,977 

641,946 

60 

800 

... 

Gujar, Taga. 

Kampur 



79,419 

1,777,908 

78,597 

50 

400 

... 

Sadbar, 

Rurki 







Taga. 



2,768 

1,628,360 

8,361 

25 

200 


Rajput, 








Sadbar, 

Taga, 

Brahman. 





Raepur Tatar 



4,688-8 

[ 369,080 


10 

200 

... 

Taga. 

Sikri Bhukarheri 


183,211 

1 3,003,61 1 

110*611 

40 

200 

... 

Jat. 

Sarsawah, has 

a brick 







fort 


*• 

106,800 S 

2,516,125 

16,165 

30 

200 


Taga. 

Sarot 



90617 

2,207,779 

51,571 

50 

1000 1 

... 

Do. 

Sardhana 



113,780 

1,590,606 

43,342 

30 i 300 


Taga, Ahir 

Sambalhera 

«• 

.. 

31,963 

1,011,078 

11,078 


... 


Sayyid (Cav. 







entered 
under 
Bhona) . 




Soranpalri 



10,648 

574,320 

22 628 

40 

250 



Khatauli 



104,747 

3,624.588 

190,919 

40 

800 


Taga, Kulal 

Khodi 



85,618 

2,514,673 

58,906 

50 

400 


Jat, Taga. 

Kairana 



71.245 

2,025,238 

223,579 

20 

200 


Gujar. 

Gango 



52,137 

2,029,032 

322,515 

800 

2000 


Turkoman, 

bakhnauti 

Muzaffarabad 



79,694 

81,305-15 

1,796,058 

4,074,064 

.76,602 

71,899 

300 2000 
20 1 200 


Do. 

Ranghar, 

Sander 

“Manglaur, has 
fort 

a brick 

60,987 

2,850,311 

197,216 

40 

300 


( ?Pundir) . 
Brahman, 







Badgujar. 

■\Ialliaipur 


•• 

81,010 

2,244,070 

23,077 

100 

500 


Afghan, 

Taga, 










Brahman. 

Nakor 



65,612-lC 

> 1^387.070 

26,104 

40 

300 

- 

Afghan, 

Brahman. 

Nanauta 


•• 

29,224 

724,150 

18,684 

40 

300 


Afghan. 


38 


298 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

Sarkar of Rewari. 


Containing 1‘2 Mahals. 1,155^011 Bighas, 10 Biswas. 
Suyurghal, 709,208 Dams. Revenuef * * ’‘‘. Cavalry, 
2,175. Infantry, 14,600. ^ 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

B. 

Cavalry 

s 

VH 

M 

Castes 

Bawal .. .. 

110,875 

4,114,753 

16,274 

- 

100 

2001 

Rajput, . 

Pataudhi .. 

61,970 

2,270,080 

5,260 

50 

500 

Ahir, Jat. 
Do. Do. 

Bhoharah (E. Bhorah) 

38,547 

755,543 

345 

100 

1000 

Ahir. 

Taoru, has a brick fort .. 

85,858 

986,228 

11,573 

50 

500 

Musalman, 

Rewari with sub. dxst., has 
a brick fort 

405,108 

11,906,847 

404,100 

400 

2000 

Khaildar(?) 

Thathar, 

Ratai Jatai .. 

52,120 

289,603 

523 


400 

Ahir, Jat. 

Kot Qasim Ali .. 

80,410 

3,357,930 

110,330 

25 

400 

Rajput, 

Ghelot .. . - .. 

27,270-10 

656,688 


700 

2000 

Ahir. 

Rajput, 

Kohana 

15,264 

421.440 


! 50 

500 

Thatar. 

Do. Do. 

Suhna, has a stone fort 
on a hill ; here a hot 
spring and Hindu shrine 

! 

■ ■ ; ■ ' i 

251,738 

3,928,364 

150,563 

i 

{ 

1 200 

2000 

Do. Do. 

Nimrana, has a stone fort 
on a hill •• 

85,047 

682,259 

i 500 

!■ ' ' 

1 

4000 

Various. 


t By deducting the revenues of the other 7 Sarkars from the total revenue 
of the Subah (given on p. 290), we get 35,222,658 dams as the revenue of 
Rewari. [J. S.] 


Sarkar of Hisdr Firozah.* 


Containing 27 Mahals. 3,114,497 Bighas. Revenue, 
52,554,905 Dams. Suyurghal, 1,406,519 Dams. Castes, 
various. Cavalry, 6,876. Infantry, 60,800. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

■■■■■■ I 

1 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Agrowa (var. Agrohah). 
Game of all kinds 
abounds. Sport chiefly 
hawking 

Ahroni .. ,, 

45,717 

19,537 

1 1,748,970 
j 857,357 

1 

6,654 

160,033 

— 



200 

100 

2000 

1000 

Jatu, Jat. 
Gujar, Jat. 


* Called after the Emperor Firoz Shah Tughlaq who founded the town 
of that name about 1354 A,]?,. 


HISAR MAHAI^ ^ 

Sarkar of Hmr Firczah — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Atkliera, has a brick fort, 





— 


and a Hindu temple call- 







ed Govardhan .. 

32,991 

1,576,200 


200 

2000 

Jat, 

Bhangiwal 

... 

1,800,000 


200 

2000 

Tonwar. 

Rajput, 

Rathor, 

■ Jat, 

jPunva (Jat). 

Puniyan .. .. 

! , - 

1,200,000 


150 

3000 

i Jat, Punyan 

Bharangi .. 


880,882 


200 

2000 

Rathor, Jat. 

Barwala 

136,799 

1,097,807 

109,052 

100 

1500 

Sayyid, " 
Malikzadah, 
Bakkal. 

Bhatu .. .. 

... 

440,280 


SO 

1000 

Jat. 

Barwa 

6,254 

64,680 


25 

300 

Jatu, Jat. 

Bhatner, has a brick fort 

15,683 

933,042 

... 

500 

10,000 

Rathor, Raj- 
put. 

Tohanali, Do. 

180,744 

4,694,354 

150,680 

400 

3000 

Afghan, 

Dohani. 

Tosham .. 

511,075 

1,068,548 

2,686 

200 

1000 

Rathor, Raj 
pttt, Jat. 

Jind, 3 miles from the 
town in the village of 
Pandarah, is a Hindu 



1 



temple 

281,584 

5,401,749 

123,080 

500 

4000 

-Salar, Raj- 
put, Jatu. 

Jamalpur, the Ghaggar 
flows through several 







villages here 

Hisar (Hissar) with sub. 
dist. has 2 forts, one of 

142,455 

4,277,261 

1 

1 

81,461 

700 

. 1 

400 

Tonwar, Jat 

brick, one of stone 

176,512-18 

4,039,895 

1 

183,879 

500 

2000 

Jatu, Ran- 
ghar, 
Sowaran 
(Sheoram) , 
Sangwan. 

Dhatarat, has a brick fort 

29,207-18 

978.027 

45,556 

100 

2000 

Jat, Afghan. 

vSirsa, Do. .. : 

258,355 

4,361,368 

163,104 

500 

5000 

Junah (note 
Johiya) , 

Seoran 


400,000 ! 

m 1 

... 

100 

1000 

Jat, Seoran 
(Sheoram). 

Sidhmukh, soil mostly sand 


171,3721 

... 

50 

100 

Rajput, 
Rathor, Jat. 

Sewani 

48,512 

76,750 

... 

100 

1000 ^ 

Rajput, Jatu 

Shanzdah Dihat (sixteen 





villagCvS) ‘ 

29,740 

' 

960,111 

12,586 

■ 

200 

1500 

Rajput, 

Tonwar. 


300 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of Hisdr Firozah—Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

; D. : ,/ 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry * 

Infantry 

Castes 

Fathabad, has a brick fort 

S3, 661 

1,184,392 

81,867 

200 

3000 * 

Rajput, 

Rathor, 
Gujar, Jat. 

Gohana .. .. 

Khanda, here a large tank 
in which the Hindus 
think it auspicious and 

68,9S1 

2,876,115 

16,146 

300 

3000 

Jat, Bad- 
balasa 
Buhna? 

holy to bathe .. .. 

19,438 

1,119,364 

47,978 

100 

2000 

Jat, Gadi 
(var. Kari) . 

Muhim, has a brick fort 

188,080 

4,958,613 

84,202 

700 

2000 

Rajput, 

Tonwar, 

Jat; 

Hansi, lias a brick fort .. 

■, ■■ . :■ , 1 

886,115 

5,434,438 

130,056 

500 

7000 

Rajput, 
Multani, 
Jatu, Jat. 


Sarkdr of Sirhind. 


Containing 33 Mahals. 1 ,129,4:66 Bighas, 7 Biswas. 
Revenne, 160,790,649 Dams. Suyurghdl, 11,698,330. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 9,226. Infantry, 66,700. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

glial 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Ambaia 

[ ■' ' ' , 

154,769 

4J98,094 

321,488 

100 

1000 


Banor 

420,337 

12,549,953 

j 1,087,209 

700 

3000 

Ranghar, 

Afghan. 

Pael, has a brick fort .. 

525,932 

1 7,322,260 

162,267 

200 

' ■ J 

2000 Ranghar, 

: : : : 

Bhader 

86,877 

3,103,269 

1,406,106 

50 

700, Jat, Dah- 
1 surati ? 

Bhatinda .. 

... 

8,125,000 


400 

1 2000 Bhatti. 

Pandri 

Thara, has a brick fort 

34,190 

686,870 

47452 

20 

300 Ranghar. 

on the Sutlej .. 

273,866 

7,850,809 

2,369.841 

1500 

1,000 

Munj (or 
Shaikh). 
Jat. 


SIRHIKD MAHAtS 


301 


I 


Sarkar of Sirhind — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

A* 

f 

U 

Infantry I 

Castes 

Thanesar, has a brick fort 

228,988-17 

7,850,808 

2,069,841 

50 

1500 

Ranghar, . 

Chahat on the Ghaggar .. 

158,739 

750,994 

49,860 

650 

1100 

Jat.,.' 

Afghan,.'-/. 

.Rajput..' 

Ghark 

63,688 

1.538,090 

21,619 

20 

800 

Jat. 

Kliizrabad, has a brick fort 

332.489 

12,059,918 

■ 528,170 

200 

3000 

Bhatti, Jat. 

Dorala 

65,768 

2,188.443 

86,710 

50 

300 

Ranghar. 

Dhota 

71,357 

1,601.346 

1,346 

800 

1500 

Rajput. 

Deorana .. 

12,339 

580,985 

17,385 

20 

200 

Jat. 

Rnpar, has a brick fort .. 
Sirhind with sub. dist. has 

66,144 

5,005,549 

26,034 

200 

1000 

Rajput &c. 

a brick fort 

828,458 

12,082,630 

608,536 

1700 

2000 

Rajput, 
Barah, 
Khauri, 
Dadah 
(Dadu ?) , 
Jat. 

Samana 

904,261 

12,822,270 

782,000 

700 

2000 

Barah, Jat. 

Sunam, has a brick fort .. 

988,562 

7,007,696 

7,696 

500 

2000 

Ranghar. 

Sadhuna, has a brick fort 

34,861 

4,298,064 

278,265 

400 

6000 

Chauhan, 

Ranghar. 

Sultanpur Barha .. 

13,736 

427,085 

82,759 

20 

100 

Do. Rajput, 

Shahabad .. 

184,146 

6,751,468 

761,587 

200 

1500 

Chauhan, 

Raiput, 

Brahman. 

Fathpur 

50,931 

684,370 

15,440 

25 

400 

Rajput, 

Pundir. 

Karyat Rae Samu 

Kaithal, has a brick fort : 

28.099 

1,220,090 

5,874 

40 

900 

Ranghar, 

Jat, Barah, 
(var. 

Barah) . 

here Hindu shrines 

918,025 

10.688,630 

309,146 

200 

8000 

Rajput. 

Guhram, Do. 

Ludhiana, has a brick fort 

188,574 

6,188,630 

1,058,982 

50 

100 

Ranghar, 

Jat, Khauri. 

on the Sutlej 

43,469 

2,294,638 

44,633 

100 

700 

Awan,*^ 

Khauri, 

Ranghar. 

Mustafabad 

271,899 

7,496,691 

570,976 

200 

1 1000 

Chauhan, 

Ranghar. 

Masengan 

204,877 

7,058,259 

1 626,690 

200 

1000 

Jat. 

Mansurpur 

116,242 

1,830,025 

326,690 

200 

1000 

Ranghar. 

Maler 

Machhiwara, has a brick 

103,444 

260,583 

26,176 

100 

500 

Munj. 

fort 

17,272 

250,556 

1 250,552 

100 

500 

Khauri, 

Wah (var. 
Warah) 

Hapari 

93,756 

1,145,118 

i 

80 

^ 300 

Ranghar, 

Jat. 


*See— Blliot, I, 113. Extract from Cunningham who gives the possession 
of Taxila to this people before Alexander’s invasion. 




302 


AEN-I-AKaARI 


Sovereigns of Delhi. 

A. 

Twenty princes reigned 437 years 1 month 28 days.' 


Anangpal, Tonwar ... •• 

Basdeva 

Ghangnu (var. Khanku, Kanakpal Gangn 
Pirthimal (var. Pirthipal) 

Jaideva ... 

Nirpal (var. Hirpal) ... 

Adrah (var. Andiraj and 26-8-15) 

Bichhraj ... ... 

Bik, (Anangpal, Anakpal) ... 

Raghnpal ... , 

Nekpal (Rekhpal) ... 

Gopal 

Snlakhan 

Jaipal ... ... 

Kanwarpal ... 

Agnipal 

Bijaipal. (var. Tajpal) . ... 

Mahipal 

Aknepal [Anangpal] 

Prithiraj 


Seven princes reigned 94 years and 7 months. 


Ys. 

M. 

D. 

18 

0 

0 

19 

1 

18 

21 

3 

28 

19 

6 

19 

20 

7 

28 

14. 

4 

9 

26 

7 

11 

21 

2 

13 

22 

3 

16 

21 

6 

5 

20 

4 

4 

18 

3 

16 

25 

2 

2 

16 

4 

13 

29 . 

9 

11 

29 

6 

18 

24 

1 

6 

25 

2 

13 

21 

2 

15 

22 

3 

16 


Bildeva Chauhan 

Amr Gangn 

Khirpal 

Sumer 

Jahir 

Nagdeva 

Pithaura (Prithwi Rae) 


Ys. M. D. 

6 14 

5 2 5 

20 1 5 

7 4 2 

4 4 8 

3 15 


* This number does not accord with the totals. It would be as unprofit- 
able as it is hopeless to attempt to^ digest or reconcile the order, number and 
lengthy of these reigns among various authorities, when dates are unknown 
or conjectural, the names of the princes disputed and their existence mythical. 
After this, the minute exactness of their duration of reigns would be ridi- 
culous. 




MUSUM SUI.I'ANS OF DELHI 


303 


III. 


Eleven princes of the Ghori dynasty reigned 96 years 
6 months and 20 days. 


A.H. 

-A.D. 





588 

1192 

Sultan Muizzu’ddin Muham- 






mad Sam Ghori ... 

14 

0 0 

602 

1206 


Qutbuddin Eibak ... 

4 

0 0 

607 

1210 

> > 

Aram Sah, his son ... 

1 

0 0 

607 

1210 

J J 

Shamsuddin Altmish ... 

26 

0 0 

633 

1235 

'3 J 

Ruknu’ddin Firoz Shah, 






his son ... ... 

0 

6 28 

634 

1236 

5 ) 

Raziah, his sister 

3 

6 6 

637 

1239 

> > 

Muizzu’ddin Bahrain 






Shah, his brother . . . 

2 

1 15 

640 

1242 

> > 

Alau’ddin Masaud Shah, 






his nephew ... 

4 

1 1 

643 

1245 

J J 

Nasiru’ddin Mahmud 






Shah, his uncle 

19 

3 0 

664 

1265 

J ) 

Ghiyasu’ddin Balban ... 

20 and some 






months 

685 

1286 

) J 

Muizzu’ddin Kaikubad, 






his grandson 

3 

Do. 




IV. 




Thirteen princes of the Khilji dynasty reigned 129 

years 10 months and 10 days. 



A.H. 

A.D. 



Ys. 

Md. D. 

688 

1289 

Sultan 

Jalalu’ddin Khilji 

7 

some 






months 

695 

1295 


Alau’ddin Khilji, hi® 






nephew 

20 

some 






months 

716 

1316 

.53' 

Shahabu’ddin Omar, his 






son 

0 

3 some 






days 

717 

1317 

1 J 

Qutbu’ddin Mubarak 






Shah his elder brother 

14 

4 0* 


* All the MSS. concur iu this glaring error, an evident slip of a copyist 
of 14 for 4, He was raised to the throne on the 7th Muharram A.H. 717 
(22nd March 1317) and was killed 5th Rabii I, A.H. 721 (5th April 1321). 



304 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


721 

1321 


Nasiru’ddin Khusrau 







Khan ... ... 

0 

6 

0 

721 

1321 

y ) 

Ghiyasu’ddin Tughlaq 







Shah ... 

4 

some 







months 

725 

1324 

) j 

Muhammad, his son . . . 

27 

0 

0 

752 

1351 

y ) 

Firoz Shah, son of his 







paternal uncle 

38 

some 







months 

790 

1388 

M 

Tughlaq Shah, his grand- 







son .... 

0 

5 

3 

791 

1389 

) } 

Abu Bakr Shah, son of 







his paternal uncle . . . 

1 

6 

0 

793 

1391 

i i 

Muhammad Shah, his 







paternal uncle ... 

6 

7 

Of 

796 

1393 

} y 

Ala’uddin Sikandar, his 







son 

0 

1 11 

796 

1393 

M 

Mahmud, his brother 

20 

2 

0 




V. 




817 

1414 

Khizr 

Khan of the Sayyid 







Dynasty 

7 

2 

2 

824 

1421 

Mubarak Shah ... ... 

13 

3 16 

837 

1433 

Muhammad Shah ... 

10 

some 






months 

850 

1446 

Sultan Ala’uddin Aalam 







Shah ... ... 

7 

do. 


854 

1450 

) ) 

Behlol Lodi ... 

38 

8 

8 

894 

1488 

y y 

Sikandar, his son 

28 

5 

0 

923 

1517 

yy 

Ibrahim, his son 

7 

some 






months 



y y 

Babar 

5 

0 

0 



yy 

Humayun ... 

9 

8 

1 

947 

1540 

y y 

Sher Khan Sur 

5 

0 

0 

952 

1545 

yy 

Salim Khan, his son ... 

8 

and odd 

960 

1552 

yy 

Mubariz Khan Adali. 




961 

1553 

■ y .1 ' 

Ibrahim ... 

some months 

962 

1554 

yy 

Sikandar ... 


do. 




y y 

Huma3nin ... 

1 

3 

0 


t Thus in all MSS., bat Ferishta discovers the method of computation by 
dating this reign from the abdication of his father Firoz Shah in his favour on 
the 6th Shaban 789 A.H. (21st August 1387) to his death on the 17th Rabii I 
796 (20th January 1393) disregarding the two intermediate reigns. 



RAI PITHAURA AND JAICHAND 


305 


In the year 429 of the era of Bikramajit (A.D. 372) 
Anangpah of the Tonwar tribe reigned with justice and 
founded Delhi. In the year 848 of the same luni-solar era 
(A.D. 791) in the vicinity of that renowned city, a hotly 
contested battle was fought between Prithir a j Tonwar and 
Bildeva Chauhan, and the sovereignty was transferred to 
this latter tribe. During the reign of Raja Pithaura (Prithwi 
Raja) Sultan Muizzu’ddin Sam made several incursions into 
Hindustan without any material success. The Hindu 
chronicles narrate that the Raja engaged and defeated the 
Sultan in seven pitched battles. In the year 588 A. H. 
(A.D. 1192), an eighth engagement took place near Thanesar 
and the Raja was taken prisoner. One hundred renowned 
champions (it is related) were among his special retainers. 
They were severally called Samanf and their extraordinary 
exploits cannot be expressed in language nor reconciled to 
experience or reason. It is said that at this battle none of 
these champions was present, and that the Raja kept to his 
palace in selfish indulgence, passing his time in unseemly 
pleasure, heedless of the administration of the state and of 
the welfare of his troops. 

The story runs that Raja Jaichand Rathor, who held 
the supremacy of Hindustan was at this time ruling at 
Kanauj, and the other Rajas to some extent acknowledged 
his authority and he himself was so liberal-minded that 
many natives of Iran and Turan were engaged in his service. 
He announced his intention of celebrating the great sacrifice 
symbolic of paramount supremacy and set about its prepara- 
tions. One of its conditions is that all menial service 
should be performed by princes alone, and that even the 
duties of the royal scullery and the kindling of fires are 
directly a part of their office. He likewise promised to 
bestow his beautiful daughter on the bravest of the 
assembled chivalry. Raja Pithaura had resolved to attend 
the festival, but a chance speech of some courtier that while 
the Chauhan sovereignty existed, the great sacrifice could 


^ Another name for Raya-Sena. Wilford says that he was called Ana.ngpala 
or befriended by love probably for his success in his amours, which he 
displayed by carrying off his brother’s wife. Tieffentlialer calls him Rasena 
and credits him with the building of Delhi, which is confirmed by the 
Agnipurana. 

^ I learn from Professor Cowell that the primary meaning attached to this 
term in the St. Petersburg Diet, is ‘neighbour’, and the second signification, 
‘vassal’, in which sense it often occurs in Sanskrit poetry. Monier Williams 
defines it as “a neighbouring king — a feudatory or tributary prince” and adds 
a third meaning ‘a leader, general, champion’ which applies to the text, 

39 



306 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

not legitimately be performed by the Rathor chief, inflamed 
his ancestral pride and he held back. Raja Jaichand pro- 
posed to lead an army against him, but his counsellors 
representing the duration of the war and the approach of 
the appointed assembly, dissuaded him from the enterprise. 
To carry out the integrity of the festival, a statue of Raja 
Pithaura was made in gold and placed in the office of porter 
at the royal gates . Roused to indignation at this news , 
Raja Pithaura set out in disguise accompanied by 500 
picked warriors and suddenly appeared at the gathering and 
carrying off the image, he put a great number to the sword 
and hastily returned. The daughter of Jaichand, who was 
betrothed to another prince, hearing of this adventurous 
deed, fell in love with Pithaura and refused her suitor. Her 
father, wroth at her conduct, expelled her from her 
chamber in the palace and assigned her a separate dwelling. 
Pithaura, distracted at the news, returned with a deter- 
mination to espouse her, and it was arranged that Chanda 
a bard, a rival in skill of Babylonian* minstrelsy, should 
proceed to the court of Jaichand on the pretence of chanting 
his praises, while the Raja himself with a body of chosen 
followers should accompany him as attendants. Rove trans- 
formed the intention into act, and by this ingenious device 
and the spell of valour, he carried off his heart’s desire, and 
after prodigies of bravery and heroism reached his own 
kingdom. The hundred Sam&nts (above mentioned) accom- 
panied him under various disguises. One after the other 
they covered his retreat and defeated their pursuers. 
Gobind Rae Gehlot made the first stand and bravely fighting, 
fell. Seven thousand of the enemy sank engulfed in death 
before him. Next Narsingh Deva, Chanda, Pundir, and 
Sardul Solanki, and Palhan Deva Kachhwaha with his two 
brothers, during the first day’s action, after performing 
feats of astonishing heroism sold their lives dearly, and all 
these heroes perished in the retreat. 

The Raja, with the bard Chanda and two of his 
brothers, brought his bride to Delhi amid the admiration 
of a wondering world. 

Unfortunately the prince was all engrossed by his 
affection for his beautiful wife and neglected all other affairs. 


* The text here is corrupt, aud the variants printed give no help. Jarrett 
made the above translation with the warning that he was not satisfied with 
it. I suggest the emendation — **Chand the bard, wdio was a clever confidant 

lof Frithvl darm^nr-i-fnahir-^sh ast, [J, Sarkar.] 



GHORI SUIvTASf CONQ-ffiERS DELHI EMPIRE W! 

After a year had thus passed, Sultan Shahabu’ddin by 
reason of the above events, formed an alliance with Raja 
Jaichand, and assembling an army, invaded the country and 
captured many places. But no one dared even to represent, 
not to say, remedy this state of affairs. At last, the 
principal nobles meeting together, introduced Chanda 
through the seven gates of the palace, who entering the 
women’s apartments, by his representations somewhat dis- 
turbed the Raja’s mind. But in the pride of his former 
victories, he marched to battle with but a small army. As 
his brave champions were now no more, his kingdom fallen 
from its ancient renown, and Jaichand his former ally, 
reversing his past policy, in league with the enemy, the 
Raja in this contest was taken prisoner and carried by the 
Sultan to Ghazni, Chanda in his fidelity and loyalty 
hastened to Ghazni, entered the Sultan’s service and gained 
his favour. Bj^ his address, he discovered the Raja and 
comforted him in his prison. He proposed that he should 
praise his dexterity with the bow to the Sultan who would 
desire to witness it, and that then he might use his oppor- 
tunity. The proposal was carried out and the Raja pierced 
the Sultan with an arrow. His retainers fell upon the Raja 
and Chanda and cut them to pieces. 

The Persian historians give a different account and 
state that the Raja was killed in battle. 

Fate discloses many such events from its treasure- 
house of wonders. But where — and blessed is he — ^who will 
take warning thereby and act on the lesson ? 

When the Chauhan dynasty fell, the choicest portion 
of Hindustan passed into the hands of Sultan Muizzu’ddin 
Ghori. Leaving Malik Qutbu’ddin (Eibak) who was one 
of his slaves, at the village Guhram, [Ghuram in Patiala] 
he himself returned to Ghazni, laying waste the hilly 
country on his northern march. Qutbuddin in the same 
year possessed himself of Delhi and many other places and 
followed up his successes with remarkable ability. On the 
death of Muizzu’ddin, Ghiyasu’ddin Mahmud son of 
Ghiyasu’ddin Muhammad sent from Firozkoh (his capital) 
the umbrella and insignia of royalty to Malik Qutbu’ddin. 
Qutbu’ddin was enthroned at Lahore and exalted his repu- 
tation by his justice, munificence and valour. He lost his 
life while playing at chaugan [polo.] 

The nobles faised his son Aram Shah to the throne, 
but a strong faction set up Malik Altmish, who had been a 



308 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


purchased slave, and was the son-in-law and adopted heir 
of Qutbu’ddin. Aram Shah was defeated and retired into 
obscurity, and Altmish assumed the title of Shamsu’ddin. 
It is said that his father was chief of some of the Turkish 
tribes. His brethren and cousins distracted by envy, sold, 
like Joseph, this nursling of intelligence, into slavery. 
Through the vicissitudes of fortune, he had various changes 
of masters until a merchant brought him to Ghazni. 
Sultan Muizzu’ddin Sam proposed to purchase him, but his 
owner chaffered for his value and placed an exorbitant price 
on him. The Sultan enraged, forbade any one to purchase 
him. Qutbu’ddin on his return to Ghazni after the conquest 
of Gujrat, having obtained permission, bought him for a 
large sum and adopted him as a son. Khwajah Qutbu’ddin 
Ushi* was his contemporary and edified the world by his 
outward demeanour and the sanctity of his interior life. 
When Altmish died, his son (Ruknu’ddin Firoz Shah) 
succeeded him who regarded wealth as a means of self- 
indulgence and thought little of winning the affections of 
his people. He made over the control of affairs to his 
mother Shah Turkan. The nobles withdrawing their 
allegiance raised Raziah the daughter of Sultan Sham- 
su’ddin to the throne. The Sultan himself had previously 
made her his heir. Some of his courtiers asked him the 
reason of his doing so while he had sons still living. He 
replied that his sons, addicted to drinking were unfitted for 
the dignity'. During the reign of Muizzu’ddin Bahram Shah, 
the Mughal troops devastated Lahore. A disloyal faction 
imprisoned the king and put him to death. In the reign of 
Sultan Alau’ddin Masud Shah occurred an irruption of the 
Mughals into Bengal, entering by way of China or Tibet, 
but his troops defeated them. Another body advanced from 
Turkistan to Uch. The Sultan set out to engage them, blit 
on reaching the banks of the Biah, intelligence reached him 
that the enemy had retreated. He returned to Delhi and 
there affected the company of low and base flatterers and 
ended his days in prison. ' 

Nasiru’ddin Mahmud ruled with capacity and muni- 
ficence. In his time also, the Mughals entered the Panjab 
but retreated on hearing of his approach. 


* Ush is in Transosdana and his birthplace. He is also known as Eaki 
from the miraculous production of bread cakes of the kind called in the 
vernacular kak applied by the prophet Khizr for the needs of his family whose 
sustenance his . meditations gave him no leisure or occasion to provide. 



AMIR KHUSRAU’S POEMS 


309 


'The Tabaqdt i Nasiri takes its name from him. He 
had many excellent qualities. Ghiyasu’ddin Balban who 
had been the slave and son-in-law of his father, he raised to 
the rank of chief minister and gave him the title of Ulugh’ 
Khan. This minister filled his high office worthily and 
sought the divine favour in watchfulness over his people. 

Nasiru’ddin dying without children, the faithful minis- 
ter was raised to the sovereignty. Clemency and solid 
gravity of character added fresh lustre to his dignity, and 
far from spending his precious hours in unworthy pursuits, 
he gladdened his kingdom by his appreciation of merit, his 
knowledge of men and his devotion to God. Those of ill 
repute and the wicked were banished into obscurity, and the 
good happily prospered under his encouragement. He con- 
ferred the government of the Panjab on his eldest son 
Muhammad, commonly known as Khan i ShahitP through 
whose valour and vigilance the province rested in security. 
Mir Khusrau and Mir Hasan were in his suite. He was 
returning from a visit to his father unprepared for hosti- 
lities, when he encountered some Mughal troops between 
Dipalpur and Uahor and lost his life in the action. Mir 
Khusrau was taken prisoner but contrived to escape. The 
province of Bengal had been bestowed by Ghiyasu’ddin on 
his youngest son Bughra Khan. 

On the death of Ghiyasu’ddin, the nobles despatched 
Kai Kh usrau the son of Khan i Shahid, who had been 
nominated heir, to (his father’s government of) Multan, 
and bestowed the title of Sultan Muizzu’ddiu Kaikubad on 
the son of Bughra Khan who thus acquired the sovereignty 
of Delhi. His father in Bengal, assuming the title of 
Nasiruddin marched to Delhi whence Kaikubad advanced 
with a force to encounter him. The armies met on 
the banks of the Sarju (Gogra) near the town of Ajodhya, 
and through the conspiracy of disloyal and evil counsellors, 
the father after the interview returned to Bengal and the 
supreme sovereignty rested with the son. It is strange that 
Amir Khusrau should have chosen such a subject as this 
interview for encomium in his poem the Qiran us Sa'dain. 


^ Ulugh is a Tartar word and signifies ‘great*, and used often as a proper 
name as in the case of Ulugh Beg grandson of Timur. 

* Or the martyred prince. Abul FazPs assertion of the prince’s unpre- 
paredness is not confirmed. It was in the pursuit of the flying Mughals that 
he was surprised by an ambush while he halted by the banks of a stream to 
drink and to return thanks to God for his victory. Amir Khusrau alludes 
to his escape in his well-known poem, the Khizr Khani. 



310 


Am-l-AKBABl 


The fortunes of this thankless unfilial son through his inso- 
briety fell into decay. A faction set up his son, under the 
title of Shamsu’ddin to remedy the disorder, and the body 
of the wretched Kaikubad was flung into the waters of the 
Jumna. Shamsuddin was set aside and the sovereignty, 
by assent of the ministers, conferred on the Khdjis. 

Jalalu’ddin who was paymaster of the Imperial forces, 
ascended the throne and by his simplicity of character lent 
no favour to the designs of the factious. His nephew Malik 
Alau’ddin who had been brought up under his care, went 
from Karrah to the Deccan and having amassed great booty 
was inflated by its possession and proved rebellious. The 
Sultan by the persuasion of intriguers advanced from Delhi 
to Karrah, where the traitor slew him and assumed the title 
of Sultan Alau’ddin. Thus by a marvel of Fate did the 
empire devolve on this miscreant, yet he accomplished some 
excellent reforms. On several occasions he encountered and 
defeated the Mughals. Mir Khusrau dedicated to him his 
Khamsah} and the story of DewaP Rani to his son Khizr 
Khan. Unfortunately he abandoned his usual prudence and 
fell under the influence of a eunuch (Kafur) on whom he 
conferred the conduct of the administration. Through the 
suggestions of that wretch, his three sons Khizr Khan, Shadi 
Khan and Mubarak Khan were imprisoned, and on his own 
death, by the same instrumentality the youngest son was 
raised to the throne under the title of Shahabuddin. He 
destroyed the sight of two of his brothers, but Mubarak 
Khan providentially escaped. A few days later the wretch 
(Kafur) was himself assassinated and Mubarak Khan who 
was in prison became chief minister. 


^ Or five poems, viz,, the Hasht Bihislit, Sikandar Namah, Panj Ganj, Laila 
wa Majnum, and Shinn wa Khnsran. 

* The story will be found in Briggs, Vol. I, pp. 327-366. Kaunla Devi her 
mother, the wife of Karan Rae of Nahrwala had been taken captive in the 
wars against that prince (1297) and placed in the royal harem. In 1306 an 
expedition proceeding to the Deccan under Kafur, Kaunla Devi represented 
to the king that she had borne two daughters to her former husband, that 
one had died, but the other Dewal Devi was still alive and she desired to 
recover her. , Passing through Malwah, Kafur demanded her of Karan Rae 
without success. Shankar Deva Rae, prince of Deogarh had long sought to 
obtain her hand, but the proud Rajput had hitherto refused his daughter to* 
the upstart Mahratta. The desire to gain his aid in the war against the 
king's troops secured his consent and he despatched her under an escort 
which fell in accidentally with a body of Muhammadan troops near the caves 
of Bllora. An engagement resulted in the capture of the princess and her 
despatch to her mother at Delhi. Ser beauty won the heart of Khizr Khan 
the king's son and the rough course of their love with its hapless termination 
is celebrated in the Khizr Khani. When they first met these prococious 
lovers were respectively ten and eight years of age. 



TUGHLAQ DYNAStf OF OELHI 


311 


Subsequently he deposed his younger brother, and 
assumed the title of Sultan Qutbuddin. He reduced 
Gujarat and the Deccan. Through his incapacity and licen- 
tious disposition he chose a favourite of the lower orders 
named Hasan for the comeliness of his person, and bestowed 
on him the title of Khusrau Khan. Although the faithful 
ministers of the Crown represented the man’s unworthiness 
and infamy, the king regarded their honest advice as the 
suggestions of envy, till Khusrau Khan, plotting secretly, 
dared to assassinate his master and assumed the sovereignty 
under the title of Nasiru’ddin. He put to death the surviv- 
ing members of the family of Alau’ddin and perpetrated the 
greatest cruelties. Malik Ghazi who w'as one of Alau’ddin’s 
chief nobles, defeated and slew him and with the concurrence 
of the nobles, ascended the throne with the title of Sultan 
Ghiyasu’ddin Tughlaq Shah. After settling the afFairs of 
Bengal, he returned to Delhi. His son Muhammad Khan 
erected a pavilion at the distance of 3 kos from Delhi, in 
the space of three days and with much entreaty invited the 
king to enter it. The roof of the building fell in and the 
king perished in the ruins. Although (Ziauddin) Barni\ 
endeavours to substantiate the innocence of Muhammad 
Khan, the haste with which the pavilion was erected, and 
the eagerness to entertain the king therein, have all the 
appearance of guilty design. 

When Sultan Muhammad died, Firoz the son of 
(Salar) Rajab his paternal uncle was, according to the will 
of Muhammad, raised to the throne. He ruled with capa- 
city and prudence and left many useful works as memorials 
of his reign. At his death anarchy to some extent pre- 
vailed in the empire. A faction set up his grandson 
(Ghiyasuddin) Tughlaq Shah (II) But in a short space he 
was sent to his last sleep by the hands of traitors and Abu 
Bakr' another grandson succeeded him. 

In the reign of Sultan Mahmud, the direction of affairs 
devolved on Mallu Khan who received the title of Iqbal 
Khan, but his incapacity and ill-fortune were unequal to 
the burden of state guidance. Internal disorders arose. A 
grandson of Firoz Shah was acknowledged by some, under 
the title of Nasrat Shah and increased the anarchy. Cons- 
tant struggles took place in the vicinity of Delhi till in the 


^ The well-known author of the Turikh i, Firoz Shahi. 
^ Son of Zafar Khan, son of Firuai Shah. 


312 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


year 801 A.H. (A.D. 1398) Timur invaded the country. 
Sultan Mahmud fled to Gujarat and every competitor for 
power was crushed. 

When Timur was on his return march/ he left Khizr 
Khan, whom he had met during his invasion, in the 
government of Multan and Dipalpur. For two months 
Delhi was a waste. Nasrat Shah who had fled into the 
Doab, took possession of the throne. Iqbal Khan then 
marched on Delhi and seized it and the other fled to Mewat. 
Mahmud Khan now came from Gujarat and Iqbal Elhan 
feigned acceptance of his service. One night the Sultan, 
in desperation of his affairs departed alone to the court of 
Sultan Ibrahim of the Sharqi dynasty (of Jaunpur) but met 
with no encouragement nor assistance. He was compelled 
therefore to return and Iqbal Khan now opposed him but 
without success, and subsequently was taken prisoner in an 
action against Khizr Khan and was slain. Sultan Mahmud 
now took possession of Delhi, and was for some time 
occupied in hostilities, till he was carried off by an illness, 
and the Khilji dynasty terminated with him. 

For a short period allegiance was paid to Daulat Khan 
(Lodi) Khdsah Khail, till Khizr Khan marched from 
Multan and took possession of Delhi. Malik Mardan Khan, 
one of the nobles of the Court of Sultan Firoz, had adopted 
Sulaiman the father of Khizr Khan as his son who subse- 
quently, in default of recognised heirs, succeeded to his 
government.' Khizr Khan in gratitude (to Timur) did noF 
assume the regal title but styled his Court “The Sublime 
Standards,” and adorned the Khutbah with the name of 
that illustrious monarch and afterwards with that of Mirza 
Shah Rukh, but it concluded with a prayer for himself. 
His son Mubarak Shah succeeded him in accordance with 
his will. Sultan Ibrahim Sharqi and Hoshang (of Malwah) 
being engaged in hostilities, Mubarak intended an attack 


^ The obscurity of this sentence in the original lies in the eliptical style 
of Abul FazL Tlie sense I have given is in accordance with the facts of 
Ferishta who says that Malik Marwun Daulat had adopted Sulaiman, and being 
himself appointed to the government of Multan, was succeeded at his death 
by his own son Malik Shaikh. The latter dying, made way for Sulaiman 
who was in turn succeeded by his son Khizr Khan. Ferishta makes the name 
Marwan and not Mardan. 

^ The MSS. omit the negative, but the text supplies it. Ferishta is clear 
on^ the point. **He did not take the name of king nor assume any regal 
epithet.*' The title in the text is not mentioned by him, which, however, is 
somewhat analogous to the Ottoman style of the ‘Babi Aali* or Sublime Porte, 
though in the latter it is absolute, and in the former vicarious. 



^ ^ 313 

on Kalpi and the adjacent territories, but he was perfi- 
diously set Upon by a band of traitors and slain.' Muhammad 
Shah, who according to some was the son of Farid the son 
of Khizr Khan, while another account makes him the son 
of Mubarak, was raised to the throne. Sultan Alau’ddin 
(his son and successor) possessed no share of rectitude and 
abandoned himself to licentious gratifications. 

Bahlol (Lodi) now aspired to greatness. He was 
the nephew of Sultan Shah Lodi of the Shahu Khel 
tribe (of Afghans). His father Bahram in the time 
of Sultan Mahmud, came with five sons from the 
borders of Balot to Multan and subsisted with some 
difficulty by traffic. Sultan ShalF obtained service 
under Khizr Khan. He received the title of Islam Khan, 
and the revenues of Sirhind were assigned to him. Bahlol, 
the son of his nephew on his brother’s side was prospering 
ill in Sirhind, but was received into favour by him and 
adopted as a son. Bahlol was born in Multan and during 
the month in which his birth was expected, a beam of the 
house fell and killed his mother. He was extracted by 
the Caesarean operation and his destiny proved fortunate. 
Although he allowed his sovereign (Alau’ddin) who lived 
in retirement (at Badaon) to retain nominal power, he 
boldly assumed the supreme authority.^ His reign showed 
some capacity and his conduct was marked by intelligence 
and recognition of merit. He was carried off by an illness in 
his 80th year. It is said that he once happened to meet 
with a darvesh, having at the time with him but a trifling 
sum of money. The spiritually enlightened recluse called 
out, “Who will buy the kingdom of Delhi for such a sum 
of money?” His companions laughed in mockery at the 
man, but Bahlol frankly gave him all he had, and paid him 
reverence and eventually fulfilled the prediction. He 
carried on wars with the Sharqi kings which continued with 
varying successes, until he took Jaunpur and this dynasty 
was overthrown. He left his son, Barbak at Jaunpur and 
returned to Delhi, As he was returning to Delhi from an 


‘ He had laid the foundations of the city of Mubarakabad on the Jnnina 
and was in the habit of visiting it to inspect the progress of the buildings. 
It was, in one of these that he was assassinated at the instigation of the Wazir 
Sarwar ul Mulk on the 9th Rajab 837 (A.D. 1433). Ferishta. 

’His eldest son, the others were Malik Kala, Malik Firoz, Malik Muham- 
mad and Malik Khwajah. Ferishta. 

* Removing the name of Alau’ddin from the Khutbah, and assuming the 
insignia of royalty. Ferishta, 

40 



314 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


expedition against Gwalior he died near the town of Saketh.’ 
His son Nizam Khan with the concurrence of the nobles, 
assumed the sovereignty and was styled Sultan Sikandar. 
He ruled with sagacity and appreciation of character and 
transferred the capital to Agra. In the year A.H. 911 
(A.D. 1505), a great earthquake occurred and many lofty 
buildings were levelled. Sikandar Was of comely person 
and mild disposition and popular from his liberality and 
open-handedness. 

On his death, his son Sultan Ibrahim ascended the 
throne of Delhi and his authority was recognised as far as 
the confines of Jaunpur, the nobles conferring upon Jalal 
Khan, another son of Sikandar’s, the sovereignty of Jaun- 
pur. Dissensions followed between the brothers, and Jalal 
Khan abandoned his government and took refuge with the 
governor of Gwalior, but meeting with no success, fled to 
the court of Sultan Mahmud of Malwa and succeeding as 
little there, he set out for Gondwana. There the royal 
partisans seized him and carried him to the king by whom 
he was put to death. During his reign various chiefs re- 
volted, such as Darya Khan Dohani viceroy of Behar, and 
his son Bahadur Khan had the Khutba read and the coin 
minted in his own name, Daulab Khan Lodi fled at Kabul 
and sought protection at the court of Babar, whom he led 
to the conquest of Hindustan while affairs resulted in a 
prosperous issue. 


^ Suketa or Saketa according to the I. G. is one of the classical names 
borne by Ajodhya, the ancient capital of Oudh. Abul Fazl places Sciketk 
in the Satkar of Kanauj. 



SUBAH OF LaHOR. 

It is situated in the third climate. Its length from 
the river (Sutlej) to the Sind river is 180 kos. Its 

breadth from Bhimbar to Chaukhandi one of the depen- 
dencies of Satgarah/ 86 kos. It is bounded on the east by 
Sirhind; on the north by Kashmir; on the south by Bikaner 
and Ajmer; on the west hy Multan. It has six principal 
rivers which all flow from the northern mountains. 

(1.) The Sutlej the ancient name of which is Shattu- 
dar^ and whose source is in the Kdhlor hills. Rupar, Mdchhi- 
wdrah and Ludhidnah are situated on its banks, and it 
receives the Biah at the ferry. 

(2.) The Bidh (Beias) was anciently called Bipdsha, 
(Sansk. Vipasa Gr. Hyphasis). Its source is named 
Biahkund in the Kullu mountains in the vicinity of which 
the town of S^ltdnpur^ stands above the river. 

(3.) The Ram, the anciont Irawati/ rises in the 
BhadrdP hills. Tahor the capital, is situated on its banks. 

(4). The Chendh, anciently Chandarbhdgd. From the 
summit of the Kishtawd'A range issue two sweet water 
streams, the one called Charidar, the other Bhdgd which 
unite near Khatwdr and are known by the above name 
whence they flow by Bahlolpur, Sudharah and Hazdrah. 

^ Satgarha is situated 13 miles east of Gugaira on one of the projecting 
points oi the high bank which marks the limits of the windings of the Ravi 
on the' east. The name means ‘seven castles^ but these no longer exist. 
There is an old brick fort and several isolated mounds which mark the site 
of an ancient city. Cunningham, p. 212. 

® The Sydrus or better reading, Hesidrus of Pliny. It rises like the Indus 
on the slopes of the Kailas mountains, the Siva’s paradise of ancient Sanskrit 
literature, with peaks 22,000 feet high. The twin lakes of Manasarowar and 
RakaS“tal, united with each other, are its direct source. See /. G, 

^ In the maps, according to the text note, Baupur. The junction is at the 
south boundary of the Kaparthala state, 

^ It is in Kullu proper on the right bank of the Beas in lat. 30^ 58^ N., 
and long. " 77° 7' 1®., at an elevation of 4,092 feet above sea level. It is 
perched on a natural eminence, once surrounded by a wall. Only two gate- 
ways remain of the ancient fortifications. I. G, 

* Hydraotes of ‘Arrian. 

® Var. Bhadra. It rises in the . northern half of the Bangahal valley in 
Kangra dist. 

’’The I. G. places Kistawar in the Kashmir state, lat. 33° 18' 30'^ N., 
long. 75° 48' B. near the left bank of the Chenab which here forces its way 
through a gorge with precipitous cliffs 1,000 feet high. The Chenab is called 
Sandabad by Ptolemy but the Greek historians of Alexander named it AJtesines 
because its proper name was of ill omen, from its similitary thinks Bishop 
Thirlwall to Alexandron-phagos *deYont&t of Alexander.’ Ladak, pp. 118, 352. 


316 


Am-I-AKBARI 


(5.) The Bihat (Jheliim), anciently called Bidasta,y 
has its rise in a lake in the parganah of Ver in Kashmir, 
flows through Srinagar and enters Hindustan. B her ah lies 
on its (left) bank. 

(6.) The source of the Sindh (Indus) is placed by some 
between Kashmir and Kdshghar, while others locate it in 
China. It flows along the borders of the Sawdd territory by 
Atak Benares^ and Chaupdrah into Baluchistdn. 

His Majesty has given the name of Beth Jdlandhar to 
the valley between the Bidh and the Satlaj; of Bari, to that 
between the Bidh and the Rdvi; oi Rechna to that between 
between the Rdvi and the Chendb; of Jenhaf to the valley 
of the Chendb and the Bihat, and Sindh Sdgar to that of the 
Bihat and Sindh. /The distance 


between the Satlai and the 

Biah 

is 

50 

kos. 

}} }) 

Biah ,, 

Ravi 

3 3 

17 

3 3 


Ravi ,, 

Chenab 

3 3 

30 

3 3 

} ) 

Chenab „ 

Bihat 

3 3 

20 

3 3 

}i 9) 

Bihat ,, 

Sindh 1 * 

33 

68 

33 


This province is populous, its climate healthy and its 
agricultural fertility rarely equalled. The irrigation is 
chiefly from wells. The winter though not as rigorous as 
in Persia and Turkestan, is more severe than in any other 
part of India. Through the encouragement given by His 
Majesty, the choicest productions of Turkestan, Persia and 
Hindustan are to be found here. Musk-melons are to be 


* Bidasta and Bihat are corruptions of Sansk. Vitasta, the Hydaspes of 
Horace, and the more correct Bidaspes of Ptolemy. The pool of Vim Nag 
was walled round by Jahangir, but the true source of the river is more to 
the S.“W. in N. lat. 33® 30' and long. 75® 25'. Bherah is in the Shahpur 
dist. lat. 32® 29' N., long. 72® 57' B. The ruins of the original city known 
as Jobnathnagar are identified by Genl. Cunningham with the capital of 
Sopheites, contemporary of Alexander the Greeat. 

® It is so called by the Muhammadan historians in contradistinction to 
Katak Benares in Orissa at the opposite extremity of the empire. 1. G. On 
his return from Kabul, on the 14th Safar 989 A.H. (20th March 1581), Akbar 
crossed the Indus at Attock and ordered the building of the fort, of morfar 
and stone in order to control that part of the country and called it Atak 
which signifies in the vernacular ^hindrance* or ^prohibition*, it being forbidden 
to the Hindus to cross the Indus. Ferishta. The Swat territory is here 
meant, the river of that name, the Swastos of the Greeks (Sansk. Suvastu) 
rising on the east slopes of the mountains which divide Panjakora from the 
Swat country, receives the drainage of the Swat valley- and entering the 
Peshawar dist. north of Michni, joins the Kabul river at Nisatha. The course 
of the Indus has there a somewhat parallel direction. 

® Under list of Sarkars Cheiihati more commonly known as the Jech or 
Jechna Doab. . V* i v" '' 

^ Tieffenthaler quotes other rneastirements besides these, giving the reason 
for the variations in the differences of route, the incapacity of travellers and 
the universal ignorance of geometry: 


CITIES OF EAHOR SUBAH . 317 

had throughout the whole year. They com'e first in season 
wh$n the sun is in Taurus and Gemini, (April, May, June), 
and a later crop when he is in Cancer and Leo (June, July, 
August). When the season is over, they are imported 
from Kashmir and from Kabul, Badakhshan and Turkestan. 
Snow is brought down every year from the northern moun- 
tains. The horses resemble the Iraq breed and are of 
excellent mettle. In some parts of the country, they employ 
themselves in washing the soil whence gold, silver, copper, 
r«i,' zinc, brass and lead are obtained. There are skilful 
handicraftsmen of various kinds. 

Ldhor is a large city in the Bari Doab. In size and 
population it is among the first. In ancient asti-onomical 
tables it is recorded as Lohdwar. Its longitude is 109° 22', 
lat. 31° 60'. During the present reign the fortifications 
and citadel have been strengthened with brick masonry and 
as it was on several occasions the seat of government, many 
splendid buildings have been erected and delightful gardens 
have lent it additional beauty. It is the resort of people of 
all countries whose manufactures present an astonishing 
display and it is beyond measure remarkable in populous- 
ness and extent. 

Nagarkot is a city situated on a hill : its fort is called 
Kdngrah. Near the town is the shrine of Mahdmdyd^ 
which is considered as a manifestation of the divinity. Pil- 
grims from distant parts visit it and obtain their desires. 
Strange it is that in order that their prayers may be favour- 
ably heard, they cut out their tongues : with some it grows 
again on the spot, with others after one or two days. 
Although the medical faculty allow the possibility of growth 
in the tongue, yet in so short a space of time it is suf&ciently 
amazing. In the Hindu mythology, Mahdnidyd is said to 
be the wife of Mahadeva, and the learned of this creed re- 
present by this name the energizing power of the deity. It 
is said that on beholding the disrespect (shown to her hus- 
band, Siva) she cut herself in pieces and her body fell in 


^ This metal is defined at p. 41 Vol. I. as being composed of 4 sets of 
copper to of lead, and in India called Bhcmgar. 

*The Great Illusion, or the illusory nature of worldly objects divinely 
personified, an epithet of the goddess Durga. The earlier name Hardwar, 
Mdyapur^ represents the ancient worship of this supreme energy and 'by 
her, whose name is Maya’’, says the Bhagavata "the Ivord made the universe.” 
His temple still exists in Hardwar, and is described in Cunningham’s Anct. 
Geog. 



318 


AIN-l-AZBARl 


four places ; her head and some of her limbs in the northern 
mountains of Kashmir near Kamrdj, and these, relics .are 
called Sharada; other parts fell neax Bijapur in the Deccan 
and are known as Tulja Bhawdni. Such portions as reached 
the eastern quarter near Kdmrup are called Kdmdkhyd, and 
the remnant that kept its place is celebrated as Jdlandhari 
which is this particular spot.' 

In the vicinity torch-like flames issue from the ground 
in some places, and others resemble the blaze of lamps. ^ 

^ Read with variation of detail the preface th the Gopatha Brahmana 
published in Nos. 215-262 of the Bibl. Ind.; pp. 30-35. It occurs in the 2nd 
Book in the germ which afterwards developed into the Puranic tale of Daksha^s 
great sacrifice. This mind-borh son of Brahma and father of Unia or Durga 
assisted at a Visrasrig sacrifice celebrated by his father in which discourtesy 
was shown to Siva. A quarrel broke out between Daksha and Siva, resulting 
in the exclusion of the latter from the great sacrifice to which the whole 
Hindu pantheon was bid. Unia seated in her blissful mansion on the crest of 
the Kailasa mountain, saw the crowds proceeding to her fatlrer^s court to 
which she repaired and learning the exclusion of her husband, upbraided her 
father for his injustice and refused to retain the body she .had inherited from 
him. Covering herself up with her robe, she gave up her life in a trance of 
meditation. The wrath of Siva incarnate in a giant form pursued the feasters 
and created stupendous havoc, Vishnu unable to pacify Siva and knowing 
that his fury was kindled by the sight of his dead wife, cut the body to 
pieces bit by bit with bis discus and threw it about the earth and thus calmed 
the irate and oblivious deity who thereupon restored the killed and wounded 
to life and soundness. Daksha’s head having been burnt in the melee, it was 
replaced by that of a goat which happened to be at hand, apparently without 
remonstrance from the reanimated demigod or even his consciousness of the 
substitution. The Tanfru Chwddwatif is able fortunately to detail the portions 
of the body and to identify the places where they fell. As these are said to 
be still held in high veneration, I record them for the instruction of the 
curious or tlie devout. 

L The crown of the head at Hingula (Hinglaj). 2. The three eyes at 
Sarkarara. 3. The nose at Sugandha. 4 The top of the neck at Kasmira. 
5. The tongue at Jwalamukhi. 6. Right breast at Jalandhara. 7. Heart at 
Vaidyanatha. 8. Knees at Nepala, 9. Right hand at Manasa. 10 Navel at 
XJkala. 11. Right cheek at Gondaki. 12. heft arm at Vahula. 13. Klbow at 
Ujjayani. 14 Right arm at Chattola, Chandrasekhara. 15. Right foot at 
Tripura. 16. left foot at Trisrota. 17, ,Yoni at Kamagiri (Kamakhya). 
18. Right great toe at Yugadya. 19. Other right toes at Kalipitha (Kalighat], 
20. Fingers at Prayaga. 21, Thighs at Jayanti. 22. [barrings at Varanasi. 
23. Back of the ; trunk at Kamyasrama, 24. Right ankle at Kurukshetra. 
25. Wrists at Manivedaka. 26. Back of the neck at Srisaila. 27. Backbone at 
Kanchi. 28^ One hip at Kalamadhara. 29. Other hip at Narmada. 30. Reft 
breast at Ramagiri. 31. Hairs of the head at Vrindavana. 32. Upper row of 
teeth at Suchi. 33. Tower ditto at Panchasagara.. 34. Teft talpa (shoulder- 
blade) at Karatoya. 35. Right ditto at Sriparvatta. 36. left ankle at Vibhasha. 
37. Belly at Prabasha. 38. Upper lip at Bhairavaparvata. -39. Chin at Jala- 
sthala. 40. Teft cheek at Godavari. 41. Right shoulder at Ratnavali. 42. Left 
shoulder at Mithila. 43 . Legbone at Nalapati. 44. Bars at Karmata. 45. Mind(?) 
at Vakresvara. 46. Palm at Jasora. 47. Lower lip at Attahasa. 48, Necklace 
at Nandipura. 49. Anklets at Lanka. 50. Toes of left foot at Virata. 51. Right 
leg at Magadha. . . 

*See HugePs Travels in Kashmir^ p. 42, for this phenomenon. The text 
has ptlsuj, which is a lamp in the shape , of a platter, three feet in height 
from the base, and about 6 , inches df^ineter at the top; having in the middle 
a small tube with two Boles; throi^h w'hic^ the wick is fed by oil or grease 
kept in liquefaction by fhc flame. This shrine is the famous Jwdlamukhi 
(mouth of Flame) distant two days*! journey from Kangra. 



SUBAH 1^0®., STATISTICS 


319 


There is a concourse of pilgrims and various things are cast 
into the flames with the expectation of obtaining temporal 
blessings. Over them a domed temple has been erected and 
an astonishing crowd assembles therein. The vulgar impute 
to miraculous agency what is simply the effect of a mine 
of brimstone. 

In the middle of Sindh Sdgar near Shamsdbdd is the 
cell of Balnath Jogi which they call Tilah Bdlndthd Devotees 
of Hindustan regard it with veneration and Jogis especially 
make pilgrimage to it. Rock-salt is found in this neigh- 
hood. There is a mountain 20 feos in length from which 
they excavate it, and some of the workmen carry it out. 
Of what is obtained, three-fourths is the share of those that 
excavate and one-fourth is allotted to the carriers. Mer- 
chants purchase it at from half to two ddms a man and 
transport it to distant countries. The landowner takes 10 
ddms for every carrier and the merchant pays a duty of one 
rupee for every 17 man to the state. From this salt arti- 
ficers make dishes, dish-covers, plates and lamp-stands. 

The five Dodbs of this province are subdivided 'into 
234 parganahs. The measured land is one kror, 61 lakhs, 
56,643 Bighas, and 3 Biswas. The gross revenue is 55 
krors, 94 lakhs, 58,423 ddms. (Rs. 1,39,86,460-9-2). Of 
this 98 lakhs, 65,594 ddms (Rs. 246,639-13-7) are Suyur- 
ghdl. The local force consists of 64,480 Cavalry and 
426,086 Infantry. 


For traditions regarding the four pithas and the number of the pitJtas, 
vide the Sakta Pithas bv Dr. D. C. Sarkar in the J,R-A.S.B„ VoL XIV, 1948, 
pp. 11-15, 17-31, According to Dr. Sarkar, the Hevajm Tantra of the Bud- 
dhists contains the earliest tradition about the Four Pithas which are ; — 
(1) Jalandhara, (2) Odiyana (Uddiyan in the Swat valley), (3) Pumagiri and 
(4) Kamrupa. The same is echoed in the KaHka Parana which mentions Odra 
in the place of Uddiyana. ^ This corresponds, barring Uddiyana, to Abul 
FazPs enumeration of the pithas, 

^ General Cunningham {Ancient Geog. of India, p. 164) says that the 
Tila range, 30 miles in length, occupies the west bank of the Jlielum from 
the east bend of the river below Mangala to the bed of the Bunhar river, 
12 miles north of Jalalpur. The full name is Gorakndth ka Tila, the more 
ancient, Balnath ka Tila, both derived from the temple on the summit dedi- 
cated to the sun as Balnath, but now devoted to the worship of Goraknath, 


320 


AUSr-I-AKBARI 

Sarkdr of the Bet Jalandhar Dodb. 

Containing 60 Mahals, 3,279,302 Bighas, 17 Biswas. 
Revenue 124,366,212 Dams in money. Suyurghdl 
2,651,788 Dams. Castes, various. Cavalry, 4,155. In- 
fantry 79,436. 



Bighas 

Revenue 

I® 

u 

■ K"* 

u 

Castes. 


Biswas. 

D 

js..' 

IT 





& 


re 





, tO ; ; 

: S 



IsHmabad 

2,785 

458,122 


15 

200 

Afghan. 

Pati Dlmniat 

57,866 

3,601,678 

80,607 

30 

400 

Naru. 

Bliuiiga ... .... 

51,08943 

2,760,530 

10,232 

20 

300 

Do. (var. 
Barar) . 

Bajwara 

12,363 

2,425,813 

689 

30 

200 

Khori 

Wahah. 

Bhalon, has a stone fort 

32,761 

1,305,006 


70 

1000 

Dhahwal. 

Barwa 

13,611 

668,000 



. . . 


Palakwa 

4,532 

200,000 


... 



Bachheru ... ••. 

Besali and Kliattah, 2 

4.215 

160,000 

... 




Mahals 

11,405 

566,366 


... 



Taiwan 

Tatarpur, has a stone 

201,450 

6,780,337 

804,889 

70 

700 

Main, 

fort 

Jalandhar, has a brick 

3,458 

170.388 


... 



fort 

474,308 

1 

1 

14,751,626 

773,167 

100 

1000 

Afghan. 
Dodhi, and 
Dohani,and 
Ranghar 
tribes. 

Chaurast ... ... ; 

96,330 1 

5,463,913 

255,516 

50 

1000 

Afghan. 

Jeora ... ... 

Jason Balakoti, has a i 

48,124 ! 

2,474,854 ' 

23,527 

1 50 

, 

300 

Bhatti. 

stone fort ... ... 

15,054 

600,000 


500 

3000 

; Jaswal, 
called also 
Bikaner. 


Chanor 


313,000 


100 

2000 

Sombansi. 

Hajipur Sariyana 

59, *255 

2,693.874 





Dadrak [Dardak] 

497,20241 

9,707,993 

92453 

150 

4000 

Khori 





WMiah. 

Dasuya, has a brick fort 

157,962 

4,474,950 

67,249 



Khokhar. 

Dadial, has a stone fort 

34,150 

1,650,000 

300 

4005 

Sasahwal. 

Dadah, Do. 

30,218 

1,200,000 



' ^ 


Darparah 

26,444 

900,000 





Dardhi 

15,054’ 

600,000 


100 

1000 

Sombansi 

Dunnagor 

11,490 

455,870 





Dhankali 

1,880 

72,000 





Rahimabad 

8,790 

2,480,639 

13,613 

so 

200 

Khori 


1 



Waha. 


JALANDBAK IXMB MAHALS 321 

Sarkdr of Bet Jalandhar Doab — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry j 

Infantry 

Castes 

; ■■ 

Rajpurpatan, has a stone 
fort 


1,800,000 





Sultanpur, has a brick fort 

101,^5 

4,020,282 

405,830 

im 

1000 

Bhatti. 

Sankarbanot 

59,952 

2,538,225 

16,485 

50 

500 

Khori 

Suk^st Mandi, has copper 
and iron mines 

42,150. 

1,680,000 


i 

1 

loojsooo 

Wallah. 

Sonibansi. 

Sopar 

24,583 

1,000,000 

... 


2000 

Sasahwal. 

Siba, has a stone fort 

8,11448 

800,000 


200 2000 

Do. 

Soran 

213,333 





Shaikhpur 

97,173 

3^640 

4,7^,604 

52,639 

1502000 

Bhatti. 

Shergarh 

194,294 

346,667 


... 



Isapur ... ... ...» 

... 





Kothi 

116,286 

5,546,661 

30,670 

30 

400 

Jat. 

Garh Diwala 

58,083 

2,670,087 

4,530 

20 

200 

Jat. 

Kotla ... 

42,152 

1,680,000 

... 

800 

4000 

Jasrotiah . 

Kotlehar, has a stone fort 

82,932-16 

1,310,847 


20013000 

Kotlahariah. 

Kharakdhar ... ... 

42,043-12 

4^000 


... 

... 


Kheunkhera, has a stone 
fort 

6,021-16 

240,000 


under 

Nakroh 

Jaswal. 

Gangot, has a stone fort ... 

6,021-16 

240,000 

... 



Do. 

Khera ... ... ... 

6,021-16 

240,000 


20 

4000 

Surajbansi, 

Ghawasan (var. and G. 
Ghawas) 

14,742-14 

586,906 




1 

Roidheri 

15,959-8 

536,414 

17,810 

... 



Raising! 

5,937 

236,850 




Bhatti. 

Miani ISIuria 

68,229 

21,061,565 

6,156 

20 

400 

Melsi 

54,653-17 

1,823,559 

1,217 

20 

3000 

Ranghar, Jat. 

Mnhan imadpur . . » 

38,231 

1,802, 5158 

10,553 

100 

1000 

Rangliar, 

Main. ■ 

Mansawal 

6,668 

286,667 


... 


Malot 

6,412 

4,603,620 

■ ... 




Mandhota [Mamdot] 

13,280 

426,367 

... 


... 

Main. 

Nakodar ... 

78,731 

3,710,756 

9,757 

20 

1000 

Nangal ... 

4,808 

267,270 

.f. 

... 

... 

Jaswal. 

Nakrota ... 

82,642 

1,300,061 

... 

500 

5000 

Nonangal 

46,180 

2w315,368 

... ' 

30 

300 

Baloch, Jat. 

Nandon ... 

133,439 

5,300,000. ... 

100 

1500 

Nagarkotiah. 

Harhana [Hariana] with 
AkbarabM, 2 Mahals ... 

626,889 

6,032,032 

49,650 

40 

406 

Narti. 

HadiabM 

17,120 

519,467, 2,067 

... 

... 

_ 


41 


322 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Sarkar of the Ban Dodb. 

Containing 52 Mahals. 4,580,002 Bighas, 18 Biswas. 
Revenue 142,808,183 revenue in casli from crops 

charged at special rates and from land paying the general 
bigah rate. Suyurghal, 3,923,922 Dams. Castes, various. 
Cavalry, 31,055. Infantry, 129,300. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes . 

Anchliara 


500,000 


50 

500 

} 

Khokhar. 

Andora ... 

20,781 

1,193,739 

7,624 



,,, 

Abhipur ... 


168,000 

... 

... 



Udar [Utar] 


9,600 




... 

Lahore city Baida 

... 

2,912,600 


5000 

4000 

... 

Phulwari 

4,727-10 

452,694 

143,955 

20 

100 


Phulra ... 

106,463 

2,413,268 

13,268 

20 

100 

Sadhai, Bhalar 

Panchgrami [Panjgiran] ... 

65,557. 1,461,630 

73,177 

15 

1000 

Khokhar. 

Bharli 

17,967 

4,060,507 

209,789 

... 

-T- 


Bhiiwal ... 

62, 875i 8,181,699 

225,408 

20 

400 

Jat. 

Pati Haibatpur ... .... 

1,576,63328,395,380 

284,647 

700 

10,000 

Jat. 

Batala ... ... 

Pathan [’kot], has a brick 

515,479 

16,820,998 

256,858 

200 

5000 

Bhatti, Jat. 

fort 

199,872 

7,297,015 

97,015 

250 

2000 

Brahman, 

Panial 

65,789 

4,266,000 

276,091 

150 

400 

Jat Khatian. 

Biah ... ... ... 

60,528 

3,822,255 

8,976 

200 

2000 

‘ Bhatti. 

Bahadurpur 

11,489 

447,750 


... 



Talwara ... 

6,334 

514,666 

10’364 

20 

200 

Bakkal. 

Xhandot ... 

25,222 

610,064 

3,234 

20 

500 

Afghan. 

Chandrau 

7,194-10 

263,568 


20 

100 

Jat, Sindhu. 

Charbagh Barhi ... 

213 

58,502 



Chamiari 

250,614 

8,813,140 

309,090 

200 

2000 

Khokhar. 

Jalalabad ... ... 

Chhat and Ambalah, 2 

152,058 

5,163,119 

20,456 

300 

4000 

Afghan, Jat, 
Bhatti. 

Mahals 

... 

2,800,000 

1 

50 

500 

Rajput, Stam- 
bansi. 

Jatgarh 


45,600 





Khanpur ... ... . 


280,038 

... 

30 

*600 

Khokhar. 

Dabhawala 

121,495 

6,282,139 

57,674 

100 

3000 

Jat. 

Dhameri (now Nurpur) ... 


1,600,000 

60 

1300 

Darwa 


240,000 


50 

500 

Rajput, Som- 
i bansi. 

Darwa, Digar 

... 

24,000 




Sankha Arwal 

10,874 

544,145 

9*1*413 

' .**101 

I’oo 

Arwai.. 

Sindhuwan 

263,402 

5,854,649 

12,700 

200! 

400 

Jat Sindhu. 

Lahore suburbs ... 

11,401 

674,053 

202,300 


Shalipur ... : 

Sherpur 

42,399 

2,382,235 

480,000 

126,720 


... 


Ohurbatrawan 

7,391-13 

411,985 

, 63,103 

*20 

100 

Jat- Sindhu. 

Kasur 

259,456 

3,915,506 

'23,124 

300 

4boo 

Bhatti. 

Kalanur ... ... i 

286,052 

8,329,111 

447,639 

150 

1500 

Jat, Bakkal. 

Kunhewan ... 


3,511,499 

127,665 

■r'M 

500 

Khokhar, 

Bakhas. 

Khokhowal 

75,194 

3,475,510 

3,510 

20 

500 

Jat. 

Rajput Soin- 
bansi. 

Goler 

66,239 

2,643,000 

3,000 

100 

3000 




323 


PANJAB DOAB MAHAI,S 


Sarkar of Ban Boob — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

i 

Revenue 

D. j Sbal 

A 

" >%■ 
u 

' « ■ 

Ha 

Castes 





Oi 

U 

s. 


Kangra, has a stone fort 


2,400,000 


2400 

29,000 

Sombansi. 

Kotia ' : ... 

«•« 

182,518 




Karkaraon 

««» 

16,000 





Malik Shah ... ... 

28,684-9 

1,475,562 

52,283 

10 

100 

Bhandal, (var. 



• 

1 


Bhadal), 

Mail and Naba [=Onaba], 







2 Mahals 


2,400,000 

/ 

... 

300 


Rajput. 

Maliror ... ... 


24,000 


... 

• «l • 

Hosliiar Karnala 

22,225 ^ 

489,372 


20 

400 

Jat. 

Jarjiya J abandoned. 

9,600 


.... 


,■ ... 

•• 

I ... 

i 

... 

... 



Sarkdr of the Rechndu Doab. 


Containing 67 Mahals. 4,263,148 Bighas, 3 Biswas. 
Revenue, 172,&7,691 Dams. Suyurghdl, 2,684,134 Dams. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 6,795. Infantry, 99,652. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

V D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Amraki Bhatti ... ■ ... 

70,752-8 

1,942,606 

8,678 

50 

1000 

Bhatti. 

Bands of Bagh Rae Bocha 

2,683 

52,837 


... 



Eminabad, has a brick fort 

515,675-4 

24,853,006 

498,480 

500 

5000 

Khokhar, 

: f 

Panchnagar 

31,741 

1,181,266 

27,879 

50 

500 

Chimah &c. 
Jat. 

Parsaror 

509,858-4 

27,978,583 

486,551 

200 

4000 

Jat, Bajoh 

Badubhandal 

23,752-18 

1,611,882 

46,979 



Telah &c. 

Pati Zafarwal, has a fort 

6,108,148 

3,697,338 

150,865 

50 

2000 

Jat, Bholron. 

Pati Tarmali 

29,056 

525,953 

20 

400 

Kolra. 

Bhalot ... . 

20,312-10 

818,182 


100 

2000 

Manhas. 

Bhadran, situate on a hill 

*»• 

! 240,000 


50 

4000 

Bo. 

Balawarah 

6,021-6 

240,000 


50 

3000 

Balawariali. 

Bhutiyal 

2,407,18 

96,000 


30 

1000 

Bhuttyalah. 

Ban ... ... ...> 

1,346-19 

48,000 

... 

100 

4000 

Manhas. 

Taral 

38,669-8 

2,144,945 

8,400 

150 

2000 

Jat, Taral. 

Talwandi ... ... - 

95,698-17 

1,578,207 

3,792 

30 

300 

Jat. 

Chima Chata 

95,698 

5,878,691 

26,489 

100 

1000 

Chimah 

Chandanwarak, (var. 

darak) 

81,426-6 
22,858-5 : 

4,128,813 

30,571 

50 

150 

Chatah. 

Jat, Warak. 

Chhotadhar 

1,391,692 



... 


Jabudhadi ....^ 

12,474 

815,587 

31,1851 

... ' 

... j 

Jat Jabuhar. 

Chiniwot, has a brick fort 

154,154 

2,806,369 

190,052 

500 

5000 


324 




Sarkqr of Rechm^ Daah—Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Jammu, situate at the foot 
of a hill, and a stone fort 

19,329-11 

3,956,000 







1000 

20,000 

Manilas. 

Jasrota (in one MS.) > 

in another 3 

150,430 

430-lfl 

i,i56,6oo( 

... 

400 

5000 

Malanhas. 

Chari Champa [Chamba] 

6 , 021-6 

240,000 


100 

1000 

Gwaleri. ' 

Hafizabad 

169,4^ 

402 

4,779-10 

23,142 

4,548,000 

27,028 

115,050 

1,725,089 

48,000 

150 

150 

Jat Balhan 
(Bhalar), 

The lands of Khanpur .... 
Daulatpur ... , ••• 

Baud Bhandal Barhi ... 

237,082 



Daulatabad 

14,368 

241,740 

... 

io 

ibo 

JatSalah, 

6,705 

58,850-8 





(var. Sad) . 

Rupnagar 

Rinha 

410,513 

275,550 

Mei 

... 

... 

Brahman, 






Baghban. 

Rechna ... * ... ... 

130,207 

8,680,742 

442,082 

700 

7000 


Sahumali 

152,391 

5,574,764 

18,353 

40 

1200 


Sidhpur 

108,923 

3,127,212 

79,972 

IGO 

2000 

Jat, Marali. 

Sialkot, is situate on the 







edge of a ridge on the 
banks of the Aik torrent, 
has a brick fort 

102,035 

22,090,792 

184,305 

500 

7000 

Jat, Ghaman 


i 





and Chimah. 

Sahajrao 

Sohdra, on the Chenab, 

: 5,627-7 

;i21, 721-1 

362,326 

4,803 

100 

1000 

Chimah. 

has a high brick minaret 

7,096,710 

99,731 

100 

1000 

Do. 

Shanzdah Hinjrao 

1 64,140 

1,536,480 


50 

1000 

: Jat, Hinjrao. 

Shou [-kot?] 

107,347 

2,278,940 

' *5,061 

1000 

5000 

Jat, Dangah, 
Sanawal 


7,826-7 





(Sahawal) . 

Fattu Bhandal Barhi 

613,917 

5,842 


... 


Fazlabad 

2,115.7 

136,528 

... 




Gobindwal 

55,069 

1,253,957 

194,622 

so 

300 

Orak and Jat. 

Kathoha 

126,59^,12 

5,888,254 


20 

10,000 

Kamwal (var. 






Kahwal). 

Gujran Barhi ^ ... 

2,631-14 

670,986 

11,787 

... 



Kalapind 4 .. 

Kamari, commonly called 

2,801-19 

203,964 

21,702 

... 

... 


S^ia ... ... ... 

27,6^ 

1,500,066 


100 

300 


Rharli Tarli 

768>000 

... 

... 



Bakhnor 

17,169-1 

681,818 

... 




Mangtanwala 

131,583 

3,819,690 

57,788 

50 

*300 

Jat. 

Muhammad Bari Dukrao 

16,591-6 

1,127,903 

3,005,602 

3,367 


' 

Jat. 

Mahror ... 

102,5864 

6,602 

‘*‘5 

500 

Brahman. 

Mengri ... ... . 

62,293 

1,475,225 

5,748 

20 

1000 

Silhariya and 
Gujar. 

Mankot, includes 4 towns 






each with a. stone fort 

l,3?g 

85,119 

... 

30 

1200 

Manhas. 

Wan ^ ... 

1#^ . 

p71,553 

20,278 

50 

1000 

Jarak Silhar. 

Haminagar ... 

141,063 

8,391,082 

59,541 

30 

1000 

Jat. 

Hantiyal (var. Hatiyal) ... 

6,201-6 

240,000 


30 

200 

Hatiyalah. 


* The town and palace stand Ib^nk of the river Tavi a tribu- 

tary of the Chenab ; the fort' ovemangs the" lefi^ or east shore at an elevation 
of 15® fei^t above" the t. " ' ■ 



JECH fiOAB MAHALS ^ 

Ch^nff^ai (J^h) I)oab. 

Gontaining 21 Mahgls, 2, 6dS, 210 Bighas, 6 Biswas. 
Revenue 64,502, 394 Dams. Suyurghdl 511,070 Dams. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 3,730. Infantry, 44,200. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

1 ■ 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry | 

Infantry 

Castes , 

Andarhal 

31,070 

485,418 




Gakkhar (see 
Vol. I. 546). 

Akhandor Ambaran ' 

9,866-5 

3921,000 

•*. 

300 

8000 

Manhas. 

Bbera, on the banks of the 
Bhimbar^ ... ... 

912,107-7 

19,910,000 

53,560 

700 

10,000 


Bahlolpur, on the banks of 
the river Chenab 

170,607 

3,830,575 

10,583 

100 

500 

Jat. 

Bolet 

8,748 

400,080 


50 

300 


Bhimbar, situated on the 
banks of the stream ... 

28,668 

1,200,000 





Bhadu ... 

4,717 

192,000 

... 

m 

, 1200 

Jat, Bhandwal. 

Buhati ... ... ... 

2,874 

57,222 

■ ■■ 

10 

100 

Mangharwai. 

Saila and Dudiyal, 2 Mahuls 

27,421 

735,741 


200 

800 

Khokhar. 

Shorpur 

169,874 

3,121,546 

8,497 

100 

1000 

Jat, Khokar, 

Shakarpur 

7,684 

1,050,819 



1000 

Jander. 

Gujrat 

285,094 

8,266,150 


120 


Kariyali 

57,818 

2,643,270 

6,633 

100 

2000 

1 Rhokar. 

Khokhar, has a brick fort 

92,826 

2,320,594 58,410 

100 

1000 

Ghari, on the river Bihat 

20,176 

1,505.241 

f 

1 20 

2000 

tk>. 

Ivolor, separated from 

Khushab 

192,253 

3,746,166 

11,290200 

2000 

Rhpkhar and 

Mangli ... 

2,889 

432,000 


400 

2000 

Mikan. 

Manhas. 

Malot Rae Kedari, situ- 
ate on a hill ... 

17,007 

370,549 


40 

400 

Mangharwai. 

Hareo 

247,878 

9,150,828 

76,321 

300 

3000 

Tat, Barwanji ? 

Hazara, has a brick fort ■ 

270,392 

4,689,136219,536 

700 

8000 

Jat, Khokar 

1 

1 

1 I 

1 

1 : 



Biranij ? 


* Bherah is on the left bank of tte J^eltun. Tto Bhimbar torrent rising in 
the second Himalayan range, flows Within 4 miles N. W. of GujrSt a^d 
eventually joins the Jalalia niU& a branch of ^e Chenab. /. G. 


326 


AUT-I-AZBARI 

Sindh Sagar Dodb. 

Containing 42 Mahals, 1,409,929 Bighas. Revenue, 
51,912,201 Dams. Suyurgl0l, 4,680 Dams. Castes, 
various. Cavalry, 8,553. Infantry, 69,700. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

AkbarabM Tarkheri ... 

204,381 

5,491,738 


2000 

15,000 

Gakkhar. 

Atak Benares (Attock) ... 

5,41& 

3,202,216 


1000 

5000^ 

Khatar, called 
also Salasah. 

Awan, here are horses of 


' 





good breed ... ... 

10,096 

415,970 


50 

500 

Awan. (See 

Vol. I, 456, 
n.andl.G. 
under 

Hazara). 

Paharhala, has a stone fort, 







below the fort runs the 







river Sowari {-Sohan) ... 

192^47 

17,426 

5,158,109 



... 


Bel Ghazi Khan ... 

320,000 


100 

1500 

Janohah 

(Janjuah). 

Bala Khattar ... ... 

5,825 

1,000,040 


20 

100 

Khattar. 

Paru Khattar 

1,195 

48,000 





Balokidhan 

7,679 

1,316,801 


100 

500 

Gakkhar. 

Tharchak Dami ... ... 

6,082 

250,575 


100 

1000 

Do. 

Suburban dist. of Rohtas,* 





has a stone fort, be- 
neath which flows the 







Kuhan stream ... 

Khushab, situate near the 

120,884 

60,403,140 

67,052 

500 

3000 

Gakkhar. 

Bagiyal. 

river Bihat (Jhelum) the 






greater part is jungle ... 

73,086 

2,702,509 


500 

7000 

Afghan 

Niyazi and 

Isa Khel. 

Dan Gari [D. Gali] 

147,647 

3,301,201 


1500 

10,000 

Gakkhar, 

Dhankot [Dinkot], on the 
banks of the river Mih- 
ran, viz,, Indus, has a 



salt mine 

8,927 

480,000 

... 

150 

4000 

Awan. 


*The fort built by Sher Shah as a check on the Gakkhar tribes, now in 
picturesque ruin. It is situated in the Salt Range on a gorge overlooking the 
Kuhan Nadi 1 1 miles north-west of ^ Jhelum town. The walls extend for 
three miles and encircle the rocks whidi command the entrance of the pass. 
Some parts have a thickness of from 30 to 40 feet. One gateway still remains 
in excellent preservation. I, G. 


SINDH SAGAR MAHADS 


327 


Sindh Sugar Doab — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghai 

D. 

> 

5 

Infantry 

Castes , 

Darband, (here two un- 







intelligible words) 

... 

3,100,000 


20 

500 

Janohih 

Dhrab ... ... 

2,330 

in money 
96,000 


20 

150 

(Janjuah) , 

Do. 

Dudwat 

2,830 

96,000 


20 

300 

Do. 

Reshan 

1,195 

92,496 


10 

200 

Awan. 

Sliamsabad 

24,664 

7,034,503 


50 

500 

Gakkhar (var. 

patala ... ... 

11,146 

624,000 


100 

1500 

Khokhar) . 
Jaiiohali. 

Fatehpur Kalanri (var. Ka- 



nauri and T.) ... 

157,042 

4,261,831 


50010,000 

Gakkhar. 

Kalbhalak 

40,918 

2,883,253 

18,176 

30 

200 

Baloch. 

Gheb (var. Khet, Khes, 
Khep) 

16,961 

934,161 

m 

1200 

Khattar (sic). 

Khar Darwazah 

4,316 

24,541 


50 

300 

; Janohah. 

Girjhak^ 

21,491 

961,755 


100 

1500 

Do. 

Kachakot, one kos distant 




from this parganah is 







the spring of Hasan 
AbdaP 

5,825 

340,000 


50 

2000 

Rawalah, 

Kahwan, has a stone fort 

4,660 

! 192,000 


10 

200 

Turin, 

Afghan. 

Janohah. 

Kambat 

Tangahtiyar (var. G. Siyar) 

2,330 

2,330 

96,000 
96,000 ; 

[ 

To 

100 

Makliial, has a stone fort 
on a hill — there is scar-^ 
city of water — has a salt 

r " 


1 ■ ■ ' 




mine and a shrine 

I 

9,320 

834,000 

... 

100 

1500 

Janohah. 


^ Said by Cunningham, {Anct. Geog., p, 163 and pronounced Girjhak) 
to be the Hindu name for Jalalpur, the probable site of the famous city of 
Bukephala built in memory of Alexander's horse. 

^ This well-known village lies on the road between Rawal Pindi and 
Peshawar which with its ruins, says the I. O., forms part of a group of 
ancient cities lying round the site of the ancient Taxila. Hwen Thsang the 
Chinese Buddhist pilgrim of the 7th Century A.D. visited the tank of the 
Serpent King, Blapatra, identified with the spring of Baba Wali (Kandahari) 
or Panja Sahib. The fountain is hallowed by legends of Buddhist, Brahman, 
Moslem and Sikh. The shrine of Panja Sahib crowns a precipitous hill about 
one mile east of the town, and at its foot is the holy tank, a small square 
reservoir, full of fish. Delapidated brick temples surround the edge and on 
the west side the water gushes out from beneath a rock made with the repre- 
sentation of a hand, ascribed by the Sikhs to their founder Baba Nanak. The 
scenery is extremely picturesque; the river Haroh hard by affords excellent 
fishing, and on its near shore two ancient cypresses are the only epitaph above 
the tomb of one of Akbar’s wives. For Kachakot, see Cunningham, Anct. 
Geog., p. m. 


328 Am-I-AEBARI 

Sindh Sdgar Doab — Contd. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 1 

Infantry 

Castes'' 

Marali, at the foot of a 
mountain 

■ 5,82^ ■ i 

240,000 


16 

500 


Malot, has a stone fort on 
a hill ... 

3,2^ 

133,2^ 


10 

200 

Janohali. 

Nandanpur, has a brick 
fort on a hill ... 

40,997 

24,110 

4,110 

20 

150 

Do. 

Niiab, (Indus) land in- 
cluded under (Attock) 
Benares 

8,7# 

481,305 





Narwi, on the Sind ... 

9# 

38,091 


under 
Akbara- ; 
bad 

Gakkhar. 

Nokosiral Khattar 

926 

88,096 


j lo; 

1 50 

Khattar. 

Hazara Qarlug ... 

214,9^ 

1,805,342 

5*342 

100 

500 

Dalazak 

.Haliyar Hang ... ... 

7,2# 

300,000 




Afghan. 
Bhakar bar- 

Hazara Gujran ... ,,, 

6,575 

280,896 


u 

nder 

khatri (with 

illegible 

variants). 

Himmat Khan Karmun 

165 

48,000 

1' V 

Akbara- 

bad 

Do. 

Gakkhar. 


Beyond the Five rivers {Birun i Panjnad).* 



Bighas 

Biswas 

i 

Revenue 

D* 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry | 

Infantry 

Castes 

Belot ... ... ... 


322,740 


100 

10,000 

1 Baloch. 

Sahlor ... 

... 

1,700,000 

... 

40 

700 

Chandel and 
others. 

Kahlor, (Punjab Hill State) 

.... 

1,800,000 


50 

1000 

1 , 


^ The valley of the Jheliim takes the matne of Triiridb (Three rivers) after 
its jtuictioii with the Chenah and the Rari and that of Panjnad (Five rivers) 
after receiving the united waters <>f -ftte Beas and Sutlej. l.G. This res- 
tricted signification cannet hefe Certain outlying portions beyond the 

limits of the Punjab Proper wer^ evifMitfy ' attached" to the Subahs of Tahor 
and Mtdtatt and to the ai Dipalpur and were denominated — 

Birun i PanjnM, 


SUBAH OP MULTaN 

It is situated in the first, second and third climates 
simultaneously. Before Tattah was comprised in this pro- 
vince, its length, from Fir ozpur and Sewistan, was 403 kos 
and its breadth from Khatpur' to Jaisalmir, 108 kos, but 
since its inclusion, it measures to Kach (Gandava) and 
Mekran, 660 kos. On the east, it marches with the Sarkar 
of Sirhind ; on the north with Shor; on the south, with the 
Suhah of Ajmer, and on the west, with Khach and Mekran. 
660 kos. On the east, it marches with the Sarkar of Sir- 
hind ; on the north with Shor; on the south, with the Suhah 
of Ajmer, and on the west, -with Khach and Mekran. For 
facility of reference, the two territories are separately des- 
cribed. Its principal rivers are the six already mentioned. 
The Bihof (Jhelum) joins the Chmafe near the parganah of 
Shor and after a course of 27 kos, they unite with the Ravi 
at Zafarpur and the three flowing collectively in one stream 
for 60 kos, enter the Indus near U^ch. Within 12 kos of 
Firozpur, the Bidh joins the Sutlej which then bears several 
names, viz., Har, Hdri, Band, Nurni,^ and in the neigh- 


^ Khatpur is placed by Abul Fazl in the Rachna Doab and by Tieffen- 
thaler as the first stage in a jotfcrney from Labor to Multan. 

* The text diffidently forms two names of these four, viz., Harhari, Dand- 
nuriii, but the authority of the two best MSS. (relegated to the notes) ^ divides 
them. One at least of these names, Band, still lives in the local designation 
of a former bank of the Sutlej, whose shifting course has modified the aspect 
of the country. One ancient bed, forming the base of the segment where 
the Sutlej after its junction with the Beas curves round to the south-’west is 
called the Sukhar Nai (I. G,) which crosses the district east to west and 
joins the modern channel near the borders of Sirsa, The Danda bank points 
to a still more ancient course crossing the south-west corner 35 miles east of 
the present stream, traceable as far as Moodkee and thence at intervals to 
the Sutlej 15 miles farther north. The old beds of the Ravi and Beas w'hich 
formerly united their waters much lower down, at present may be traced 
through a great part of the Bari Doab. {L G.) See the ancient courses of 
these rivers in Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India, p, 220, et seq. 
General Cunningham bases his discussion on Gladwin's translation, viz., 
"For the distance of 17 kos from Feetozpoor, the rivers Beyali and Seteluj 
unite : and then again as they pass along, divide into 4 streams, viz,, the 
Hur, Haray, Dund and the Noorny : and near the city^ of Multan these 4 
branches join again," and says that these beds still exist but their names 
are lost. Now Abul Fazl does not say that the Sutlej divides into 4 streams, 
but that it bears several names. Abul Fazl is describing the rivers watering 
the Multan Subah. He says they are , the six previously mentioned, viz,, 
under Labor. He first speaks of the Jhelum and the Chenab and follows 
them to their junction with the Ravi and then to their meeting with the 
Indus. Here are four. He now turns to the Beas and Sutlej which join 
near Firozpur and the stream after bearing several names becomes con- 
fluent with ‘'those four" near Multan, not, I consider, with the four local 

42 


330 


AIN-I-AKBARI - 


boturhood of confluent with the former four, thdr 

accumulated waters unite. Every river that discharges it- 
self into the Indus takes its name of Sindh. Ixi Tuttah, 
they call it Mihrdnd 

To the north are the mountains. Its climate is similp 
to that of Labor which it resembles in many aspects , but in 
Multan, the rainfall is less and the heat excessive. 

Multan is one of the oldest cities of India : Long. 
107° 36' ; Lat.- 29° 52'. It has a brick fort and a lofty min- 
aret adds to its beauty. Shaikh Bahd-u’ddin Zahariy d and 
many other saints here repose. 

Bhakkar (Bhukkur) is a notable fortress ; in ancient 
chronicles it is called Mansura.^ The six rivers united roll 
beneath it, one channel passing the southern face of the 
fort, the other the northern. The rainfall is inconsiderable, 
the fruits excellent. 

Between Siwi^ and Bhakkar is a vast desert, over which 
for three months of the hot season the simoom blows. 


names, even were they separate beds, but with the four that complete the 
six. The doubt arises why he should place the junction near Multan instead 
of Uch, but this is not surprising to any one accustomed to his obscure and 
vague style of narrative. Moreover the passage in the text resembles a 
notice of these six rivers in Baber’s Memoirs to which Abul Bazl was much 
indebted in the preparation of this third book of the Ain. The passage is as 
fefllows : I use the translation of Brskine. “To the north of Sehrend, six 
rivers, the Sind, the Behat, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Biah, and the Setlej, 
take their rise in these mountains, and all uniting with the Sind in the 
territory of MtiUan, take the common name of Sind, which flowing down 
to the west, passes through the country of Tatta, and disembogues into the 
sea of Oman.” Further the division of the Sutlej into the four local streams 
does not ajter its point of junction with the Chenab for at p. 222, Cunningham 
says that Abul Fazl’s measurements of distances from the confluence of the 
Chenab and Jhelum to that of the Chenab and Ravi and the Chenab and 
Indus agree with the laier state of these rivers. 

^ The mam stream of the Indus. See its course and the names of its 
channels in Cunningham’s Ancient Geography of India, pp. 252, 272, 286, 

: 298, ■ '&c.,.„ . . , , , 

• * After the decline of the Arab power in Sind about A.D. 871, two native 
kingdoms raised themselves at Multan and Mansura, The former comprised 
the upper valley of the Indus as far as Alor; the latter extended from that 
town to the sea and nearly coincided with the modern province of Sind. Alor, 
or Aror, the capital, almost rivalled Multan and had an extensive commerce. 
J. G. Genl. Cunningham (Ancient^ Geog.) gives the name of Mansura to the 
town founded, according to Masaudi, by Jamhur, the Moslem governor of 
Sindh, and named after his own father Mansur, so close to Brahmanabad as 
to be regarded as the same place. His learned discussion depends too much 
on analogies of sound in names, to be quite convincing. See, also Mansura in 
Blliot’s Arabs in Sind, p. 50, et seq, 

® Siwi, Sewist^, and Sehwan are constantly confounded or mistaken as 
Blliot remarks without, howevef, himself determining the position of the first 
which is a town or the geographical limits of the second which is a province. 
Siwi is somewhat south of the direct line between Dera Ghazi Khan and 
Quetta, noYi well known as Sibi. Vol. I, p, 362, Sewe, 



331 


MtJl,TAN MAHAI,S 

The river Sind (Indus) inclines every few years alter- 
nately to its southern and northern banks and the village 
cultivation follows its course. For this reason the houses 
are constructed of wood and grass. 

This Subah comprises three Sarkars of 88 parganahs, 
all under assessment for crops paying special rates. The 
measured land is 3,273,932 bighas, 4 biswas. The gross re- 
venue is 15 krors, 14 lakhs, 3,619 dams. (Rs. 37,86,090-8-0), 
of which 30 lakhs, 69,948 dams (Rs. 76,498-11,-2), are 
Suyurghdl. The local militia consists of 18,785 Cavalry 
and 166,650 Infantry. 


Sarkdr of Multan. Four Dodbs. 

Containing 47 Mahals, 658,649 Bighas, i Biswas. 
Revenue, 63,916,318 Dams. Suyurghdl, 6,494,236 Dams. 
Cavalry, 8,965. Infantry, 90,650. 


Bet Jalandhar Dodb. 


Containing 9 Mahals, 52,090 Bighas. Revenue, 
17,240,147 Dams. Cavalry, 1,410. Infantry, 17,100. 


/ 

Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

■ghal 

B. 

Cavalry 

■■ ' >x 

1 
" ‘S 

■ : 

Castes 

Adamwahan ... ... 

S,386 

369,445 


30 

700 

Hasar. 

Jalalabad 

5,000 

299,798 


10 

200 

: Bhim. 

Dmiyapur ... ... 

27,889 

1,876,862 

11,998 

50 

400 

Uki, Ranu. 

Rajpur ... 

1,368 

90,897 

■ 

20 

300 

Juiiali. 

Shergarli 

75,000 

5,741,200 


400 

4000 

Kachhi, 

Junah, 

Bikanah, 

Malah. 

Fathpur 

61,797 

47,695 

4,008,661 

24,596 

500 

5000 

Junah. 

Kaliror 

305,856 

40,931 

100 

2000 

Junah. 

Khaibuldi 

80,411 

594,233 

... 

200 


Jat and an» 
other name 
illegible. 

Ghalu Kbarah 

19,820 

1,201,086 

... 

100 

2000 

Kalu, Jat 


332 


AJN-I'AEBARJ 

Bari Doab. 


Containing 11 137,629 Bighas, IS Biswas. 

Revenue, 9,863,341 Dams. Suyurghal, 207,382 Pams. 
Cavalry 775. Infantry, 14,550. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Islampur, has a brick fort 

23,085 

1,550,896 

60,394 

1000 

3000 

Bhim, Maral. 

Ismailpur ... ... 

Multan town, has a brick 

900 

49,932 


5 

50 

Maral. 

■ ' ■■■■■ ■ 

fort ... ... ... 

2,324 

. 

1,719,168 

88,980 

50 

1000 

Bhim, Shaikh- 
zadah. 

Tularaba 

Villages of the parganah 

19,310 

1,200,778 

15,766 

300 

5000 

Sohu. 

of Chaukhandi 

2,927 

i 191,054 



... 


Suburban dist. of Multan 
Villages of pargamh of 

35,925 

1 2,288,854 

I 

37,463 

... 


Bhim. 

Rhatpur ... 

2,487 

149,578 

... 


' ... 


Do. Do. Deg.* Ravi 

897-14 

50,146 

1,555,563 

■' ... 

... 



Shah AMampur ... 

Villages of parganah oi 

24,121 

1,180 

200 

4000 


Khaibuldi ... ... 

7,584-19 

460,654 

... 

... 



Matila 

2,068 

608,418 

3,598 

20 

500 

Jat. 


* The Degh [I. G,) is the chief tributary of the Ravi, which it receives 
after entering Montgomery District on its north-west bank and then passes 
into Multan District. 


Rechndu Doab. 

Containing 6 Mahals, 83,229 Bighas, 18 Biswas. Re- 
venue, 5,113,883 Dams. Cavalry, 770. Infantry, 9,500. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

yy''D., 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

1 Cavalry 

' Infantry 

Castes 

Ira j pur and Deg Ravi 

37,230 

;2,377,300 


100 

2000 

Kharal. 

Chaukhandi .... 

7,620 ; 

1 215,880 

% 

100 

2000 

. Do. 

Khatpur 

8,387 

1 505,398 

*•* 

500 

3000 

Jat, Sindh. 

Dalibhati 

3,768-18 

, 256,569 

' ■ •' « • 

20 

500 

Rharal. 

Kalbah 

16,208 

058,786 

... 

50 

2000 

Jat, Sohu. 


! 

MULTAN SUB-DIVISIONS 333 

Sind S&gar Dodb. 

Containing 4 Mafeafo/ 34,812 Bighas. Revenue, 
2,178,192 Dams. Suyurghdl, 13,399 Dams. Cavalry, 
220. Infantry, 2,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

5uym*-j 
ghal , 
D. 1 

Cavalry | 

Infantry 

Castes 

Villages of Islamput , 

5,775 

378,857 



[ " , ■ 


Rangpur 

22,907 

1,410,737 

10,737 

im 

1 20W 


Raepur Kanki ... ... 

Miscellaneous villages, 1 

5,550 - 

306,068 

2,662 

20 

500 

Bhiin. 

Mahal ... ... 

600 

38,080 

..... 


. 



Beyond the Five, Rivers. {Birun i Panjnad.Y 
Containing 17 Mahals,^ 205,893 Bighas, 13 feiswas. 
Revenue, 18,820,255 Dams. Suyurghdl, dQ,&88 Dams. 
Cavalry, 5,800. Infantry, 67,600. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

.Revenue 

D. 

Suyur 

ghal 

D, 

Cavalry 

& 

, 4.i 

U 

GJ 

«4-l ' 

■ C3 

Hi 

Castes ■ ' 

Ubaura .... 

11,820 

915,256 

4,684 

30 

500 

Dhar. 

Uch ... 

29,056 

1,910,140 


100 

400 

Shahibzadah, 

Bhurtiwahan, (var. and 
G. Daman) 

16,696 

1,336,029 

13,564 

200 

2000 

Bukhari, 

Sayyicl. 

Rajput, 

Jamsher 

4,334 

348,037 


150 

2000 

Uodhi. 

Baloch, 

Dudai, has a brick fort ... 

40,520-11 

2,400,000 


4000 

30,000 

Bholdi and 
Nardi. 

Dudai. 

Diwar i Awwal, (Cunning- 
ham. Dirawal) 

2,718 

■ 

140,000 


50 

500 

Rajput, Kot- 

Dud Khan 

17,890 

1,440,000 




wal. 

Villages of Rajpur 

452 

29,854 



1 


Rupari 

12,075 

1,080,000 


... 

. * . 

Afghan. 

Sitpur 

44,538-8 

4,608,000 


1000 

20,000 

Seorahi 

5,124 

5,224 

28,800 

... 

20 

100 

Dhar. 

Villages of Fatehpur 

330,779 

... 


' 


,, „ Kaharor 

Majlol Ghazipur 

1,384 

40,521 

87,289 

2,400,000 

... 


... 


Mauh, has a brick fort. 
(Cunningham Moj.) 

9,083 

707,069 

20,440 

50 

1000 

Kuraishi. 

Marot, do. ... 

5,456 

204,000 

8,014,000 

... 

200 

1000 

Bhatti. 

Mahand 

9,336-12 

... 

200 

1000 



^ Of these Cunningham can identify hut Uch, Dirawal, Moj and Marot, 
which he places, east of the Sutlej, The limits of the province, of Multan in 
the time of Hwen Thsang included the north half of the Bhawalpur territory 
in addition to the tract lying between the rivers, the north frontier exrtending 
from Derah Din Paiiah on the Indus to Pak Pattan, a distance of 150 miles ; 
-on the west, the frontier line of the Indus to Kkanpur, 160 miles ; on the 
east from Pak Pattan to the old bed of the Ghager, 80 miles : on the south 
from Khanpur to the Ghagar, 220 miles, p. 220, 


f 


334 


AIN-l-AKBAHl 


Sarkar of Dipdlpur. 

Containing 29 Mahals, 1,433,767 Bighas, 8 Biswas. 
Revenue, 129,334,163 Daws. Suyufghdl, 2,079,170 
Cavalry, 5,210. Infantry, 53,300. 

Bet Jalandhar Dodb. 


Containing 10 Mahals, 710,946 Bighas, 10 Biswas. 
Revenue, 88,808,856 Ddms. Suyurghdl, 1,481,564 Dams. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 2,400. Infantry, 20,400. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

i ■ ■ 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

V? 

s 

Castes 

I^attan, (Pak Pattan) has 
a brick fort ... 

49,014 

2,628,928 

599,989 

1 

100 

2000 

Bhil, Dhokar. 

Dipalpur bakhi, has a 
brick fort 

242,344-11 

43,514,059 

499,535 

502 

7000 

Jat, Kho- 

Bhanakshah, has a brick 
fort ... 

60,676-1 

3,484,375: 

87,152 


400 

khar, Kasu, 
Bhatti. 

Deotir 

40,730 

2,489,850 

1,825,009 

23,400 

1 50 

1000 

Jat, 

Rahmatabad ' ... ... 

88,285 

1002000 

Baloch, 

Qabula, has a brick fort 

86,615-12 

4,803,817 


1000 

2000 

Khokhar. 
Jusah Rumi. 

Qiyampur I/akhi, has a 
brick fort 

54,678-19 

^ 2,008,274 

88,855 

300 

2000 

Bhatti, Jat. 

Ealnaki Bakhi ... 

55,243-3 

1 2,385,969 

93,809 

50 

1000 

Bo. do. 

Elhokarain Bakhi 

21,130 

1 1,011,715 

35,383 

150 

1000 

Khokhar. 

Bakhi lyosqani ... ... 

^61,519-16 

3,156,759 

5,940 

100 

2000 

Bhatti, 



Khilji. 


Bari Dodb. 


Containing 6 Mahals, 193,496 Bighas, 9 Biswas. Re- 
venue, 1,175,393 Dams. Castes, various. Cavalry, 1,100. 
Infantry, 14,000. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

ghal 

B. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Bahrapal ... ... 

18,717-9 

1,175,393 

2,020,256 


50 

500 : 

Bhatti. 

Baba Bhoj, has a fort ... 

39,385 

20^56 

150 

2000 

Sayyid, Jat. 

Chahni ... 

25,998 

1,200,600 

600 

SO 

2000 

Sayyid, &c. 

Rahimabad 

24,829 

1,182,714 ‘ 


50 

500 

Kharal, 

! Baloch. 

Sadkharah [?Satgarhl ... 

59,447 

3,551,630 

20,976 

300 

4000 


Mandhali 

25,624 

2,703,429 

500 

5000^ 

I Bhini. 




MULTAN MAHALS 336 

RechnauDoab. 

Gontaining 7 Mahals,, 142,866 Bighas, 2 Biswas. Re- 
venue, 8,634,915 Dams, Suyurghdl, 5,808 Dams. Castes, 
various. Cavalry, 710. Infantry, 6,300. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur- 

glkil 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Khan pur 

19,599-18 

1,285,740 

80,380 

30 

500 

Kharal. 

Dalchi Chandhar 

i 9,153-12 

605,557 

1,620 

50 

1000 

Chandhar. 

Shahzadah Baloch 

12,749-12 

1 789,74! 


100 

1000 

Baloch, 

Aabidi AbM 

! 5,975 : 

i 343,932 


10 

300 

Jat. 

Faryadabad 

18,708 

1 1,098,694 

«■* 

20 

1000 

Jat. 

Kliaral ... 

33,782 

1 1,907,069 

2,800 

300 

2000 

Khari. 

Mahes 

42,944 

2,509,182 

... 

200 

500 



Beyond the Five Rivers (Birun i Panjnad). 


Containing 6 Mahals, 386,470 Bighas, 7 Biswas. Re- 
venue, -20,580,771 Dams. Suyurghdl 549,972 Dams. 
Cavalry, 1,000. Infantry, 12,300. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

Suyur* 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Jalalabad 

34,475-7 

1,739,289 

. ' 

50 

1000 

Ranghar, 

Bhatti (or 
Latti) , 
i Jat. 

Jangal 

18,012 

653,516 


300 

4000 

Bhatti. 

Aalamiiur 

31,008-10 

1,579,558 

... 

50 

1000 

Ranghar, 

Jat. 

Firozpur 

217,710-17 

11,479,404 

199,404 

500 

3000 

Afghan, 

Ranghar. 

Villages of Bakhi Qabula 

29,185 

1,636,550 

. . i.' ^ 




Muhammad wat ... 

56,614-13 

3,492,454 

350,568 

100 

3600 

Bhatti, Kho- 
khar. 


336 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


SarkaT of Bhakkar (Bukkuy) . 


Containing 12 Mahals, 1282,01^ Bighas. Revenue, 
18,424,947 Dams. Suyurghdl, QOO, 419 Dams. Cavalry, 
4,600. Infantry, 11,100. 



Bighas 

Biswas 

Revenue 

D. 

1 

! 

Suyur- 

ghal 

D. 

Cavalry 

Infantry j 

Castes 

Alor, has a fort ... 

143,700 

1,132,150 

20,550 

200 

500 

Dharejah. 

Bhakkar, has a strong fort 

74,362 


200 

1000 

Mehar and 
Rahar. 

Jandola ... ... 

57,847 

3,102,709 

85,064 

400 

800 

Jahna. 

Jatoi ... 

179,821-14 

2,346,873 

156,841 

400 

800 

Bhatti. 

Darbela 

121,146 

1,262,761 

68,872 

200 

500 

Sankar 

100,818 

1,808,628 

32,332 

500 

1000 

Saliejah. 

Siwi 

1,381,930 


500 

1500 


Fathpur 

8*050-10 

477,859 


200 

1000 

Salieja, 

Dharejah. 

Khajana 

10,063 

645,205 

... 

200 

1000 

Jaman. 

Khara Kakan 

154,151 

2,732,331 

138,608 

500 

1000 

Dharejah. 

Kakhari, (var. Kakri) ... 

178,338-16 

2,106,431 

63,208 

500 

1000 ; 

Mankrerah. 

Manhalah 

128,078 

1,353,713 

28,944 

500 

1000: 

Dharejah 
(var. Hare- 
jah). 


Kings of Multan.* 

.. . ■ . Years. 

Shaikh Yusuf, reigned ... ... ... 2 

Sultan Mahmudf (var. Muhammad Shah) ... 17 

,, Qutbu’ddin, -his son ... ... 16 

,, Husain, his son ... ... 30 


* This province, says the U, T., was first conquered by Mahomed Kasim 
at the end of the first century Hejira. It was recovered 'by the Hindus on 

the decline of the Ghazni power. After Mahomed Ghori's subjugation it re- 

mained tributary to Delhi until 

A.H. A.D. 

847. 1443. Shaikh Yusuf established an independent monarchy, 

849 1445. Ray Sehra,. or Kutbu’ddin Hosen Langa I expelled the 

Shaikh. 

908. 1502. Mahmud Khan Danga; his minister Jam Bayezid. 

931. .1524. Hosen I^anga 11, overcome by Shah Hosen Arghun. 

Under Humayun, becomes a province of the empire. 

t This name is altogether omitted by Ferishta who describes Qutbu’ddin ’s 
intrigue and succession, in his history . of Multan. The name of Qutbu’ddin 
was Rae Sahra and lienvas governor of Sewi and the adjacent territory and 
the head of the Afghan clan of Langah. He died in .A..H. 874 (A.D. 1469), 
Husain Shah in 904 or 908 (1498 or 1502) and Mahmud in 931 (1524). 


SOVEREIGNS OE MULTAN 337 

Sultan Firoz, his son ... 1 

,, Husain, a second time. 

,, Mahmud, son of Sultan Firoz ... 27 

,, Husain II, son of Sultan Mahmud ... 1 

Shah Husain, (Arghun), ruler of Sind. 

Mirza Kamran. 

Sher.Khan. 

Salim Khan. 

Sikandar Khan. 

At one period the province was subject to the sovereigns 
of Delhi : at another it was under the control of the rulers 
of Sind, and for a time was held by the princes of Ghazni. 
After its conquest by Muizzu’ddin Sam (Ghori), it con- 
tinued to pay tribute to Delhi. In the year A. H. 847 
(A. D. 1443) when Sultan Alau’ddin reigned at Delhi, 
and constituted authority fell into contempt, every chief in 
possession of power, set up a pretension to independence. 
A noisy faction raised Shaikh Yusuf- Quraishi, a disciple 
of Shaikh Bahau’ddin Zakariya, to supremacy. He was 
subsequently deposed and proceeded with haste to the court 
of Sultan Bahlol at Delhi. The sovereignty now devolved 
upon one of the Dangah family, who assumed the title of 
Sultan Mahmud Shah. It is related that this chief had 
given his daughter in marriage to Shaik Yusuf, and on the 
strength of this connection, used frequently to visit her 
alone, till one night by. a successful intrigue he accom- 
plished his design on,, the throne. During the reign of 
Sultan Qutbuddin, Sultan Mahmud Khilji advanced from 
Malwah against Multan but returned without effecting any- 
thing. Some maintain that the first of the Langah family 
who -was raised to the throne was Qutbu’ddin. In the reign 
of Sultan Husain, Bahlol sent (his* son) Barbak Shah with 
a force to reinstate Shaikh Yusuf, but they returned un- 
successful. Sultan Husain becoming old and doting, placed 
his eldest son upon the throne under the title of Firoz Shah, 
and withdrew into retirement. His Wazir Imadu’l Mulk, 
poisoned him in revenge for the murder of his own son and 
Sultan Husain a second time resumed the sceptre and 
appointed Mahmud Khan, son of Sultan Firoz, his heir. 
On the death of Sultan Husain j after a reign of 30 or 34 
years [908 A.H.], Sultan Mahmud ascended the throne. 
During his reign several incursions were made by the 
Mughals who, however, ^retired discomfited. Some mali- 
cious intriguers through jealousy created a misunderstand- 

43 


338 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

ing between the Sultan and Jam Bayazid who had long held 
the office of prime minister, and misrepresentations cun- 
ningly made in a roundabout way, brought them into open 
conflict. The minister withdrew from Multan- to Shor and 
read the khuthah in the name of Sultan Sikandar Lodi. On 
the death of Sultan Mahmud, his infant son was raised to 
the throne as Sultan Husain (II). Mirza Shah Husain 
(Arghun) marched from Tattah and took Multan and 
entrusted its charge to Langar Ehan. Mirza Kaiman dis- 
possessed him of it and after him Sher Ehan, Salim Ehan 
and Sikandar successively held it till the splendour of 
Humayun’s equal administration filled Hindustan with its 
brightness and secured its peace. At the present day under 
the just sway of His Majesty his subjects find there an 
undisturbed repose. 

Sarkdr of Tattah. 

During a long period this was an independent territory 
but now forms part of the imperial dominions. Its length 
from Bhakkar to Each and Meferaw is 257 kos, its breadth 
from the town of Budin to Bandar LdJtari,^ 100 kos, and 
again from the town of Chdndo out of the. dependencies of 
Bhakkar, to Bikaner is 60 kos. On the east lies Gujarat : 
to the north Bhakkar and Sewi to the south, the ocean, 
and to the west Kdch and Mekrdn. It is situated in the 
second climate and lies in Longitude 102° 30' Lat. 24° 10'. 

The ancient capital was Brdhmandbdd,^ a large city. 
Its citadel had 1,400 towers, at an interval of a tandh, and 
to this day there are many traces of its fortifications. AZori 
next became the metropolis and at the present day it is 
Tattah, also called Debal. The mountains to the north 

^ “I/aliari Bandar** in. ^ Cunninghatn’s account of Sindh. (Ancient Geo- 
graphy). . K 

^ ^ Identified by Cunningham with Harmatelia, (a softer pronunciation of 
Brahmathala, or Bralimanasthala) of Diodorus and placed on the east branch 
of the Mihran or Indus, 47 miles north-east of Haidarabad 28 miles east of 
Hala and 20 miles west of the eastern channel of the Indus known as Nara. 
He gives the number of bastions as 140 on the authority of the MSS. but 
both Gladwin and Blochmann concur in 1,400, and there is no variant reading. 
His conclusion is, that the place known now as Bamhhra ka thul represents 
the ruined, city of Mansura and the neighbouring mound now called Dilura, 
Brahmanabad. 

• The ruins of Alor, or more correctly riAror, are situated to the south of a 
gap in the low range df limestone hills stretching from Bhakar to the south 
for about 20 miles until it is lost in the broad belt of sand hills bounding the 
Nara or old bed, of the Indus;'/? On' the 'west, Cunningham regards it as the 
capital of the Musxcani o£;.,Curt|us.; He; disputes the assertion of Abul Fazl 
that Debal and Tattah are the d&mh. Sir H, BlHot places Debal at Karachi, 
General Cunningham? prefers a' ..site between Karachi and Tattah, 


I'ATTAH, PRODUCE AND TRIBES 


339 


form several brancligs. One of them trends towards 
Oawdahar, and another rising from the sea coast extends to 
the town of Kobhar, called Ramgar, and terminates in 
Sewistan and is there known as Lakkhi^ This tract is in- 
habited by _ an important Baloch tribe called Kalmdni, 

[ ? Kirmani] consisting of twenty thousand cavalry. A 
fine breed of camels is here indigenous. A third range runs 
from Sehwdn to Sewi and is called Khattar [Kirthar], 
where dwells a tril^ named Nohmardi that can raise a force 
of 300 horse and 7,000 fobt. Below this tribe, there is 
another clan of the Baloch known as Nazhari with a force 
of a thousand men. A good breed of horses comes from this 
tract. A fourth mountain chain touches Kach (Gandava) 
on one side, and on the other the Kalmdni territory, and is 
called Kdrah inhabited by 4,000 Balochis. 

In .the winter season there is no need of poshtins (fur- 
lined coats) and the summer heats are moderate except in 
Sewistan. Fruits are of various kinds and mangoes are 
especially fine. In the desert tracts, a small kind of melon 
grows wild. Flowers are plentiful and camels are numerous 
and of a good breed. The means of locomotion is by boats 
of which there are many kinds, large and small, to the 
number of 40,000. The wild ass is hunted, and game, 
such as, hares, the kotah pdchah^ and wild boars; fishing 
likewise is much pursued. 

The assessment of the country is made on the system 
of division of crops, a third 'being taken from the husband- 
man. Here are salt-pits 'and iron mines. Shdli rice is 
abundant and of good quality. Six kos from -Tattah is a 
mine of yellow stone, large and small slabs of which are 
quarried and used for building. The staple food consists 
of rice and fish. The latter is smoked and loaded in boats, 
and exported to the ports and other cities, affording a con- 
siderable profit. Fish-oil is also extracted and used in 
boat building. There is a kind of fish called palwah which 
comes up into the Indus from the sea, unrivalled for its fine 
and exquisite 'flavom:. Milk-curds of excellent quality are 
made and keep for four months. [Palo, Bengali hilsd.'] 

^ The Lakhi range is an offshoot from the Kirthar which separates Sind 
from Beluchistan. /. G. 

“Literally 'short legged*. It is thus described in Babar’s Memmrs, 'Tts 
size may be equal to that of the white deer,. Its two fore-legs as well as its 
thighs are short, whence its name. Ifs horns are branching like those of the 
gawezin but less. Bvery year too it c^sts horns like the stag. It is a bad 
runner and therefore never leaves the jungle.** These characteristics seem 
to point to the hog-deer, (Cervus potcmus). 


340 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Near Sehwdn is a large lake,^two days’ journey in 
length called Manchur, ia which artificial islands have been 
made by fishermen who‘ dwell on them. 

But the greatest of all wonders is the Liver-eater 
{Jigar Khwdr), an individual who by glances and incanta- 
tions can abstract a man’s liver. Some aver that under 
certain conditions and at. certain times, he renders the 
person senseless upon whojn.he looks, and then takes from 
him what resembles the seed. of a pomegranate, which he 
conceals for a time in the calf of his leg. During this 
interval the person whose liver is stolen remains un- 
conscious, and when thus helpless, the other throws the seed 
on the fire which spreads out like a plate. Of this he 
partakes with his fellows and ithe unconscious victim dies. 
He can convey a knowledge, of his art to whomsoever he 
wills, by giving him a portion of this food to eat and teach- 
ing him the incantation. If he is caught in the act and his 
calf be cut open and the seed extracted and given to his 
victim, the latter will recover. The followers of this art 
are mostly women. ,4:1 

They can convey intelligence from long distances in a 
brief space of time and if they be thrown into the, river with 
a stone tied to them, they will not sink. When it is desired 
to deprive one of these of this power, they brand both sides 
of his head and his joints, fill his eyes with salt, suspend 
him for forty days in a subterraneous, chamber, and give 
him food without salt, and some of them recite incantations 
over him. During this. , period he is called Dhachrah. 
Although his power then no longer exists, he is still able 
to -recognize a Diver-eaterj, tand these pests are captured 
through his detection. He can also restore people to health 
by incantation ; or administering a certain drug. Extra- 
ordinary tales are, itold ,ctf these people that are beyond 
measure astonishing- . ■ . . 

This country is the, fourth Sarkdr ' 6 i the Suhah of 
Multan. From the confines of Uch to Tattah towards the 
north are rocky mountain ranges inhabited by various 
Baloch tribes, and on the south, from Uch to Gujarat are 
sandhills in which region are the Ahshdm Bhatti^, and other 

^ According to Cunningham, . the eai^Iy Arab geographers place a strong 
fort called Bhatia between Hn}tan\,^Bd' which, from its position has a 

claim to be identified with the ' city , built ^ by Alexander among the Sogdi, but 
he mentions no trib^ of the have any of the Bhatti Rajputs 

mentioned by Blliot any such brefex ■ AsMm [= warriors]. The Sodahs 
have been identifiedd by Tod wim the,§p,g 4 oi. /Ancient Geography, pp. 253 - 254 . 


MAHAM m TAfTAH 


341 


numerous clans. From Bhakhar ta Nasirpur and Umarkot 
are the Sodah, Jdrejah and other tribes. This Subah con- 
tains 5 Sarkars subdivided into 53 parganahs. The revenue 
is 6,615,393 dams* (Rs. 165,384-13-2.) 


• Sarkdr of Tattah. 

Containing 18 Mahals. Revenue, 25,999,891 Dams. 



Revenue 

D. 

■ / ■ ■ 

Revenue 

D. 

Lahari Bandar ... 

Batora ^ 

Bahrampur 

Bori 

Jakar [Jarak]* ... ... 

Jara 

Darak, (var. Durg) 
Dankari, (var. Dekri) ... 

Ratnah ... ... 

5,522,419 
4,932,286 
1,311,612 
434,306 
348,462 
82,390 
2,970 441 
315,921 
842,144 

SankuralP ... ... 

Sirsi Jam 

Karhar, (var. and K. Kar- 
kar) 

X^ekih Rherali ... 

Maljah ... 

Manjar 

Mzaihpnr ... 

2,108,097 

142,641 

3,328,476 
535,795 
l,10v5.606 
1,221,752 
. ■ 352 724 

* This is incorrect. Adding together the revenues of the five 
get a total revenue of 6 62,51,393 dams (Rs. 16,56,284-13-2). 

^ Var. Patera, Batwar, Banwar. 

^ Jarak, midway between Haidarabad and Tatta. 

*See Elliot, Arabs in Sind, p. 230. > 

sarkSrs, we 


Sarkar Hdjkdn. 


Containing 11 Mahals. Revenue 11,784,586 Dams. 


:■ Revenue 
D. 


Revenue 

D. 

Bagh Path 

Belah 

Hajkan ... ... 

Jaun 

Rahban ... 

Detached villages^ 



340,173 

056,30 

555,699 

3,165,418 

742,973 

436,783 

■■ ■■ 

Rarori ... 

I^unda ... .... 

Mandni, (var. and G. 
Mandri) 

Madui ... 

Nubiyar, (var. and G. 
Napiyar) 

629,937 

1 . 119,973 

694,269 

2,352,605 

1,280,439 


» Qa^iyat-i-m^kun, the term mozhuri, being applied in old revenue 
accounts to small and scattered estates not included in the accounts of the 
districts in which they were situated and o£ which the assessments were paid 
direct to Government, 


342 


AJN-I-AKBARI 


" Sdrhm . of Sewistan. 

9 Mahals. Revenue, 15,646,808 Dams. 



Revenue 

D. 

, 


Revenue 

D. 

Batar, (yar Patar G. Palar) 
Baghbanan 

Batasi (var. and T. Patan) 
Bnsikaii (var. and G. Bnst- 
kan, T. I^usigan) 

Janjah ... 

2,02d,884 

1,^8,152 

1,902,033 

1,825,190 

1 .978,953 

Khat 

Sub. dist: of Sewistan, has 
a strong fort ... 

Kalian 

Lakhawat (var. Lakiawat) 

1,329,923 

1,669,732 

1,640,764 

1,231,776 

Sarkar of Nasirpur. 

• 

7 Mahals. 

Revenue, 7,834,600 Dams. 



Revenue 

D. 


Revenue 

D. 

Umarkot 

Talsarah 

Samawani, (var. and G. 
Samadani) 

Kidal, (var, Kandal) 

1,057,802 

326,104 

3,031,530 

515,904 

Kasar 

Markandan 

Kasirpur 

401,738 
623 936 
1,878,126 

: ^ ‘ ^ Vt, i i J 

Sarkar of Chakarhdlah. 


8 Mahals. 

Revenue, 5,085,408 Dams. 


' ” . ;-■ . i 

Revenue 


Revenue 

D. 

Arpur 

Chakarhalali 

Siyar ... 

Ghazipur ... 

731,190 
747,175 
719,207 
, &83,^ 

Tewari (var. I/awari) ... 
Khari Junali 

Burkah Manawali 

Barhi ^ 

571,073 

508,152 

490,368 

333,588 




RUI,ERS OR IrOWER SINDH 


343 


Princes of Tattah.^ 

1. The family of Tamim Ansari during the ascen- 
dancy of the House of Umayyah. 

2. The Sumra (Rajput) line of 36 princes, reigned 
500 years, (according to Ferishta — 100 — their names un- 
recorded)., 

3. Of the Samma dynasty, 

* Years Months D. 

Jam Unar, reigned ... ... 3 6 0 

,, Juna, his brother ... ... 4 0 0 

,, Banhatiyah ... ... 15 0 0 

,, Tamachi, his brother ... 13 and some months. 

,, Salahuddin ... ... 11 and do. . 

,, Nizamucldin, his son ... 2 and a fraction. 

,, Ali Sher Tamachi ... ... 6 and some months. 

,, Karan, son of Tamachi ... 0 0 1^ 

Fateh Khan, son of Sikandar ... 11 and some months. 
Tughlaq, his brother ... 28 0 0 

Mubarak, the chamberlain ... 0 0 3 

^ The following livSt is from the U. T. 

A.H. A.D. 

87. 705. Belocliistan invaded by Hijaj, governor of Bassora, and Md. 

Qasim. 

The Ansaries, the Sameras, and the Santanas or Jams, successively gain the 
ascendancy, then a Delhi governor (1205?) Nasir ud din Qabbacha, Peonies 
independent, drowned. 

The Jami Dynasty of Snmana,, originally Rajputs. 

A.H. A.D. 

737. 1336. Jam Afra; tributary to Toghlafc Shah, 

740. 1339. „ Choban. 

754. 1383. ' Bang; asserted his independence. 

782. 1367. „ Timaji, his brother. 

782, 1380. „ Salahu’ddin, convert to Islam. 

793. 1391. „ Nizamu’ddin. 

796. 1393. „ Aly Sher. 

812. 1409. „ Giran, son of Timaji. 

812. 1409. „ Fatteh Khan. 

827. 1423. „ Toghlak, invaded Gujerat. 

854. 1450. ,, Sikandar, 

856. 1452. „ Sangar, elected. 

864. 1460. ,, Nanda or Nizam-u*ddin, cot. of Hasan Langa. 

894. 1492. „ Feroz; the Turkhan family became powerful, 1520. 

927. 1520. Shah Beg Arghun, occupies Sind. 

930. 1523, Shah Hosein Arghun. 

962. 1554. Malimud of Bhakar. 

982. 1572. Akbar annexes Sind. (Ferishta, 1001 = 1592). 

The title of Jam, Ferishta pronounces, is a boast of their supposed descent 
from Jamshid, but commonly given to their head or chief to preserve the 
tradition of this fabulous lineage. The lineage of the Sumra and Samma 
dynasties is discussed in Appendix P. of Elliot’s Arabs in Sind. The latter 
name may be traced in the Sambastjse' and Sambus of Alexander's historians. 
Sambus occurs as Sabbas in Plutarch, Saboutas in Strabo, Ambigarus in Justin 
and Ambiras in Orosius. 


344 ain-i-akbari 

Years Months D. 

Sikandar, b. Fath Khan ... . ... 1 6 0 

Sanjar, commonly called Radhan (var. 

and G. Radman ... ... 8 and some months. 

Jam Nizamuddin, known as Jam Nanda, 

(see Vol. I, p. 362) ... 60 and some months. 

Jam Firoz, his son. _ * 

Salahuddin, a relation of Firoz. ^ 

,, Firoz, a second time. 

In former times, there lived a Raja named Siharas' 
whose capital was Alor. His sway extended eastwards, as 
far as Kashmir and towards the west to Mekran, while the 
sea _ confined it on the south and the mountains on the 
north. An invading army entered the country from Persia, 
in opposing which the Raja lost his life. The invaders 
contenting themselves with devastating part of the terri- 
tory, returned. Rai Sahi, the Raja’s son, succeeded his 
father, by whose enlightened wisdom and the aid of his in- 
telligent minister Sdfw, justice was" universally administered 
and the repose of the country secured. A Brahman named 
Jack [Chach] of an obscure station in life, attached himself 
to the minister’s service and by flattery and address made 
himself of much consequence and was advanced to a post 
of dignity, and on the death of the minister, was chosen to 
succeed him. He basely and dishonourably carried on an 
intrigue with the Raja’s wife, which the Raja, notwith- 
standing its disclosure to him by the ministers of State, re- 
fused to credit. During the Raja’s illness, the wicked 
wretch, in collusion with this shameless paramour, sent for 
the generals of the army separately, on pretence of consult- 
ing them and set them apart, and by seductiye promises 
won over the several enemies of each to accomplish their 
death. When they were put out of the way and the Raja 
too had breathed his last, he assumed the sovereignty. 

The pursuers of worldly interests attached themselves 
to his cause and he took the Rani to wife, thus garnering 
eternal perdition, but he laboured for the prosperity and 
increase of his dominions and seized upon Kach (Gandava), 
and Mekran. . • . / 


^ Of tlie Rai dynasty who^ capital was Al&r; The-Tnkfatul Kiram makes 
Siharas the son and successor of RQi t>vwaij, followed by RUi Sahast, the 
first, second and third of tot' nmme. It was under the latter that Chach rose 
to power. ' ’ 



BIN QASIM CONQUERS SINDH 


345 


During the Caliphate of Omar (b. u’l) Khattab, 
Mughirah Abu’l Aas advanced by way of Bahrain to Debal, 
but the troops there opposed him and he was killed in the 
In the Caliphate of Othman an intelligent 
explorer* was sent to ascertain the condition of Sind, and 
an army of invasion was under orders. The messenger, 
however, reported that if a large force were sent, supplies 
would fail, and a small one would effect nothing and he 
added many dissuasive representations. The Prince of the 
Faithful, AH, despatched troops that occupied the borders 
of Debal but on hearing -of the death of the Caliph they 
withdrew in haste to Mekran. Muawiyah twice despatched 
an army to Sind and on both occasions many of the troops 
perished. 

Chach died after a prosperous reign of 40 years, and 
his youngest son Ddhir succeeded him on the throne. In 
the Caliphate of Walid b. Abdul Malik, when Hajjaj was 
governor of Iraq, he despatched on his own authority 
Muhammad Qasim his cousin and son-in-law to Sind who 
fought Dahir in several engagements.^ On Thursday, the 
10th of Ramazan A.H. 99, (17th April 717) the Raja was 
killed in action and the territory of Tattah became subject 
to the invaders. The two daughters of Raja Dahir, who 
had been made captive were sent with some valuable 
presents to the Caliph. In a spirit of revenge, they deceit- 
fully represented to the Caliph that Muhammad Qasim 
had dishonoured them. He therefore abstained from visit- 
ing them, and in a fit of fury gave orders that Qasim should 
be stuffed into a raw hide and despatched to his presence. 
The commands of the Caliph reached him when he was 
about to march against Hari Chand, king of Kanauj, and 
he obediently submitted to them. When he was thus 


' Hakim, b. Jabala al Abdi was sent to explore Sejistan and Mekran and 
the countries bordering on the Indus valley by Abdu’llah Amar, a cousin of 
the Caliph, who succeeded Abu Musa Ashari in the government of Basra. His 
report was as follows : “Water in that country is of a dark colour, flowing 
only drop by drop, the fruits are sour and unwholesome, rocks alx>und and 
the' soil is brackish. The thieves are intrepid warriors, and the bulk of the 
population dishonest and treacherous. If the troops sent there are few in 
number, they will be exterminated, if they are numerous, they will perish of 
hunger.** BlHot. The expeditions of Ali and Muawiyah and the progress of 
the Arab conquests in Sind may be read in the succeeding pages. Blliot*s 
conclusion that Debal was taken in A.H. 93 is confirmed by As Siiyuti in 
his biography of Al Walid, b. Abdu’l Malik, in which year Kirah, or Kiraj 
as Ibn ul Athir calls it, was also captured. (See translation of As Suyuti*s 
History of the Caliphs, p. 229). Bllbt thinks this probably situated in, if not 
named from Kachh. 

» Described in Blphinstone, p, 308, and in Briggs* Fenshta, IV, p. 417. 

44 


346 


AIN-I-AKBARI 

carried to the court, the Caliph exhibited the spectacle to the 
two princesses who expressed their gratification in viewing 
the slayer of their father in this condition. This decision 
of the Caliph excites astonishment inasmuch as it was pro- 
nounced without deliberate investigation. It is the duty 
of just princes not to be swayed by the representation of any 
one individual, but to be circumspect in their inquiries, 
since truth is rare and falsehood prevalent, and more 
especially in regard to the recipients of their favour, towards 
whom the world burns with envy without just cause of 
resentment. Against the outwardly plausible and inwardlj^ 
vicious they should be particularly on their guard, for many 
are the wicked and factious who speciously impose by their 
affected merit and by their misrepresentations bring ruin 
on the innocent. . 

After Muhammad Qasim’s death, the sovereignty of 
this country devolved on the descendants of the Banu 
Tamim Ansari.* They were succeeded by the Sumrah race 
who established their rule and were followed by the 
Sammas who asserted their descent horn Jamshid, and each 
of them assumed the name of Jam. In the reign of Jam 
Bdnhatiyah' Sultan Firoz Shah on three occasions led an 
army from Delhi against that prince, and obtained some 
conspicuous successes.. On the third occasion, he took him 
prisoner and carried him to Delhi, leaving Sind under 
charge ’of his own ofScials. Subsequently being satisfied 
with his good, will and capacity he reinstated him in his 
government. On the death of Jam Tughlaq, the chamber- 
lain Muhdrak succeeded him through the efforts of a vain 
and seditious faction, and was followed by Sikandar the son 
of Jdrn Path Khan. 

During the reign of Jam Nandd, Shah Beg Arghdn 
made a descent from Qandahar and took Sewi and leaving 
the command of it to his brother Sultan Muhammad, 
returned to Qandahar. The Jam marched a force against 


* Several of this tribe were at various periods sent to Sind. Under the 
Caliphate of Yazid b. Abd u’l MaUk, HalM a’t Tamimi was sent in pursuit 
of the Banu Muhallab. About 107 A.H. Tamim b. Zaid al Utbi succeeded 
Junaid in the government of that province and died near Debal. Under the 
Abbassides Kusa b. Kab a^t Tamimi, drove out Mansur b. Jamhur the Umavyad 
governor. Abdu’r Razzak the §rst Ghaznevide governor of Sind, about 
A.H. 417, (1026) found the descendants of, old Arab settlers of the tribes- of 
Thakifi, Tamimi, Asad etc. 

^ Mani according to Ferishta who says that the expedition of Firoz 
Tughlaq took place in 763" A.Bl. (AlB: 1320). 



Muslim OF smDs 


34 ? 


Muhainfflad who was killed ia action. Shah Beg made a 
second incursion and took possession of Sehwdn and a con- 
siderable part of Sind and leaving his conquests in charge 
of his own people, withdrew. 

In the reign of Jam Firoz, a relative of his named 
Salahu’ddin rose in rebellion and failing in his attempt, 
took refuge with Sultan Mahmud of Gujarat who received 
him graciously and assisted him with an army ; Darya Khan 
the prime minister of Jam Firoz espoused his cause and 
the kingdom of Sind fell under his power without a blow. 
Subsequently the said Darya Khan -determined to restore 
Jam Firoz who had withdrawn into private life, but who 
thus recovered his kingdom. Salahu’ddin a second time 
advanced from Gujarat with a force furnished by the Sultan 
and occupied Sind. Firoz retired to Qandahar and Shah 
Beg supplied him with troops, and an engagement took 
■place near Sehwdn in which Salahu’ddin and his son were 
slain. Thus Firoz was again established in his kingdom. 
In the _ year A.H. 929 (A.D. 1522-3) Shah Beg took 
possession of Sind and Jam Firoz retired to Gujarat, gave 
his daughter in marriage to Sultan Bahadur and was 
attached to the Court in the ranks of its nobles. Sind was 
now subject to Shah Beg. This prince was the son of 
Mir Zu’n Nun Beg, the commander-in-chief of Sultan 
Husain Mirza, who received the government of Qandahar. 
He fell fighting bravely against Shaibak Khan Uzbek who 
was engaged in hostilities with the sons of Sultan Husain 
Mirza. His eldest son succeeded to the government of 
Qandahar, a prince of distinguished valour and versCd in 
the learning of his age. At his death, his son Shah Husain 
ascended the throne and wrested Multan from Sultan 
Mahmud. After him Mirza Isa son of Abdu’l Ali Tarkhan' 
succeeded, followed by Muhammad Payandah^ but his 
prince being subject to fits of mental estrangement, did not 

^ Tarkhan was originally a rank among the Mughals and Turks, but in 
the time of Baber it had come to belong to a particular family. The ancient 
Tarkhan was exempt from all duties and could enter the royal presence 
without asking leave and was to be pardoned nine times be the fault what it 
would. He had perfect liberty of speech and might say what he pleased 
before royalty. The name constantly occurs in the early portion of Baber^s 
Memoirs. 

* He has omitted the succession of Muhammad Baqi son of Isa Tarkhan to 
whom Ferishta gives a prosperous reign of 18 years. The genealogical tree of 
Mirza Jani Beg and the subsequent history of this family will be found ‘ at 
pp. 361-2, Vol. I of this work. Ferishta altogether omits Muhammad Payaodah 
and gives the succession to Jani Beg immediately after Muhammad Baqi. 


348 - 


AIN-i-AEBARI 


personally administer the go%'emment. Mirza Jani Beg, 
his son assumed the direction of affairs till His Majesty’s 
victorious troops advanced into the country and reduced it 
to order, and Mirza Jani Beg was enrolled in the ranks of 
his nobility. 



SUBAH OF KABUL. 

It is situated in the third and fourth climates, 
and comprises Kashmir, PakU, Bimbar, Swat, Bajaur, 
Qandahdr and Zdhulistdn. Its capital was formerlv 
Ghaznah, but now Kabul. 


KASHMIR. 

{Editors Note.) 

The notes on the subah of Kashmir in this revised 
edition of Jarrett’s translation have been entirely prepared 
by Prof. Nirod Bhusan Roy, after a minute study of 
A. Stein’s- Memoir on Maps of Ancient Kashmir (Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, 1895) and Rajatarangini : a Chronicle of 
the Kings of Kashmir (2 vols. 1901), — ^which are cited here 
under the respective titles of Stein, J.A.S.B. and Stein, 
Chron. In addition. Prof, Roy has consulted Drew’s 
Jummo and Kashmir Territories (1875), Bates’ Kashmir 
Gazetteer, Rose’s Glossary of Punjab Tribes and Castes 
(3 vols., 1914), and the Travels of Vigne and Moorcroft. 

Abul Fazl devoted more space to the description of the 
places of note in Kashmir than in any other subah, because 
he looked upon it as a holy land full of sacred places, 
hermits’ retreats and quiet natural scenes, — “appropriate 
to be the retired abode of the recluse”, as he himself says. 
This Sufi’s paradise is said to contain a temple of liberal 
broad-minded worshippers of God, for which he wrote a 
charming inscription printed by Blochmann at the end of 
his life of Abul Fazl in the first volume of his translation 
(pp. xxxii-xxxiii). 

But when Abul Fazl compiled his Ain-i-Akbari, 
Mughal rule was not yet firmly in the saddle in this recently 
conquered province, and full and correct reports on Kashmir 
had not begun to reach the imperial chancellory at Delhi. 
Hence its statistics are less accurate than those of the longer- 
settled subahs of Akbar’s empire, which formed the basis 
of his Imperial Gazetteer. The Persian text of the chapter 
on Kashmir is vitiated by too many errors in proper names 
and topographical data, which may have been due to Abul 



350 


AIN-l-AKBARl . 

Fazl’s clerks as well as to later transcribers of his book. 
The hopeless confusion thus created was first removed by 
the publication of Stein’s two works cited above. 

In the present edition, copious extracts have been made 
from these scholarly sources by Prof. N. B. Roy and the 
obsolete or useless notes of Jarrett have been deleted. The 
new topographical notes are given in one place at the end 
of Abul FazVs account and not at the foot of each page,— 
Jadunath Sarkar. 

Stein's remark on A. F.'s account of Kashmir. 

“Abul Fazl’s detailed description of Kashmir, is in 
many respects valuable to the historical student, but it is 
particularly in connection with topographical search that we 
must feel grateful to the author for having, like his great 
master, caught some of the enthusiasm of the valley. 

The account of Abul Fazl presents for us an authentic 
survey of all the Kashmirian tirthas that were well known 
and popular at the end of the 16th century. . . Abul Fazl’s 
notes have enabled me to trace in more than one instance 
the position oi ancient tirthas or particular features regard- 
ing them which have since his time been wholly forgotton.” 
Stein, Chron. II, 382-83. 


A NOTE ON THE LANGUAGE OF KASHMIR. 

Kashmiri or Koshiru. 

The Kashmiri language is the language of the Valley 
of Kashmir. In a dialectic form it has spread south-west 
into the Valley of Kashtawar (Kishtwar), and to the south 
it has flowed over the Pir Pantsal Range into the lower hills 
lying north of the River Chinab, where it reappears in a 
number of mixed dialects. 

The word ‘Kashmiri’ is Persian or Hindi, and 
is derived from the Sanskrit Kasmirika. It is not the 
name used by the people of Kashmir itself. There the 
country is called Kashiruy and the language Koshiru. 

Kashmiri has one true dialect, — Kashtawari, spoken in 
the Valley Kashtawar (commonly known as Kishtwar), 
lying to the south-east of the' Valley of Kashmir. Kashmiri 
has also overflowed the Pip Pantsal Range into the Jammu 
Province of the State, and in the valleys between the southern 


LANGUAGES OF KASHMIR 351 

hills o£ the range, between the water-shed and the vallej’' 
o£ the Chinab, there are a number o£ mixed dialects, sucli 
as Poguli, Siraji of Doda, and Rambani. The first two of 
these represent Kashmiri merging into Dogri. Farther 
east, over the greater part of the Riasi District of the State, 
there are more of these mixed dialects, about which nothing 
certain is known, except that the mixture is rather between 
Kashmiri and the Chibhali form of Lahnda. 

In the standard Kashmiri of the Valley, there are 
minor differences of language, which, however, are not 
sufficient to entitle us to divide it out into further separate 
dialects. For instance, the Kashmiri spoken by Musalmans 
differs from that spoken by Hindus. Not only is the voca- 
bulary of the former more filled with words borrowed from 
Persian, but also there are slight differences of pronuncia- 
tion. 

Kashmiri belongs to the Dard group of the Dardic 
languages. It is most nearly related to Shina. It has, how- 
ever, for many centuries been subject to Indian influence, 
and its vocabulary includes a large number of words derived 
from India. Its speakers hence maintain that it is of Sans- 
kritic origin, but a close examination reveals the fact that, 
illustrious as was the literary history of Kashmir, and 
learned as have been its Sanskrit Pandits, this claim of 
Sanskrit origin cannot be sustained for the vernacular of 
the latter. Kashmiri is a very old language. Three words 
in it are quoted by Kalhana (circ. 1150 A.D.) in his Raja- 
tarangini, and these are not very, different from the language 
of the present day. [Grierson, Linguistic Survey of 
India, Vol. 8, part II, pp. 233-235.] 


Sarkar of Kashmir. 

It lies in the third and fourth climates. Its length 
from Qambar Ver to Kishan Ganga is 120 kos, and its 
breadth from 10 to 25 kos. On the east are Paristan and 
the river Chenab : on the south-east Bdnihdl and the 
Jammu mountains : on the north-east, Great Tibet : on the 
west, Pakli and the Kishan Ganga river : on the south- 
west, the Gakkhar country : on the the north-west, Kittle 
Tibet. It is encompassed on all sides by the Himalayan 
ranges. Twenty-six different roads lead into Hindustan 
but those by Bhimbar and Pakli axe the best and are gene- 
rally practicable on horseback. The first mentioned is the 



352 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


aearest and it has several routes of which three are good, 
viz., (1) Hasti Bhanp which was the former route for the 
march of troops; (2) Pir Panjal, which His Majesty has 
thrice traversed on his way to the rose garden of Kashmir. 
If on these hills an ox or a horse be killed, storm clouds and 
wind arise with a fall of snow and rain^; (3) Tangtala.^ 

The country is enchanting, and might _ be fittingly 
called a garden of perpetual spring surrounding a citadel 
terraced to the skies, and deservedly appropriate to be either 
the delight of the worldling or the retired abode of the re- 
cluse. Its streams are sweet to the taste, its waterfalls music 
to the ear, and its climate is invigorating. The rain and snow- 
fall are similar to that of Turkestan and Persia and its 
periodical rains occur at the same season as in Hindustan. 
The lands are artificially watered® or dependent on rain for 
irrigation. The flowers are enchanting and fill the heart 
with delight. Violets, the red rose and wild narcissus cover 
the plains. To enumerate its flora w^ould be impossible. 
Its spring and autumn are extremely beautiful. The houses 
are all of wood and are of four stories and some of more, 
but it is not the custom to enclose them. Tulips'* are grown 
on the roofs which present a lovely sight in the spring time. 
Cattle and sundry stores are kept in the lower storey, the 
second contains the family apartments, and in the third 
and fourth are the household chattels. On account of the 


^The three diJfferent routes into Kashmir are thus described. The first 
runs almost in a straight line passing through Nowsherah, Rajori, the Pir 
Panjal pass and Shupiyon. The s^ond deviating from Rajori runs to the 
Punch river and on to Punch and crossing the Haji Pir, joins the Murree road 
near Uri. The third, parting from Samani Sarai, passes through Kotli and 
Sera to Punch and unites with the second. The route by Shupiyon is the 
Pir Panjal. The second is Tangtala which name, however, 'is no longer known 
and is probably a misscript. The third is believed to be the Hasti Bhanj, for 
it is the only one by which elephants can travel. Cf. Vigne's Kashmir and 
Laddk, I. 147 in which 20 passes into Kashmir are mentioned and described. 

®The superstition regarding the tempest of wind and snow and rain, 
appears to be connected with that of the Yedeh or rain-stone frequently alluded 
to by Baber, the history of which is given by D’Herbelot. It is of Tartar 
origin and the virtues of the stone are celebrated in Yarkand and attested by 
authorities who have never witnessed them. It is said to be found in the 
head of a horse or a cow, and if steeped in the blood of an animal with certain 
ceremonies, a wind arises followed by snow and rain. 

* The terms are Abi, Lalmi. The first signifies in the N.-W. P., land 
watered from ponds, tanks, lakes and watercourses, in distinction to that 
watered from wells, and as being liable to fail in the hot season, is assessed 
at a lower rate. The second is a Pushtu word (Raverty) and means growing 
spontaneously and applied to crops wholly dependent on rain for irrigation 
or spring crops. The next term Chdlkhai in the text has a variant Jaikhaya 
signifying parched land that has absorbed its moisture. ' 

^ I)r. iSng takes this to probably the Fritillaria Imperialis, though 
there is nothing against the plant being a real tulip.. The T. stellata is 
common in many parts of the Sr, W, Himalayas. 



kashmir, products and industries 353 

abundance of wood and the constant earthquakes, houses of 
stone and brick are not built, but the ancient temples inspire 
astonishnient. At the present day many of them are in 
ruins. W are made in high perfection, 

especially shawls which are sent as valuable gifts to ever}^ 
dime. But the bane of this country is its people, yet 
strange to say, notwithstanding its numerous population 
and the scantiness of the means of subsistence, thieving and 
begging are rare. Besides plums and mulberries, the fruits 
are numerous. Melons, apples, peaches, apricots are excel- 
lent. Although grapes are in plenty, the finer qualities 
are rare and the vines bear on mulberry trees. The mul- 
berry is little eaten, its leaves being reserved for the silk- 
worm. The eggs are brought from Gilgit and Little Tibet, 
in the former of which they are procured in greater abun- 
dance and are more choice. The food of the people is chiefly 
rice, wine, fish and various vegetables, and the last men- 
tioned they dry and preserve. Rice is cooked and kept over- 
night to be eaten. Though, shdli rice is plentiful, the finest 
quality is not obtainable. Wheat is small in grain and black 
in colour, and there is little of it, and little consumed. Gram 
(chick-pea) and barley are nowhere found. They have a 
species of sheep’ which they call Hdndu, delicate and sweet 
in flavour and wholesome. Apparel is generally of wool, a 
coat of which will last for some years. The horses are small, 
strong, and traverse difficult ground. There are neither 
elephants nor camels. The cows are black and ill-shaped, 
but give excellent milk' and butter. There are artificers of 
various kinds who might be deservedly employed in the 
greatest cities. The bazar system is little in use, as a brisk 
traffic is carried on at their own places of business. Snakes, 
scorpions and other venomous reptiles are not found in the 

^ According to Cunningham [La^ak, p. 210) the I^adaki sheep are of two 
kinds, the tall black-faced Huniya used chief!}’' for carrying burdens and the 
pretty diminutive sheep of Purih used only for food. The common sheep is 
the Huniya which with the exception of the Punk breed is almost the only 
kind of sheep to be found throughout Tibet, It is much larger than any of 
the Indian breeds, the height averaging from 27 to 30 inches. Nearly the 
whole of the traffic is transported on these sheep which are food, clothing and 
carriage and are the principal wealth of the country. Drew (Jummoo and 
Kashmir, p. 288) gives the average weight carried by them at from 24 to 32 lbs. 
The Purik sheep when full grown is not larger than a south-down lamb of 
5 or 6 months, and is said by Moorcroft to equal in the fineness and weight 
of its fleece, and flavour of its mutton any race hitherto discovered. The oxen 
are the yak or chauri-taled bull and, the yak cow, Brimo or Dimo, and they 
reproduce with the common cattle. 'The yak is kept chiefly for loads, being 
generally too intractable for the plough. The cow is kept only for milk. The 
most valuable' hybrids are the Dsa bull and Dsomo cow, the produce of the 
male yak and common cow* 

46 


354 


AIN-l-AKBARI 

cities. ■ There is a mountain called Mahddem snA m any 
spot whence its summit can he seen, no snake exists, but 
fleas, lice, gnats and flies are very common. From the gene- ^ 
ral use of pellet-bows which are fitted with bow-strings, 
sparrows are very scarce. The people take their pleasure 
in skiffs upon the lakes, and their hawks strike the wild- 
fowl in mid-air and bring them to the boats, and sometimes 
they hold them down in the water in their talons, and stand 
on them, presenting an exciting spectable. 

Stags and partridges likewise afford sport and the 
leopard too is tracked. The carriage of goods is effected by 
boat, but men also carry great loads over the rnost difficult 
country. Boatmen and carpenters drive a thriving trade. 
The Brahnian class is very numeorus. 

Although Kashmir has a dialect' of its own, their 
learned books are in the Sanskrit language. They have a 
separate character which they use for manuscript work, 
and they write chiefly on Tu^ which is the bark of a tree, 
worked into sheets with some rude art and which keeps for 
years. All their ancient documents air^ written on this. 
Their ink is so prepared as to be indelible by washing. 
Although, in ancient times, the learning of the Hindus was 
in vogue, at the present day, various sciences are studied 
and their knowledge is of a more general character. Their 
astrological art and astronomy are after the manner of the 
Hindus. The majority of the narrow-minded conservatives 
of blind tradition are Sunnis, and there are some Imdmis 
and Nur Bakhshis,^ all perpetually at strife with each 

^ The languages of Kashmir are divided into 13 separate dialects. Of 
these Dogri and Chibali which do not differ much from Hindustani and Panjabi, 
are spoken on the hills and the Punch and Jammu country. Kashmiri is 
mostly used in Kashfiiir proper and is cuxiously and closely related to Sanskrit. 
Five^ dialects are included in the term FahdH : two are Tibetan spoken in 
gcdtistdn, Ladakh and and three and four varieties of the Dard 

dialects of Aryan origin in the North-West. The thirteen dialects are enume- 
rated and discussed b}^ Drew {Jummoa and Kashmir). 

* Tuz in the Btirhdn i Qqti is said to be the bark of a tree used to wrap 
round saddles and bows. Dr. King identifies it with the well-known birch, 
Betula Bhojpattra, Wall. Bhojpattm he states is the current vernacular name. 

^ As the account of this sect in Ferishta has been almost entirely passed 
over by Briggs in his translation, the omission may be here made good and 
will serve the double purpose of supplementing his version and elucidating the 
present text. With the following note may be compared a monograph on the 
Roshaniyah sect by Dr. Deyden in the Xith.Vol. Asiatic Researches. 

Mirza Haidar (Doghlat) in his work the Kitab i Rashidi says that formerlv 
all the inhabitants of Kashmir were of the Hanifi sect. In the time of Fath 
Shah, a man named Shamsu’ddin came from Iraq and declared himself to be a 
follower of Mir Muhammad Nur Bakhsh. He introduced a new form of 
religion which he called Niirhakhshi, which accords neither with the Sunni or 
Shia belief. And the followers of this sect, like heretics, consider it their 
duty to revile and abuse the three Caliphs and Ayesha, but unlike the Shias, 



RELIGIONS IN KASHMIR 


366 


otlier. These are chiefly from Persia and Turkestan. 
Their musicians are exceedingly many and all equally 
monotonous, and with each note they seem to dig their nails 
into your liver. The most respectable class in this country 
is that of the Brahmans, who notwithstanding their need of 
freedom from the bonds of tradition and custom, are true 
worshippers of God. 

They do not loosen the tongue of calumny against those 
not of their faith, nor beg nor importune. They employ 
themselves in planting fruit trees, and are generally a 
source of benefit to the people. They abstain from flesh- 
meat and do not marry. There are about two thousand of 
this class. 

The Tolah in this country is 16 mashas, each mdshd 
being equal to 6 surkhs.^ The gold mohur weighs 16 danis, 
each ddni equalling 6 surkhs, being 4 surkhs more than the 
ordinary mohurs of Delhi. Rop Sdsnu is a silver coin of 
9 mashas. The panchhu is of copper, equal to the fourth 
of a dam and is called kaserah. One-fourth of this is the 


they regard Amir Sayyid Muhammad Nnr Bakhsh as the Mahdi and Apostle 
of his time, and they do not belieye as the Shias do in saints and holy 
persons, but consider them to be Sunnis, 

“I compelled many men of Kashmir who were much disposed to this heresy, 
to accept willingly or otherwise the true religion and I put others to death. 
Some of these men saved themselves by adopting mystic doctrines and called 
themselves Sufis,^’ 

Before these people, there lived in Kashmir a sect of Sun- worshippers 
who were called Shammassin. Their creed was that the sun’s light owed its 
existenc to their purity of faith, and that they themselves existed through 
the light of the sun, and that if they rendered their faith impure, the sun 
would cepse to be. [Jarxett.] Nur-baJihshiya in Encyclopaedia of Islam, iii. 
961-962. Klias & Ross, TarikM- Rashidi, 435-437. Shammdsi in Blias 8i Ross, 
436. For Hindu sun-worship, Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 
xii. 83, ii, 483-484; Panjab Sun Creed, ix. 694. Babylonian Shamash, ibid,, 
ii. 311. [J. Sarkar.] 

^ The Surkh is the common red and black bead, Abnis precatorius, and 
is equal to a rati in weight. * 

The Kashmiri mohur =16 dani or J 

ddndqs \=9Q surkhs, 

1 D=6 S 1 

The 96 ratis or surkhs in a tolah exactly represent the 96 carat grains in the 
old assay pound. [Jarrett.] 

With reference to the monetary system of Kashmir, Stein indicates the 
connection between the terms used by Abul Fazl for the various denomina- 
tions of coins and their ^nodern equivalents in Kashmir, Thus Panchuhii 
is the same as Puntsa, (Skr. Panchabimsatf) , hath unchanged (Skr. sata), 
Sansu same as Sasun (Skr. thonsand). According to Abul Fazl Bahagani, 
(bdrakani) is equal to % Panchuhu. Stein corrects it and says that the above 
denomination represented one-half of the Panchuhu. The term bah in Kashmir 
means twelve and bahaheni as a twelver. All the terms used alx>ve with only 
one exception are stated to have survived in Kashmir to this day in the 
popular system of reckoning, notwithstanding the repeated changes which 
the currency of the vState has undergone since Akbar’s time. Stein, Chronicle, 
Vol. II, 312. [J. S.] 



356 


AIN-I-Ai^AKi 


hahganij [barakani'], oi wMch again one-fourth is called 
shakri. : ^ 

4: kaserahs=l rdhat. 

40 kaserahs = l sasnu. * 

1-| sdsnu =l sikkah. 

100 sikkahs =1 lakh whicli, according to the imperial 
estimate, is equal to one thousand 
dams. 

The whole country is regarded as holy ground by the 
Hindu sages. Forty-five shrines are dedicated to Mahadeva, 
sixty-four to Fisliww, three to Brahma, and twenty-two to 
Durga. In seven hundred places there are graven images 
of snakes which they worship and regarding which wonder- 
ful legends are told.* 

Srinagar is the capital and is 4 farsakhs in length. The 
rivers Bihat, Mar, and LachmahkuF flow through it. The 
last-mentioned runs occasionally dry ; the second, at times, 
becomes so shallow that boats cannot pass. This has been 
a flourishiag city from ancient times® and the home of arti- 
ficers of various kinds. Beautiful shawls are woven, and 
they manufacture woollen stuffs (FaqarZai) extremely soft. 
Durmah, pattu and other woollen materials are prepared 
but ‘the best are brought from Tibet. Mir 5ayyid Ali 
Hamaddni^ resided for some time in this city, and a monas- 
tery founded by him still preserves his memory. To the 
east is a high hill known as the Koh i Sulaimdn, and adjoin- 
ing the city are two large lakes always full of water, and it 
is remarkable that their water will not deteriorate in good 
savour and wholesomeness for any length of time provided 
that their free exit is undisturbed. 


^ Serpent-worship, according to Genl, Cunningham, has been the prevailing 
religion in Kashmir from time immemorial. A full account of Hindu serpent- 
worship in Hastings’ Encyclo., xi. 411-419 (Kashmir on p. 412). J. S, 

^The Jhelum, which nearly intersects the valley is formed, says the L G.> 
by the junction of three streams, the Arpat, Bring and Sandaram, and 
receives in its course numerous tributaries. It mentions the Tsont i Kuly 
or apple-tree canal connecting the Dal or city lake, with the Jhelum which it 
enters opposite the palace and the NalU Mar which flows into the Sind near 
SMdipUf connecting the AucJtar vfith the Dal. The Dudganga, a stream of 
good volume joins the river on the left bank at the city of Srinagar. 

* Srinagari, the old capital, prior to the erection of Pravarasehapura is 
stated in the Raja Tarangini to have been founded by Asoka, who reigned 
between B.C. 273 — 232. It stood on the site of the present Pandrethan, and 
is said to have extended along the bank of the river from the foot of the 
Takht i Sulaimdn to Pdntasok, a distance of more than three miles. 

‘‘This monastery is built entirely of wood. It is still extant and known 
as the Khanqah i Mualla, on the right bank of the Bihat above Zenu Kada\ 
the fourth bridge of the town of Srinagar, 


kashmir, NOTABI<E PIvACES 357 

Near the town of Brang [Briug^ is a long defile in 
which is a pool seven yards square and as deep as a man’s 
stature. It is regarded as a place of great sanctity. Strange 
to say it is dry during eleven months, but in the Divine 
month of Urdi-bihisht (April), water bubbles forth from two 
springs. First in one corner of it is a cavity like a mortar 
called Sendh brari : when this becomes full, the spring rises 
in another corner called Sapt rishi. From these two sources 
the pool runs over. Sometimes it boils up for three hours, 
and at times for only a second. Then it begins to decrease 
till not a drop remains. At three periods of the day, viz., 
morning, noon and evening, this rise occurs. Various 
flowers are thrown in as offerings to either spring, and after 
the reflux of the water, the flowers of each votary are found 
in their respective springs.' 

But this, like the divining cup is a contrivance of the 
ancients to secui'e the devotion of the simple. 

In this vicinity also is a spring, which during six 
months is dry. On a stated day, the peasants flock to 
worship and make propitiatory offei'ings of a sheep or a 
goat. Water then flows forth and irrigates the cultivation 
of five villages. If the flush is in excess, they resort to the 
same supplications, and the stream subsides of its own 
accord. There is also another spring called Kokar Nag, the 
water of which is limpid, cold and wholesome. Should a 
hungry person drink of it, his hunger will be appeased,^ 
and its satisfaction in turn renews appetite. At a little 
distance, in the midst of a beautiful temple, seven fountains 
excite the wonderment of the beholder. In the summer time 
self -immolating ascetics here heap up a large fire around 
themselves, and with the utmost fortitude suffer themselves 
to be burnt to ashes. This they consider a means of union 
with the Deity. There is also a spring which produces 
touchstone, and to the north of it a lofty hill which contains 
an iron mine. 

The village of Vij Brara, one of the dependencies of 
Aneych is a place of great sanctity. It was formerly a large 

^ Tieffentlialer ascribes the cause of the phenomenon to the melting of the 
mountain snows under the influence of the sun which descending along 
hollows or by subterranean passages reach this cavern and boil up within it. 
The later ebullitions he conceives, • are due either to the shade of the trees or 
the declining force of the sun on the snows. Bernier’s opinion is somew'hat 
the same. Voyages, II, 293. 

^ Vigne (I, 339) on the contrary bears testimony to ' its being provocative of 
appetite. The spring, situated about 2^ miles from the iron works at Sof 
Ahan, foims a stream equal in volume to that of Vemag and far superior in 
the quality of its water. 


358 


AIN-I-AKBA&I 


city' and contained wonderful temples. In tlie vicinity is 
an upland meadow called Nandimarg, of wHcli I know not 
wketker most to praise its level sweep of mead, the loveliness 
of its verdure and flowers, or the bountiful virtues of its 
streams and its air. In the village of Pampur, one of the 
dependencies of Vihi, there are fields of saffron^ to the extent 
of ten or twelve thousand bighas^ a sight that would enchant 
the most fastidious. At the close of the month of March 
and during all April, which is the season of cultivation, the 
land is ploughed up and rendered soft, and each portion is 
prepared with the spade for planting, and the saffron bulbs 
are placed in the- ground. In a month’s time they sprout 
and at the close of September, it is at its full growth, shoot- 
ing up somewhat over a span. The stalk is white, and when 
it has sprouted to the height of a finger, it begins to flower 
one bud after another in succession till there are eight 
flowers in bloom. It has six lilac-tinted petals. Usually 
among six ^filaments, three are yellow and three ruddy. The 
last tl^ee yield the saffron. When the flowers are over, 
leaves appear upon the stalk. Once planted it will flower 
for six years in succession. The first year, the yield is 
small: in the second as 30 to 10. In the third year it 


^The principal ancient cities of Kashmir ^ ^ the old capital of Srinagari 
and the new, Pravar a senapnra which was lost in the former name ; Khagendra- 
pura and Khanamiisha, identified with Kakapnr on the left bank of the Bihat, 
ten miles to the south of the Takht i Sulaiman, and Khunamoh, four miles 
north-east of Pampur : Vijipara arid Pantasok. llie former twent 3 '“five miles 
south-east of the capital : the latter three miles from the Takht ' i Sulaiman ; 
Surapura the modern Sopur, mentioned in the Kashmir chronicles as Kam- 
buca : Kanishkapura, corrupted to Kampur : Hushkapura probably Baramula : 
Jushkapura now Zukru or Zukur four miles north of the capital : Parihasa- 
pura built by Lalitaditya (A.D. 723— 760) : Padmapura, now Pampur: and 
Avantipura, now only a small village, Wantipur, seventeen miles south-east 
of the present capital. Cunningham, pp. 9-5, 103. 

®See Vol. I, p. 84 where the method of cultivation of this plant is explained 
somewhat difierently. 

® I am indebted to Dr. King for the following note : 

“There are three stamens and three stigmas in each flower. The latter 
yield the saffron. The style divides at the level of the anthers into three 
yellow drooping branches which hang out of the flower and become gradually 
thickened and tubular upward, stigmas dilated, notched and often split down 
one side, dark orange coloured. The mode of collection and preparation of 
saffron varies in difierent countries, but it consists essentially in removing 
the stigmas with the upper part of the style from the other parts of the flower 
and afterwards drying the parts detached. A not uncommon adulteration of 
saffron is made by intermixing the dyed stamens of the saffron crocus. It 
takes from 7,000 to 8,000 flowers to yield 17y^ ounces of fresh saffron wliich 
by drying is reduced to 3^.” Medicinal Plants hy Bentley and Trimeu, IV, 
274. In the Waqiat i Jehangiri, it is asserted that in an ordinary year, 400 
maunds or 3,200 Khurasani maunds are produced. Half belongs to Govern- 
ment, half to the cultivators and a ser sells for about 10 Rs. A note states that 
one good grain of saffron contains the stigmata and styles of 9 flowers; 
hence 4,329 flowers yield one oz. 


KASHMIR^ FAMOUS PLACES 


359 

reaches its highest point and the bulbs are dug up. If left 
in the same soil, they gradually deteriorate, but if taken up 
they may be profitably transplanted. 

In the village of Zewan are a spring and a reservoir 
which are considered sacred, and it is thought that the saffron 
seed came from this spring. When the cultivation begins, 
they worship at this fount and pour cow’s milk into it. If 
as it falls it sinks into the water, it is accounted a good 
omen and the saffron crop will we plentiful, but if it floats 
on the surface, it will be otherwise. 

In the village of Khriu 360 springs refresh the eye and 
each of these is accounted a means of divine worship. Near 
this is an iron mine. 

Maru Aduoin^ adjoins Graui Tibet where the Handu 
IS found of the best breed and large in size, and carries heavy 
burdens. Near this is a hill called Chatar Kot on the 
summit of which snakes are so numerous that no one can 
approach it. There is also a high hill difficult of ascent, on 
which is a large lake. It is not every one that can find his 
way to it, for it often disappears from sight. At the foot of 
the mountain in different places images of ‘ Mahadeva 
fashioned of a stone like crystal are found and are a source 
of wonder. 

In the neighbourhood of Achh Bal, one of the depen- 
dencies of Khattdr is a fountain which shoots tip to the 
height of a cubit, and is scarce equalled for its coldness, 
limpidity and refreshing qualities. The sick that drink of 
it and persevere in a course of its waters, recover their 
health. 

In the village of Kotihar is a deep spring, surrounded 
by stone temples. When its water decreases, an image of 
Mahadeva in sandal-wood appears. The quality of this 
spring does not alter. 

In the vicinity of Wular is a lofty mountain, containing 
a salt spring. The Kashmir stag^ is here found in numbers, 

Matan [Martand] stands upon a hill and once possessed 
a large temple. There is a small pool on the summit, the 
w^ater of which never decreases.* Some suppose this to be 

^ Mare Wurdwun according to Vigne. 

® The Bara Singlia or Kashmir stag, {Cerviis Cmlimerlmius) . 

* Martand, situated on the highest part of the Karewah or raised plain 
between Islamabad and the higher moiintains. The temple is described 
by Hiigel as “Korau Pandau,*’ the beautiful ruins of which are the finest in 
Kashmir. Vigne inverts the order as Pandu Koru. At 150 yards distance 
as the Chah i Babil or well of Harut and Marut whose story "does not need 
repetition. The spring referred to in the following paragraph is that of 


360 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


the Well of Babylon, but at the present day there is no 

trace of anything but an ordinary pit. 

On the slope of the hill is a spring, at the head of which 
a reservoir has been constructed, full of fish. The sanctity 
of the place preserves them from being touched. By the side 
of it is a cave, the depth of which cannot be ascertained. 

In Khawarp dr ah is a source, whose waters tumble 
headlong with a mighty roar. 

In the village of Ais¥ is the cell of Bdbd ZainWddin 
Rishi. It is in the side of a hill. It is said that in ancient 
times the hill held no water, but when he took up his abode 
there, a spring began to flow. For twelve years he occupied 
this cell and at length closed its mouth with a large stone 
and never went forth again, and none has ever found trace 
of him. 

The town of Dachchhinpdrah is on the side of a moun- 
tain bordering Great Tibet and is fed by the waters 
of the above-mentioned spring. Between Great Tibet 
and the above-mentioned parganah is a cave in which is an 
image in ice called Amar Nat A It is considered a shrine of 
great sanctity. When the new moon rises from her throne 
of rays, a bubble as it were of ice is formed in the cave which 
daily increases little by little for fifteen days till it is some- 
what higher than two yards, of the measure of the yard 
determined by His Majesty ; with the waning moon, the 
image likewise begins to decrease, till no trace of it remains 
when the moon disappears. They believe it to be the image 
of Mahddeva and regard it as a means (through supplication) 
of the fiulment of their desires. Near the cave is a rill called 
Amrdoti, the clay of which is extremely white. They 
account it auspicious and smear themselves with it. The 
snows of this mountainous tract nowhere melt, and from the 


Bawan, one of the holiest in Kashmir, swarming, says Vigne, (T, 359) with 
Himalayan trout, Hiigel gives the legend of the caves one of which he was 
assured extended 10 kos, and that no one wdio ever entered, had been known 
to return. He penetrated to the end of it in a few minutes. Matan is the 
name of the Karewah at the end of which, according to Moorcroft, the 
Martand temple stands (II, 255) ascribed like most of the architectural re- 
mains to the Pandus. « 

^ ^ The village of Aish Maqam or the abode of pleasure, holds in a long 
building situated conspicuously on the left bank of the bidar, the shrine of 
the saint. He directed that a tomb should be erected wdiere his staff should be 
found, as his body would disappear. It ; is .still missing. See Vigne, II, 6. 

® The Aniarnath cave is' marked in Drew’s map, south-east of Baltal and 
Sonamarg, near the sources of the . Sind river. Its history and ceremonies 
are told by Vigne, II, B. The ice bubble was doubtless a stalactite. See 
Moorcroft, II, 252. 



KASHMIR, PLACES OF NOTE 


361 


extreme cold, the straitness of the defiles and the rough in- 
equalities of the road, they are surmounted with great toil. 

In the village of Dakhamun is a spring, and whenever 
its water boils up and becomes turbid its surface is covered 
with particles of straw and rubbish, the dust of dissension 
arises in the country. A quarry of Solomon’s stone' is in 
the vicinity of which utensils are fashioned. 

About the parganah oi Phdk grow a variety of herbs 
and plants. Adjoining is a large lake called Dal. One side 
of it is contiguous to the city and on its surface a number 
of floating islands^ are constructed which are cultivated, and 
fraudulent people will at times cut off a piece and carry it 
away to a different position. Sultan Zainul A bidin cons- 
tructed in this lake a causeway (^ad) of clay and stone one 
kos in length from the city to this parganah. In the vici- 
nity also is a spring of which the sick drink and are restored 
to health. 

In the village of Thid, is a delightful spot where seven 
springs unite : around them are stone buildings, memorials 
of bygone times. There is also a source which in winter is 
warm and in summer cold. 

In the village of Bdzwdl is a waterfall from the crest of 
Shdhkot. It is called Shdlahmdr. Here fish are caught in 
numbers. A streamlet is caged at two ends and when the 
water is carried off, the fish between are taken. 

In Ishibdri is a spring held sacred by the people of 
Hindustan, called S«ryasar, surrounded by stone temples. 
Shakarndg is a spring which is dry all the year, but should 
the 9th day of any month happen to fall on a Friday, it 
bubbles up and flows from mom till eve, and people flock 
to partake of its blessings. 

In the village of Rambal are a spring and a pool. 
Those who have special needs throw in a nut, if it floats, 
it is an augury of success; if it sinks, it is considered 
adverse. 

In Bdnihal is a temple dedicated to Durgd. If any 
one desires to learn the issue of a strife between himself 


^ Applied indiscriminately to both agate and onyx. Tieffenthaler describes 
a stone of their country,, as green with white streaks which is worked wdth 
diamond powder and made into phials, saucers, hafts of daggers and 
the like. It is probably a kind of jade. 

* Cucumbers and melons are commonly grown on them. Their construc- 
tion is described by Moorcroft (II, 138) with the thoroughness which -charac- 
terizes his observations. The causeway is called by Vigne, (II, 99) Sad J 
Chodri and is carried entirely through the lake to the village of Isha Bryri, 
four miles on the opposite side. . ’ 

46 



362 


AIN-I^AKBARI 


and his enemy, he fills two vessels with boiled rice, the 
one representing his own fortunes, the other those of his 
foe, and places them in the temple and closes the doors. 
On the following day the devotees present themselves to 
learn the result. In whose vessel roses and saffron are 
found, his undertaking will prosper, and that which is full 
of straws and dirt, portends the ruin of the person fit re- 
presents. Stranger still, in a dispute where it is difficult 
to discover the truth, each party is given a fowl or a goat 
and sent to the temple. They then poison each of these 
animals and severally rub them with their hands. His 
animal whose cause is just recovers, and the other dies. 

In the Fer tract or country is the source of the Bihat. 
It is a pool measuring a jarih which tosses in foam with an 
astonishing roar, and its depth is unfathomable. It goes 
by the name of Verndg^ and is surrounded by a stone em- 
bankment and to its east are temples of stone. In the 
village of Kantbar is a spring called Bawan Sendh which 
during two months of the spring time is in agitation. It 
is always full and its water never decreases. 

In Devsar in the village of Balau is a pool called Balau 
Nag 20 yards square in which the water is agitated : it is 
embosomed in delightful verdure and canopied by shady 
trees. Whosoever is desirous of knowing the prospects of 
the harvest, or whether his own circumstances are to be 
prosperous or unfavourable, fills an earthen vessel with 
rice, writes his name on its rim, and closing its mouth, 
casts it into the spring. After a time the vessel of its own 
accord floats on the surface, and he then opens it and if the 
rice be fragrant and warm, the year will be prosperous and 
his undertakings successful, but if it be filled with clay or 
mud and rubbish, the reverse will be the case. 

Veshau is the name of a stream which issues pictures- 
quely from an orifice in a mountain, and at the same place 
is a declivity down which the waters tumble from a height 
of 20 yards with a thundering roar. Hindu devotees throw 
themselves down from its summit and with the utmost 
fortitude sacrifice their lives, in the belief that it is a means 
of securing their spiritual welfare. 

Kuthdid is a spring which remains dry for eleven years, 
and when the planet Jupiter enters the sign of Leo, it flows 

^ Ver is the old name oC Shahabad. A description of this celebrated 
tountmn^ may be read in Vigne's Kashmir, I, 332, and in Moorcroft, II, 250. 

appears to be the Kosah Nag of Vigne which he savs is pronounced 
Kausar by the Muhammadans aft^t the fountain in Paradise; 



KASHMIR, SPRINGS AND MOUNTAINS 363 

on the following Thursday and during the succeeding seven 
days is again dry and once more fills on the Thursday next 
following, and so continues for a year. 

In the village of is a wood in which is a 

heronry,* the feathers are taken for plumes, and the birds 
are here regularly fed. 

Near Shukroh is a low hill on the summit of which is 
a fountain which flows throughout the year and is a place 
of pilgrimage for the devout. The snow does not fall on 
this spur. 

In Nagdm is a spring called Nilah Nag, the basin of 
which measures 40 higahs. Its waters are exquisitely clear 
and it is considered a sacred spot, and many voluntarily 
perish by fire about its border. Strange to relate omens 
are taken by its means. A nut is divided into four parts 
and thrown in, and if an odd number floats, the augury is 
favourable, if otherwise, the reverse. In the same way if 
milk (thrown in) sinks, it is a good omen, and if not, it is 
unpropitious. In ancient times a volume, which l:hey call 
Nilmat, arose from its depths, which contained a detailed 
description of Kashmir and the history and particulars of 
its temples. They say that a flourishing city with lofty 
buildings is underneath its waters, and that in the time of 
Badu Shdh,^ a Brahman descended into it and returned 
after three days, bringing back some of its rarities and 
narrated his experiences. 

In the village of Biruwd is a spring and in its water 
lepers bathe early on the first day of the week and are 
restored to health. In the vicinity is a plateau, a pasture 
ground for cattle, the grass of which has peculiar fattening 
properties. 

In the village of Halthal of the parganah of Yech is 
found a quivering tree.^ If the smallest branch of it be 
shaken, the whole tree becomes tremulous. 

Ldr borders on the mountins of Great Tibet. To its 
north is a lofty mountain which dominates all the surround- 
ing country, and the ascent of which is arduous. At its 
foot are two springs, two yards distant from each other, the 
waters of one being extremely cold and those of the other 

^ The word is prononticed Oukar or Okar and signifies a heron. See 
Vigne, I, 306. The heronries are strictly guarded. 

* Badu Shah is Zainul Abidin (Vigne, II, 73). ' ^ 

* Dr. King informs me that the Aspen {Fopulus tremula) occurs wild in 
the N. W, Himalaya. The P. Euphratica of which the leaves are as tremulous 
as the aspen, is also common in many parts. 



.364 AIN-I-AKBARI 

exceedingly hot. They are considered, sacred and the 
bones of bodies are here reduced to ashes : the bones and 
ashes of the dead are east into a large lake on the rnountain 
and this ceremony is regarded as a means of union with 
the Divinity. If the flesh of an animal fall into it, a heavy 
fall of snow and rain ensues. The river called which 
rises in Tibet, is wholesome to drink, and is so clear that 
the fish in it are visible. They strike them with iron spears 
and catch them also in other ways. Shahab-u^ddinpur is 
on the banks of the Bihat, and about it are large plane trees 
which is a favourite resort. The Sind joins the Bihat at 
this point. 

In Tulmuld is an area of about 100 bighas in extent 
which is flooded during the rains, and remains somewhat 
moist even after the waters have dried up. The people 
plunge in sticks of a yard in length, more or less, and 
work them about, and thrusting their hands into the holes 
pull out^fish of four pounds weight and more, but common- 
ly of small size. 

In Satpur is a pool, the depth of which cannot be 
fathomed. It is held in great veneration and is a place of 
worship. Bhutesar is a temple dedicated to M'ahddeva, 
Whoever approaches to pay his devotions, hears the sounds 
of ceremonial worship and no one can tell whence they pro- 
ceed. 

In Khoihdma -which, adjoins Little Tibet is a large lake 
called the Wular twenty-eight kos in circumference. The 
Bihat flows into it and its course is somewhat lost to the 
eye. Here Sultdn Zainul Abidin built a large palace 
called Zain Lankad Boats full of stones and branches of 
trees are sunk in the lake and pulled up by ropes after the 
lapse of three or four months, and many fish are taken that 
have homed there. The capture of water-fowl here affords 
considerable sport, and in the village of Ajas, stags are 
chased down to the lake and taken. Near Mdchhdmu is an 
island covered with trees which when shaken by the wind, 
cause the island also to quake. 

Saffron is also cultivated in Paraspur. It formerly 
held a lofty temple which when destroyed by Sikandar 
father of Sultdn Zainul Abidin, a copper tablet was dis- 
covered on which was inscribed in Sanskrit, that after the 


See Vigne, II, 153. The legend of the Tanka islet is given in Muham- 
mad Aazam's Wst, of Kashmir translated by me in the A . 5. lournal XLIX 
Part I, 1880. 



KASHMIR, WONDERS OF NATURE 


365 


lapse of eleven hundred years, one Sikandar would destroy it 
and gather for himself exceeding great chastisement.! 

In the Parganah of Kamrdf at the village of Trafegow 
the residence of tho. Chaks is a fountain of sweet water called 
Chatatnag and in the middle is a stone building of great 
age. The fish grow to great size but whosoever touches 
them, is afflicted by some calamity. 

Near Kargon is a defile called Soy am? where an area 
of ten jaribs of land becomes so hot at the time of the con- 
junction of Jupiter and Leo that trees are burnt up and a 
vessel of water if left on the ground will boil. A flourish- 
ing little town stands here. From Kamrdj is a defile, one 
end of which touches Kdshghar and on the west lies Pakli, 
where gold is obtained in the following manner. The skins 
of long-haired goats are spread in the fords of this river, 
with stones placed round them that the current may not 
bear them away. They are taken up after three days and 
left in the sun. When dry, they are shaken, yielding their 
three tolahs weight of gold dust. Gilgit is the name of 
another pass which leads to Kdshghar. Gold is there 
obtained by soil washings. 

At two days’ distance from Hdehdmun is the river named 
Padmati which flows from the Ddrdu‘^ country. Gold is also 
found in this river. On its banks is a stone temple called 
Sdradd dedicated to Durgd and regarded with great venera- 
tion. On every eighth tithi of Shuklapaksha, it begins to 
shake and produces the most extraordinary effect. 

^ Cunningham alludes to this at p. 102 and adds, *Xhe same vStory is told 
by jPerishta with the addition of the name of the Raja whom the translator 
calls Balndt [a mistake for Laldit, the contracted form of Lalitaditya among 
the Kashmiris) , 

® Kamraj and MeraJ were two large districts into which Kashmir was 
divided from the earliest times, the^ former being the north half of the valley 
below the junction of the Sind with the Jhelum, and the latter the south 
half, above that junction. Cunningham, p. 94. Vigne calls the village 
Taragaon (II, 139) the village of the stars. The remains of ancient masonry 
round a fine spring were still to be seen, some of the blocks little inferior 
in size to those of Martand. 

* Suhoyum in Vigne, (II, 281) who states that it lies near the village of 
Nichi Hama in the Parganah of Machiapora at the north-west end of the 
valley, and that 36 years before his visit an intense heat -was found to issue 
from the spot. The phenomenon has several times occurred, a white smoke 
being occasionally seen to issue from the ground, but without sulphurous 
smell or fissures in the soil. 

^ Few people can be traced through so long a period in the same place as 
these whom H. H. Wilson (Moorcroft, II, 266, n, ) identifies as the Ddradas 
of Sanskrit geography, and Dafadrm or Daradm of Strabo. He supposes them 
to be the Kafirs of the Muhammadans, though now nominally converted to 
Islam. The auriferous region of the Daradas is mentioned by Humboldt 
{Cosmos II, p. 513. B. C. Ott6) who places it either in the Thibetian high- 
lands east of the Bolor chain, west of Iskardo, or towards the desert of Gobi 
described also as auriferous by Hewen Thsang. 


366 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


The system of reveBue collection is by appraisement 
and division of crops, assessments for crops paying special 
rates and cash transactions not being the custom of the 
country. Some part of the 5air Jihdi cesses, however, are 
taken in cash. Payments in coin and kind were estimated 
in kharwdrs of (5MK) rice. Although one-third' had been 
for a long time past the nominal share of the State, more 
than two shares was actually taken, but through His 
Majesty’s justice, it has been reduced to one half. Accord- 
ing to the assessmenfof Qazi (Ali)* the revenue was fixed 
at 30 lakhs, 63,060 kharwdrs, 11 taraks, each kharwdr 
being 3 man, 8 sers Akharshdhi. A weight of two dams is 
called a pal, und \ and ^ of this weight are also in use. 

Seven and a half pals are considered equivalent to one 
ser, two sers are equal to half a man, and four sers to a 
larafe, and sixteen taraks to one kharwdr. A tarak, accord- 
ing to the royal weights (of Akbar) is eight sers. Taking 
the prices current for several years, the Qdzi struck an 
average of the aggregate, and the kharwdr (in kind) was 
ascertained to be 29 dams, and the kharwdr in money was 
fixed according to the former rate of 13 dams. The 
revenue, therefore, amounted to 7 krors, 46 lakhs, 70,411 
dams. (Rs. 1,866,760-4-5), out of which 9 lakhs, 1,663 
kharwdrs and 8 taraks were paid in money, equivalent to 
1 kror, 20 lakhs, _22,183 dams. (Rs. 300,554-9-2). The 
revenue fixed by Asaf Khan, was 30 lakhs, 79,443 khar- 
wdrs, of which 11 lakhs, 11,330-1 kharwdrs were in money. 


^ The immemorial tradition in Kashmir considered the whole of the land as 
the property of the ruler. Of some portions of the khdlsa lands the sover- 
eigns divested themselves by grants in jagir for various periods. The Sikhs 
made a general resumption, ousted the possessors of grants and reduced thou- 
sands to destitution. In Moorcroft's time (II, 125) the khdlsa lands were let 
out for cultivation. Those near the city as Sar Kishti, head or upper cultiva- 
tion, those more remote Pai-Kishti, or foot and lower. When the grain was 
trodden out, an equal division took place formerly between the farmer and the 
government, but the latter advanced its demands till it appropriated % of the 
Sar-Kishti and ^ of the P. K. crop. The straw fell generously to the .share 
of the cultivator who was also permitted to steal a ' portion of his own pro- 
duce by the overseer,— for a consideration. In the time of ZainuT Aabidin, 
the rice crop (the staple) is said to have been 77 lakhs of khm-wdrs. In 
Moorcroft's day it was 20, at from 25^to Rs. a kharwdr. His weight- 
measures differ from those of Abul Pazl, a kJmrwdr being 16 taraks, a tarak 
6 sers, a ser 20 pals, a pal Mahomed Shahi rupees, which (the rupee 
being 173*3 grains) should make the ser nearly 2 pounds. The actual ser 
was, however, not above one pound avoirdupois, and a kharwdr or ass-load 
was therefore 96 pounds. A horse-load equalled 22 taraks. 

* See pp. 347 and 411 of Vol. I, where further information is given 
regarding the revenue system, its exactions and the disturbances which led 
to the Qazi’s murder. 



REVENUE ESTIMATES OF KASHMIR 


367 


The cesses feaj a«d! Tamgha/ were altogether remitted by 
His Majesty, which produced a reduction of 67,824-|- fehar- 
wdrs, equivalent to 898j400 dams. (Rs. 22,460). For the 
additional relief of the husbandman, five dow5 on the price 
of a feharwar,_were thrown. in. Although the revenue, in 
kharwdrs, of Asaf Khan was in excess of that of Qazi Ali 
by 16,392 kharwdrs, yet calculated by money the receipts , 
are less, after deducting the remissions, by 860,034-| dams 
(Rs. 21,500-13-7), because he estimated the feharwar in 
money which is of lower relative worth, above its value. 

in the revenue returns forwarded by Qdzi Ali to the 
Imperial Exchequer, forty -one parganahs are taken while 
the return submitted by Asaf Khan contains but. thirty- 
eight, there being thirty -eight in point of fact. For Qazi 
Ali on a review of the question separated the two villages 
Karnd and Ddrdu, of the parganah of Kamrdj, and dividing 
the parganah of Sait i Mawazf, into two, constituted these 
into two parganahs. In former times certain selected towns 
of each parganah were denominated Sdirn/l Mawdzi (village- 
group) and were held as Khdlisa.^ Qdzi Ali united forty 
villages of the Mardf side under the name of Parganahi 
Hdveli and retained eighty-eight villages of Kamrdj accord- 
ing to the former distribution, as parganah of Sdiru’l 
Mawdzi. 

The whole kingdom was divided under its ancient 
I'ulers into two divisions, Mardj on the east, and Kamrdj 
on the west. 

At the present day that a great part of the arnly in 
Kashmir has been withdrawn, the local militia consists of 
4,892 cavalry and 92,400 infantry. 

Sarkdr of Kashmir. 

Containing 38 Mahals. Revenue 3,011,618 kharwdrs, 

* 12 taraks, being equivalent to 62,113, 040-| ddms. (Rs. 
1,552,826); out of which 9,436,006 kharwdrs, 14 taraks is 


^ Tamgha has been already defined at p. 63 of this Volume, as being* a 
demand in excess of the land revenue and haj is simply a toll or tax and must 
here have a somewhat similar application, but there were various other taxes 
in excess of land revenue, such as JiMt, Sair Jihat, Fama^at and others 
whose nature is defined at p. 63. Blliot div‘5cusses the value of the terms at 
'p. 6, Vol. II, of his Races of the North-West Provinces. 

Tamgha occurs later under Kabul, signifying inland tolls. 

® Lands of which the revenue was the property of the government, not 
being made over in grants or gifts, Jagir or Indm to any other parties. 
Also lands and villages held immediately of government and of which 
the State is the manager or holder. Wilson, Gloss. ^ 


368 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


paid in money, equivalent to 12,601,880 daw5. (Rs. 
312,547). Castes, various. Cavalry, 3,202. Infantry, 
27,725. ^ y 

The Mar aj Tract. 

Containing 22 Mahals. 'Revenue 1,792,819 kharwars, 
equivalent to 35,796,122| dams, (Rs. 894,903), of whicli 
670,561 kharwdrs, 12 taraks are paid in money, equivalent 
to 8,885,248 dams, (Rs. 222,131-3-2). Cavalry, 1,620. 
Infantry, 4,600. 

City oi Srinagar. Revenue 342,694 kharwdrs, 12 
tarafes, in money, 342,996 kharwdrs, 8 taraks; in kind, 
1,Q98 kharwdrs, i taraks. 


Parganahs east of Srinagar, 3 Mahals. 



In kind 

In money 

Cavalry | 

Infantry | 

Castes 


Khar- 

Khar- 





wdrs Taraks 

wdrs Taraks 




Yech 

144,102 0 

62,034 4 

5 

50 

Kbamash ? 

Braiig 

78,834 4 

8,769 8 

68 

lOOO 

and Zinali. 



' V, ■ 



Bahta, 

Vihi .. , 

209,632 8 

161,968 8 1 

12 

400 

Brahman. 


Parganahs , north-east , 7 Mahals. 


■ ■ ■■ 

In kind . 

In money 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

.X Castes':','. 

" / ' .C, 

i Khar- 

Khar- 





wars Taraks 

wars Taraks 




Wular 

128,656 4 

12,605 8 

20 : 

200 

Dardah and 




■1 

1 


Shal. 

Phak 

71,111 12 

17,402 8 




Dachhinpar .. 

75,153 0 

6,902 12 

20 

100 

Khan. 

Khawarpar 

45,226 8 , 

3,575 8 

100 

500 

Khawar. 

Khattar . .. 

37,479 4" 

3,221 12 

IS':; 

300 

■;:I)ard.:"c:'i 

Maru Adwin (Maru 


' 5,041 0 

200 

200 


Wardwun, Vigne) 



half 





,, 

bow- 






men 



Matan .. 

190, 43i 

18,62i 

20 

100 




PARGANAS OF KASHMIR 


369 


Parganahs, south-east, 11 Mahals. 


■ , , ' 

In kind 

i 

, ■ ■ 1 

In money 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

Castes 

Adwin 

Khar- 

- wars Taraks 
101,432 4 

Khar- 

wars Taraks 
14.815 le’^ 

1 1 

100 , 

Dard. 

Yech 

98,369 0 

14,377 

4 

i 6 

30 ! 

Brahman. 

Banihal .. .. i 

6,435 


1 400 

4000 : 

Sihar. 

Batu , .. 

40 horseloads 
3,515 0 

4,235 

8 

50' 1 

300 

Nfiik. , 

Devsar 

besides transit 
duties remitted 
85,644 8 

822 

8 

300 

000 

Zinah. 

Zinahpur .. 

15,875 4 

1,799 

1 

i 20 



Soparsaman .. j 

6,133 

2,003 

4 

! 70 

200 

Eamboh. 

Shadarah 

besides dues 
on firewood 
39,167 0 

' 8,550 

12 

, ■ ' 


Thakur. 

Shukroh .. 

45,224 0 

12,757 

8 

1 20 


Ashwar. 

Nagam 

189,770 12 

22,576 

4 : 

15 

; 

Bhai, 

Ver 

12,270 8 

838 


500 

5000 

Sahsah.^ 


* This must be a mistake for 12, as 16 taraks make a khanvWr : in the 
Arabic numerals the 2 and 6 are easily confounded. A horse load is 22 taraks, 
^ Var. Sahah, Sansah, Nakhah. 


Kamrdj Tract. 

Containing 16 Mahals. Revenue 1, Qil8,l 99 kharwars, 
12 taraks, equivalent to 26,316,918 dams. (Rs. 667,922- 
15-2). In money, 272,954^ kharwdrs, equivalent to 
3,616,682 (Rs. 90,415-12-9). Cavalry, 1,590. In- 

fantry, 16,965. 


Parganahs, north-west. 



1 , ' ' ' 

In kind 

' ' ' ■ 

In money 

Cavalry 

Infantry 

/•Castes:;.' ■, 

Zinahkar 

Khar- . . 
wars Taraks 
13,253 0 

i ;■ ' 

Khar- 

wars Taraks 
32,S5i 0 

50 

too 

Bhat,';/ ■' 

Khoihama .. 

83,670 12 i 

15,522 . 0 

50 

1000 

Musalman. 

, Zinah.'® 


370 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


Parganahs, south-west 



In kind 

In money 

Cavalry 

w 

Infantry 

^ Castes'' 

Indarkol 

Khar- 

wars Taraks 
9,553 4 

Khar- 

wars Taraks 
’7,238 0 


' 

\ 

Bhat. 

Paraspur 

18,830 

12 

3,352 

8 


... 

SiyShi. 

Patan 

4,799 

4 

523 

0 

*30 

no i 

Bliat, 

Bankal 

115,233 

12 

20,280 

4 

200 

500 

Mnsalman. 

Bakri. 

Barwi 

57,098 

12 

13,383 

0 

35 

^ 30 

Kahar. 

Telkam .. ; 

15,415 

12 

4,435 

4 


30 

Pandit. 

Dinsu .. .. 

DaGhliiE Kkawarah .. 

53,219i 

36,222 

4:.'\ 

17,038i 

20,653 

0 

150 
' 25 

400 

300 

Doni. 

Khasi, 

Sair u*l Mawazi 

192,641 

■ 

. 

4 

18,553 

12 



Kanku, 

Zinah. 

Khoi 

12,945 

.0 

370 



*15 

^ Rawer. 

Kapiraj 

342,844 

4 

103,725 

4 

looi) : 

10,000 

Chak. 

Karohan .. j 

1 15,474 

0 

29,779 

12 


110 



SOVEREIGNS OF KASHMIR. 

Fifty-three princes reigned during 1266 years. 

■ ■ I- 

Ugnand. 

Damodar, 1 v- 
Bal, I his sons. 

Thirty-five princes succeeded whose names are un- 
known. 

II. 

Lavah, (var. Xava.) 

Kishen, his son (var. Kish.) 

Kahgandra, his son. 

Surandra, his son. 

Godhara, of another tribe. 

Suran, his son. 

Janaka, his son. 

Shachinar, (var. Hashka, Bishka). 

Asoka, son of Janaka’s paternal uncle. 

Jaloka, his son. 

Damodar, descendant of Asoka. 

Hashka, 1 

Zashka, V three brothers, Buddhists. 

Kaniska, ) 

Abhimau, .. 


KASHMIR, HINDU KINGS 



371 

III. 





Y. 

M. 

D. 

Raja Ganand (Gonerda III) reigned ... 

36 

0 

0 

j ,, Bhikan (Vibhisliana), his son ... 

63 

0 

0 » 

;! ,, Indrajita, his son ... 

36 

6 

0 

‘ ,, Rawana, his son ... 

30 

0 

0 

,, Bhikan II, his son ... 

36 

6 

0 

,, Nara, (also called Khar), his son ... 

39 

9 

0 

,, Sidha, his son ... 

60 

0 

0 

,, Utpalachah, his son ... 

30 

6 

0 

,, Hiranya, his son ... ... 

37 

7 

0 

,, Hirankal, his son ... 

60 

0 

0 

' ,, Abaskaha, his son ... 

60 

6 

0 

’■ . Mihirkal, his son ... 

70 

0 

0 

i: ,, Baka (Vaka), his son ... 

63 

0 

13 

,, Khatnanda, his son 

30 

0 

0 

,, Vasunanda, his son 

62 

2 

0 

,, Nara, his son ... 

60 

0 

0 

,, Aja (Aksha), his son ... 

60 

0 

0 

,, Gopaditya, his son (MSS. Koparat) ... 

60 

0 

6 

,, Karan, his son ... 

67 

0 

11 

,, Narendraditya, his son ... ... 

36 

3 

10 

,, Yudishthira, his- son ... 

48 

0 

10 

IV. 




Six ptinceS reigned 192 years. 




Pratapaditya, said to be a descendant of 




Vikramaditya 

32 

0 

0 

Jaloka, his son 

32 

0 

0 

Tanjir, (Tunjina) his son ... ... 

36 

0 

0 

Bijai, relation to above ... 

8 

0 

0 

Jayandra, (var. Chandra), his son 

37 

0 

0 

Arya Raj 

47 

0 

0 


372 


AIN-I-AKBARI 


V. 

Ten princes reigned 592 years, 2 months, I day. 

Y. M. D. 

Meghavaliana, a descendant of Judishthira 34 0 0 


SrisMasena, his son ••• ... 30 0 0 

Hiran, his son ... ... ... 30 2 0 

Matrigupta, Brahman ... ... 4 91 

Pravarasena, a descendant of Meghavahana 63 0 0 
Jndishthira, his son .... ... 39 3 0 

Lakshman, called also -Nandr adit ... 13 0 0 

Ranaditya, his younger brother ... 30 0 0 

Vikramaditya, his son ... ... 42 0 0 

Baladitya, his younger brother, no issue ... 36 0 0 


Seventeen princes reigned 257 years, 6 months, 20 days. 

Durlabhavardhan, son-in-law of Baladit ... 36 0 0 

Pratapaditya, grandson of his daughter ... 50 0 0 

Ghandrapira, his eldest son ... ... 8 0 8 

Tarapira, his brother ... ... 4 0 24 

Lalitaditya, another brother ... ... 36 7 11 

Kuvalayapira, his son ... ... 1 0 15 

Vajraditya, his brother ... ... 7 0 0 

Prithivyapira, his son ... ... 4 1 0 

Sangrapira, grandson of Lalitaditya by a son 7 0 0 

Jayapira, ditto ... ... 31 0 0 

Jajja, his brother-in-law ... ... some months 

Lalitapira, his son .... ... 12 0 0 

Sangramapira, his brother ... ... 37 0 0 

Brihaspati, son of Lalitapira ... ... ' 12 ‘ 0 0 

Ajitapira, or Ajayapira, son of Prabhubapira 36 0 0 
Anangapira, son of Bangramapira ... 3 0 0 

Utpalapira, son of Ajayapira. 


VI. 

Fifteen princes reigned 89 years, 1 month, 15 days. 

Avanti Varma, of the Chamar caste ... 28 3 3 

Sankar Varma, his son ... 18 7 19 

Gopal Varma ... ... ... 2 0 0 

Sankat, said to be his brother ... ... 0 0 10 



KASHMIR, HINDU KINGS 



373 


Y. 

M. 

D. 

Sugandha Rani, mother of above-mentioned 




Gopal ... ... ... 

2 

0 

0 

Partha, son of Sukb Varma ... ... 

15 

0 

10 

Marjit Varma, son of Sukh Varma, his 




brother ... 

1 

1 

0 

Chakra Varma ... ... 

10 

0 

15 

Sura Varma, his brother ... / ... 

1 

0 

0 

Partha, son of Marjit ... ... 

1 

4 

■ 0 

Chakra Varma, second time ... 

0 

6 

0 

Sankar Vardhana, son of Mir Vardhana ... 

3 

0 

0 

Chakra Varma, third time ... 

3 

0 

0 

Unmatt Avanti Varma, son of Raja Partha 

2 

2 

0 

Surma (Sura) Varma, second time, last of 




the Chamar princes ... 

0 

6 

0 

VII. 




Ten princes reigned 64 years, 3 months, 14 days. 


Jasasra (Jasaskar) Dev, a peasant 

Buranit, an uncle’s descendant 

9 

0 

0 

0 

0 

1 

Sangi'ama Deva, son of Jasaskar 

0 

6 

7 

Parva Gupta, one of his subjects 

1 

4 

0 

Khema (Kshema) Gupta ... 

8 

6 

0 

Abhiman, his son 

14 

0 

0 

Nanda Gupta, his son 

1 

1 

9 

Tribhuvana ... ... ... 

2 

0 

7 

Bhima Gupta, son of Abhiman 

4 

3 

20 

Didda Rani, mother of Abhiman 

23 

6 

0 

Twenty-seven princes reigned S51 years, 6 months. 

17 days. 

San grama, son of Adiraj, nephew of the Rani 

24 

2 

0 

Hariraja, his son ... 

Ananta, his son ... 

0 

0 

22 

5 

5 

0 

Kalasa Deva, his son ... 

26 

0 

0 

Utkarsa, his son • ’ . . 

0 

0 

22 

Harsha, son of Kalasa 

12 

0 

0 

Uchal, grandfather of Harsha ... 

10 

4 

2 

Riddha, son of Siddha, one of the murderers 

[one night 

of Uchal 

and 3 hours 

Salhan, brother of Uchal ... ;.. 

0 

3 

27 


374 


AIN-I'AKBARI 


Susalha, brother of Salhan . . . 
Bhekhyajar, son of Haras ... 

Raja Snsalha, second time ... 

Jaya Singh, son of Susalha ... 

Parmanak, son of above 

Dati (var. and G. Danji Deva), his son 

Jas Deva, his younger brother 

Chag (Jag) Deva, son of above 

Raja Deva, his son 

Sangrama Deva, his son ... 

Rama Deva, his son 


Y. M. D. 
7 10 0 
0 6 12 
2 3 0 
27 0 0 
9 6 10 
9 4 17 
18 0 13 
14 2 0 
23 3 7 
16 0 10 
21 1 13 


Dachhman (Dakshman) Deva, son of a 

Brahman ... ... ... 13 3 12 

Sinha Deva, chief of Labdar of Daskhinparah 14 6 27 
Sinha Deva, brother of above ... ... 19 3 26 

Rinjan of Tibet, a native of that country ... 10 some 


months 


Adin Deva, relation of Sinha Deva ... 16 2 10 

Rani Kota Devi, wife of Adin Deva ... 0 6 16 


Thirty -two princes reigned 282 years, 6 months, 1 day. 


A.H. 

A.D. 



Y. 

M. D. 

716 

1315 Sultan 

Shamsu’ddin, minister of 







Sinha Deva 

2 11 

25 

760 

1349 


Jamshid, his son .. . 

1 10 

0 

752 

1361 

yf 

Alau’ddin, son of Shams- 







uddin ... ... 

12 

8 13 

766 

1363 

if 

Shahabu’ddin 

20 

0 

0 

786 

1386 

ff 

Qutbu’ddin, son of Hasan- 







uddin ... 

16 

5 

2 

799 

1396 

ff 

Sikandar, his son whose 







name was Sankar 

22 

9 

6 

819 

1416 

ff 

Ali Shah, his son 

6 

9 

0 

826 

1422 

ff 

Zainul Abidin, younger 







brother of Ali Shah ... 

62 

0 

0 

877 

1472 

f f 

Haji Haidar Shah, his son 

1 

2 

0 

878 

1473 

f f 

Hasan Khan, his son ... 

12 

0 

6 

891 

1486 

f f 

Muhammad Shah, his son 

2 

7 

0 

902 

1496 

f f 

Fath Shah, son of Adam 







Khan, son of Sultan 







Zainul Abidin 

9 

1 

0 



MUSWM RULERS OF KASHMIR 


375 


Y. M. D. 

911 1505 Sultan Muhammad Shah, a second 

time ... ... 0 9 9 

,, Path Shah, a second time 1 10 

,, Muhammad Shah, a third 

time ... ... 11 11 11 

,, Ibrahim, his son ... 0 8 25 

942 1535 ,, Nazuk Shah, son of Path 

Shah, {Ferishta, “son 
of Ibrahim, son of 
Muhammad Shah”) ... 1 0 0 

,, Muhammad Shah, a fourth 


time ... ... 34 8 10 

,, Shamsi, son of Muhammad 

Shah. ... ... 0 2 0 

,, Ismail Shah, his brother .. . 2 9 0 

,, Nazuk Shah, a second time 13 9 0 

,, Ismail Shah, a second ‘time 15 0 

948 1541 Mirza Haidar Gurgan ... 10 0 0 

Sultan Nazuk Shah, a third time 10 0 

Ghazi Khan, son of Kaji Chak ... 10 6 0 

971 1563 Husain Chak, his brother ... 6 10 0 

Ali Chak, brother of Husain Chak 8 9 0 

986 1578 Yusuf Shah, his son ... 1 0 20 

Sayyid Mubarak Shah, one of his 
nobles ... ... 0 1 25 

Lohar Chak, son of Sikandar, son 
of Kaji Chak ... ... 12 0 

Yusuf Shah, a second time ... 5 3 0 

Yaqub Khan, his son ... 10 0 


Thus this series of 191 princes, reigning throughout 
a period of 4,109 years, 11 months and 9 days, passed 
away. 

' When the Imperial standards were for the first time 
borne aloft in this garden of perpetual spring, a book called 
Raj Tarangini written in the Sanskrit tongue containing an 
account of the princes of Kashmir during a period of some 
four thousand years, was presented to His Majesty. It had 
been the custom in that country for its rulers to employ 
certain learned men in writing its annals. His Majesty 
who was desirous of extending the bounds of knowledge 
appointed capable interpreters in its translation which in a 


376 


ain-i-akbari 


short time was happily accomplished . In this work it is 
stated tkat the whole of this mountainous region was sub- 
merged under water and called Sati Sclt. Sciti is the name 
of the wife of Mahddeva, and Sar signifies a lake. One day 
of Brahma comprises 14 manvantaras. Up to the 40th year 
of the Divine Era, of the seventh manvmtara, at which 
time Kashmir began to be inhabited, 27 (kalpas) each of iom 
cycles (yug) as before mentioned, have elapsed and of the 
twenty-eighth three cycles, and of the fourth cycle, 4,701 
solar years. And when, according to the legend which thej' 
relate, the waters had somewhat subsided, Kasyapa} who 
is regarded as one of the most sublime amongst ascetics, 
brought in the Brahmans to inhabit the new region. When 
men began to multiply they sought to have a just ruler over 
them, and experienced elders, solicitous of the public weal 
met together in council and elected to the supreme authority 
one who was distinguished, for his wisdom, his large under- 
standing, his comprehensive benevolence and his personal 
courage. From this period dates the origin of their monar- 
chical government which proceeded thus to the time of 
Ugnand 4,044 years prior to this the 40th year of the Divine 
Era.^ Ugnand fell by the hand of Balbhadra, the elder 
brother of Kishan in the battle fought at Mathura, between 
Kishan and Jarasandha raja of Behar. Ddmodara (his son), 
to avenge his death marched against some of the relations 
of Kishan who were hastening to a marriage festival in 
Qandahar, and was killed fighting on the banks of the Sind. 
His wife being then pregnant and the astrologers foretelling 
that it would prove a son, Kishan bestowed on him the 
government of the province. Thirty-five princes succeeded, 
but through their tyranny their names are no more 
remembered. When Lavah ascended the throne, justice was 
universally administered and deeds met their just recogni- 
tion. He founded in Kamraj the great city of Lavapur the 


^ According to Tieffenthaler, he was called Cashapmir, from Cashapa 
grandson of &ahma and mer, a mountain or habitation. Baber mentions in 
his Memoirs that the hill country along the upper course of the Indus was 
formerly inhabited by a race called K5,s from whom he conjectures that 
Kashmir received its name. The Kasia regio of Ptolemy applies to the race 
and vseems to_confirm. his conjecture.^ Kasyapa was the son of Marichi the 
son of Brahma, ^ and was father of Vxvaswat the father of Mann. His name 
signifies a tortoise which form he assumed as Prajapati, the father of all, and 
had a large share in the work of creation. He was one of the seven great 
Kishis Bowson . 

* As the 40th year of Akbar’s reign is A.H. 1003, commencing Sth Dec. 
1594 and ending 25th Nov, 1595 A.D. the date of Ugnand would be B.C. 2449- 



377 


HINEiU dynasties OF KASHMIR 

ruins of whicli are still to be traced. It is said to have held 
800,000,000 houses. As the sage of GanjaM well says : 

House linked to house from Ispahan to Rai 
Hike jointed canes, I’ve heard, stretch countlessly. 

So that a cat might trace the distant span 
From roof to roof twixt Rai and Ispahan ; 

But if the tale my credit doth belie, 

The teller is its surety, faith not I. . 

When the succession devolved on Asoka the son of 
Janaka^s paternal uncle, he abolished the Brahmanical 
religion and established the Jain faith.* His personal 
virtues adorned his reign, and his son Rdjd Jaloka was 
distinguished for his justice, and his conquests were limited 
only by the ocean. On his return from Kanauj, then the 
capital of Hindustan, he brought with him a number of 
learned and enlightened men and of these his sagacity and 
perception of worth selected seven individuals. To one of 
them he entrusted the administration of justice; to another 
the revenue department; to a third the finances; to a fourth 
the superintendence of the troops ; the fifth took charge of 
the department of commerce ; the sixth controlled the mate- 
rial resources of the state, and the seventh interpreted the 
mysteries of the stars. He had also a knowledge of 
alchemy. It is said that a huge serpent ministered to his 
commands, mounted upon which he could descend below 
water for a long space. Sometimes he appeared as an old 
man, and at other times, as a youth, and marvellous tales 
are related of him. Buddhism became prevalent about this 
time. 

Damodar (II) is said by some to have been one of the 
descendants of Asoka. He was a pious devout prince but 
was transformed into a snake through the curse of an ascetic. 
In the reign of Rdjd Nara the Brahmans prevailed over the 
Buddhists and levelled their temples to the ground. Rdjd 
Mihirkal was a shameless tyrant, but by the strange freaks 
of fortune he made extensive conquests. As he was once 
returning homewards by the pass of Hastihhanj , an elephant 
lost its footing, and its screams and manner of falling caused 
him such amusement that he ordered a hundred ele- 


^Shaikh Nizami, who was born in that town. The lines occur in the Haft 
Paikar, one of tile Khamsah or Five poems of Nizami. 

* See Thomas's Jahiaism or the Early Faith of Asoka for this theory, 
which modern scholars have rejected, 

48 


378 ; ^ ' AIN-I-AKBARI 

phants to be precipitated in a similar manner. From this 
circumstance the pass received its name, _ signifying 

elephant, and lhanj, injury. During his reign, a large 
rock blocked up the ferry of a river, and, however much 
it was cut away, it yet increased again during the night 
to its ordinary dimensions. Remedies were proposed in 
vain. At length a voice came forth intimating that if 
touched by the hand of a chaste woman, the rock would dis- 
place itself. Time after time it was touched by women in 
succession, and when no effect was produced, he ordered the 
women to be put to death for incontinence, the children for 
bastardy, and the husbands for consenting to the evil, until 
three krors of human beings were massacred. The miracle 
was at length effected by the hand of a chaste woman, a 
potter by trade and caused great wonder. The Raja being 
afflicted by various diseases, burnt himself to death. 

Raja Gopadit -possessed considerable learning and his 
justice increased the extent of his sway. The slaughtering 
of animals was forbidden throughout his dominions and high 
and low abstained from eating flesh.. The temple which 
now stands on Solomon’s Hill was built by his niinister. 

Raja Judishthira in the beginning of his rule adminis- 
tered the state with an impartial hand, but in a short space 
through his licentious conduct and intimacy 'with base 
associates, his subjects became estranged from him, and the 
kings of Hindustan and Tibet were arrayed against him. 
The chiefs of Kashmir threw him into prison. 

During the reign of Raja Tanjin (Tunjin) snow fell 
when the sun was in Leo (July, August). The crops were 
destroyed and a terrible famine threw the country into 
disorder. 

Rdjd Jayandra possessed a minister wise, loyal and 
virtuous, and void of levity and dissimulation. His equals 
bore him envy, and the wicked at heart but specious in 
appearance, sought his ruin and undermined his influence 
by underhand misrepresentations. As princes are on these 
occasions apt to err and do not investigate closely, forgetful 
of former experiences of what envy can effect, the minister 
was overthrown, and banished in disgrace. His strange 
destiny, however, did not deprive him of his composure. 
He allowed not grief to encompass him, but gladdened his 
days with cheerfulness of heart. His wicked enemies re- 
presented him as aiming at the throne, and the Raja, 



379 


STORiES RAJAHS 

ignorant of tlie real facts, ordered him to be imipaled. After 
some time had elapsed, his spiritual preceptor happened to 
pass that way and read on the frontal bone of his skull 
that he was destined to disgrace and imprisonment and to 
be impaled, but that he should again come to life and obtain 
the sovereignty. Amazed at learning this, he took down 
the body and secretly kept it and continued in supplication 
to the Almighty. One night the spirits gathered round 
and by their incantations restored the corpse to life. In a 
short time he succeeded to the throne, but his experience 
of life soon induced him to withdraw into retirement. 

Meghavdhan was renowned for his virtues and gave 
peace and security to Hindustan as far as the borders of the 
ocean. After the death of Rdjd Hiran without issue, the 
chiefs of Kashmir paid allegiance to Rdjd Bikramdjit the 
ruler of Hindustan. Rdjd Mdtrigupta was a learned 
Kashmiri Brahman. Bikramajit profited by his wisdom but 
did not advance his temporal interests. He, however, gave 
him a sealed letter to convey to Kashmir and furnishing him 
with a small sum of money for his expenses as he started, 
despatched him on his mission. The Brahman set out with 
a heavy heart. On his arrival in Kashmir, the letter was 
opened. It ran thus. ‘The bearer has rendered important 
services at my Court and has experienced many reverses of 
fortune. On the receipt of this letter, let the government 
of the country be entrusted to him, and be this mandate 
obeyed under fear of the royal displeasure. ’ The chiefs met 
in council and yielded their submission. 

Rdjd Pravarasena had withdrawn from the country and 
lived in retireinent in Hindustan. A devout and enlightened 
servant of God predicted to him the good tidings of his 
future elevation to a throne. On the faith of this, he went 
to Nagarkot and possessed himself of that place. On 
hearing of the death of Bikramajit, Mdtrigupta abdicated 
and setting out for Benares lived in seclusion. Pravarasena 
was universally distinguished for his justice and liberality. 
He founded SrinagaP the capital of the country and 

^ The old capital previous to the erection of Pravarasenapura is stated to 
have been founded by Asoka {Raj Tamngini, i, 104), (B.C. 263 — 226). It vStood 
on the site of the present Pandrethdn and is said to have extended along the 
bank of the river from the foot of the Takht i Sulaiman to Pdntasok, a dis- 
tance of more than three miles. It was still the capital in the reign of 
Pravarasena I, towards the end of the 5th century when the king erected a 
famous symbol of the god Siva, named after himself Pravareswara. The new 
capital was built by Pravarasena, in the beginning of the 6th century. 
Anct, Geog. India, 97. 


380 


Ansr-I-AKBARI 


rendered it populous during liis reign with 600,000 houses. 
With surpassing munificence he sent to Matrigupta the 
aggregate of eleven years’ revenue of Kashmir which that 
personage bestowed upon the indigent. Raja, Randditya was 
a just prince and made many conquests . In the neighbour- 
hood of Kishtawar near the river Chenab,_ he entered a cave 
with all his family and many of his courtiers, and was seen 
no more; many strange legends are related regarding 
him. Raja Bdldditya invaded Hindustan and extended his 
dominions to the borders of the sea. 

In the reign of Rdjd Chandrapira the wife of a Brahnlan 
appeared to him claiming justice, saying, that her husband 
had been killed and the murderer was undiscovered. He 
asked her if she suspected any one, to which she replied 
that her husband was of an amiable disposition and had no 
enemy, but that he often had disputations on points of 
philosophy with a certain person. This man was brought 
up but strenuously denied the accusation, and the com- 
plainant would not accept an ordeal by fire or water lest the 
man should employ some supernatural means of escaping it. 
The Raja in his perplexity could neither eat nor sleep. An 
enlightened sage appearing to him in a vision taught him 
an incantation to be uttered over rice-meal scattered about, 
upon which the suspected person was to walk. If the foot- 
steps of two people were observed as he passed over it, he 
was not to be suffered to escape. Through this suggestion 
the truth was discovered and punishment duly meted out. 
But as a Brahman could not be put to death, an iron image 
of a man without a head was made and his forehead branded 
therewith. 

Rdjd Lalitdditya devoted himself to the prosperity of 
his kingdom and in the strength of the divine aid overran 
Iran, Turan, Bars, Hindustan, Khata, and the whole 
habitable globe, and administered his dominions with justice. 
He died in the mountains of the north, and it is said that 
he was turned into stone by the curse of an ascetic, but 
others relate the story differently. 

Rdjd Jaydpira reached a lofty pitch of glory and his 
conquests were extensive. Ninety-nine thousand nine 
hundred and ninety-nine horses were bestowed by him in 
charity at Benares, and his gifts to the poor were on the 
same munificent scale. He asked of the elders whether the 
army of his grandfather Lalitaditya or his own were the 



TAI^ES FROM I'HE EAJA-T^ 381 

larger. They answered that his contained but 80,000 
litters, whereas 126,000 of such conveyances were arrayed 
under his grandfather’s standard, by which proportion he 
might judge of the numerical strength of his other retinue. 
When he had proceeded some distance on his march of 
conquest, his brother-in-law, Jajja, who was in Kashmir 
disputed the throne. The nobles of the king, in anxious 
fear for their wives and children, betrayed him and preferred 
their outward reputation before their true honour. The Raja 
hastened alone to Bengal, and with the aid of troops from 
that country, repossessed himself of his kingdom, Jajja 
being slain in battle. 

Rdjd Lalitdpira took low companions into favour and 
associated with buffoons, and his wise councillors withdrew 
from the court. His minister finding remonstrance of no 
avail, retired from office. 

Rdjd Sankar Varmd conquered Gujarat and Sind, and 
overran the Deccan, but left it in the possession of its ruler. 
Although in the beginning of his reign he followed a vir- 
tuous course, he lacked perseverance. The intoxication of 
worldly prosperity plunged him into every vice. 

During the reign of Rdjd Jasaskardeva, a Brahman 
lost a purse of a hundred gold mohurs. Under the impulse 
of violent grief he resolved to make away with himself. 
The thief hearing of this, asked him how much he would 
be satisfied to take, if he discovered the purse. The 
Brahman answered, “Whatever you please.” The thief 
offered him ten mohurs. The Brahman, sore at heart, 
appealed to the Raja who inquired into the case, and sending 
for the thief ordered him to restore ninety mohurs, intend- 
ing by this, that the amount the thief desired to keep for 
himself, should be the portion of the Brahman. 

In the reign, oi Sinhadeva, a Muhammadan named 
Shah Amir who traced his descent to Arjun the Pandava 
was in the royal service. About this time Dalju the chief 
commander under the king of Qandahar, attacked and 
plundered the kingdom. The Raja took refuge in the 
mountain passes and levied forcible contributions on the 
people, and sent them to him and entreated him as a 
supplicant. The invader withdrew, dreading the severity 
of the weather, and many of his troops perished in the snow. 
About the same time also, Rinjan, the son of the ruler of 
Tibet invaded the country which was reduced to great 


382 


aut-i-akbari 

distress. On the death of the Raja, the sovereignty 
devolved on Rinj an who was distinguished for his muni- 
ficence. He appointed Mir his minister whose 

religion, through intimacy and association with him, he 
eventually adopted. 

When Rdjd Adindeva died, the aforesaid Shah Mir by 
specious flattery and intriguing, married his widow. In the 
year 742, A. H. (1341-2, A.D) he caused the khutbah to 
be read, and the coin to be minted in his own name and 
assumed the title of Shamsu^ddin and levied a tax of one- 
sixth on all imports into Kashmir. It had been revealed to 
him in a dream that he would obtain the sovereignty of the 
kingdom.' 

Sultan A Idw’ddin issued an ordinance that an unchaste 
woman should not inherit of her husband. 

Sultan Shahdbw’ddin encouraged learning and pro- 
claimed an equal administration of the laws. Nagarkot, 
Tibet and other places were overrun by him. 

During the reign of Sultan QutbiA ddin Mir Sayyid Ali 
Hamadani arrived in Kashmir and was received with great 
favour. 

Sultan Sikcindar was a rigid follower of religious 
tradition and a bigot. He overthrew idolatrous shrines and 
persecuted people not of his faith. During his reign, Timur 
invaded Hindustan and sent him two elephants. Sikandar 
desired to pay his homage to that conqueror, but on his road 
to the interview he learnt that it was reported in Timur’s 
camp that the sovereign of Kashmir was bringing with him 
a present of a thousand horses. Concerned at the untruth- 
fulness of this rumour he returned and sent his excuses. 
Ali Shah appointed (his brother) Zainul Abidin regent in 
his stead and set out for Hijaz. By the persuasion of foolish 
and evil advisers^ and through inconstancy of purpose, he 
returned with the view of recovering his authority in 
Kashmir and aided by the Raja of Jammu he took possession 


^ Such is the literal translation according to the punctuation of the text 
which I suspect is in error. Ferishta states that Shamsu’ddiii abolished the 
exactions of his predecessors and having repaired the ruin, caused by the inva- 
sion and exactions of Dalfu, by written orders fixed the revenue at 1 /6th of 
the produce. The text as corrected runs as follows : Assumed the title 
of Shamsu’ddin and fixed the revenue at one-sixth of the produce. Before 
his arrival in Kashmir, it had been revealed to him in a dream that he 
would obtain &c.^* 

® These, states Ferishta, were his father-in-law the IJammii Rafa, and the 
chief of Rajauri. 



ZAIN-UI<-ABIDIN AS RULER 383 

of the kingdom. Zainul Abidin set out for the Pan jab and 
joined Jasrat of the Khokhar’ tribe. Ali Shah collecting 
a large army advanced into the Pan jab and a great battle 
took place in which A l i Shah was defeated and fell into 
obscurity while Zainul Abidin recovered the sovereignty 
of Kashmir. Jasrat leaving Kashmir advanced against 
Delhi but defeated by Sultan Bahlol Lodi retreated to 
Kashmir and with the assistance of an army from its 
monarch, conquered the Panjab. 

Zainul Abidin overran Tibet and Sind. He was a 
wise prince, devoted to philosophical studies and it was his 
fortune to enjoy universal peace. He was regarded by high 
and low as a special servant of God and venerated as a saint. 
He was credited with the power of divesting himself of his 
corporeal form, and he foretold that under the dynasty of 
the ChakSy the sovereignty of Kashmir would be transferred 
from that family to the monarchs of Hindustan, which pre- 
diction after a period of years was accomplished. His 
benevolence and love of his people induced him to abolish 
the capitation tax (levied on other than Muslims) and to 
prohibit the slaughtering of cows, as well as penalties and 
presents of all kinds. He added somewhat to the m'easure 
of the Jarib. His private revenues were drawn from copper 
mines. He often personally administered medicinal re- 
medies^ and resolved all difficult undertakings with ease. 
Robbers were employed in chained gangs on public works. 
His gentleness of disposition dissuaded men from the pur- 
suit of game, and he himself ate no flesh or meat. He caused 
many works to be translated from the Arabic, Persian, 
Kashmiri and Sanskrit languages. During his reign musi- 
cians from Persia and Turkestan-flocked to his court ; among 
them Mulla Uudi the immediate pupil of the famous 
Khwajah Abdu’l Qadir arrived from Khurasan, and Mulla 
Jamil who in singing and painting was pre-eminent among 
his contemporaries. Sultan Abu Said Mirza sent him 
presents of Arab horses and dromedaries from Khuras